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Triphalangeal Thumb Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Anemia

Triphalangeal thumb as the name indicates, is a condition in which the thumb have three phalanges instead of two. It is a congenital abnormality. It is the malformation of bone of thumb. The size of the extra phalangeal may be as small as a pebble or comparative to the non thumb digits size. The incidence of triphalangeal thumb is not known yet. It is observed in only 1 case out of every 25000 live births. It is estimated that in about two third cases of triphalangeal thumb, hereditary component is recorded as a cause. There may be many other malformations of thumb other than triphalangeal thumb.


Triphalangeal Thumb Symptoms


Apparently, triphalangeal thumb is different from normal thumb. The difference is wide and can easily be diagnosed. the length of thumb is longer than usual because of extra phalanges. The direction of triphalangeal thumb may be deviated to the radio ulnar plane. Thumb with three phalanges is not good in case of strength. Its appearance is more like a finger because of its length. it is also present in a plane of fingers that’s why it is usually mixed fingers. There is deficiency of thenar muscle and the length is additional.

Triphalangeal Thumb Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Anemia

Triphalangeal Thumb Causes


Triphalangeal thumb is the congenital malformation of thumb. So it is developed during the third to seventh week of embryonic development. It is also observed that the triphalangeal thumb is hereditary and it is transferred to the young ones as an autosomal dominant trait. It is bilateral and non opposable. It may also occur as a symptom or complication of a syndrome. In syndromes, it may be isolated. The syndromes include holt oram syndrome, diamond blackfan anemia, aase syndrome and townes brocks syndrome. The malformations other than triphalangeal thumb malformation may be syndactyly, radial polydactyly and claw like hand and foot.

Triphalangeal Thumb Treatment


As it is a congenital malformation, so it can only be treated with surgical procedure. The surgical procedure is performed to reduce the length of triphalangeal thumb. Reducing the length will lead to good and proper functioning of thumb. If necessary, the position of the thumb is also improved. Basically the purpose of surgery is to improve functioning of thumb but as a plus point, the triphalangeal thumb appearance is also improved. As there are no other symptoms associated with triphalangeal thumb, so no medications are prescribed to combat pain or any other symptom.

Triphalangeal Thumb Anemia


Talking about triphalangeal thumb anemia, it is termed as aase syndrome. Aase syndrome explains about anemia with triphalangeal thumb. It is a less frequent disorder. This syndrome shows various signs and symptoms at birth and main symptoms involve congenital hypoplastic anemia and triphalangeal thumb. In this syndrome the amount of bone marrow cells is decreased and ultimately red blood cells count falls leading to anemia. presence of both hypoplastic anemia and triphalangeal thumb at a time indicates the presence of aase syndrome in patient. The combination of these two conditions is the main sign of aase syndrome.
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