Blog Archive

Navicular Stress Fracture Test, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Navicular stress fracture occurs in foot. It is the most common stress fracture which usually occurs in athletes. Athletes who do jumping and sprinting are at hit list. Navicular is the tasral bone present in foot ankle. It is rightly placed just above the heel bone. Navicular stress fracture results from repetitive strains and continuous use of navicular bone. Guys at gym due to wrong training or weight lifting at wrong angle may suffer from navicular stress fracture. The exact mechanism of injury is not known but it is considered that fracture occurs because of compression of navicular bone within other bones around it due to stress.

Navicular Stress Fracture Symptoms

As navicular bone is present in foot, so symptoms of navicular stress fracture are associated with it. Patient feels unbearable pain in mid foot area. The pain is localized. If patient does not stop exercising or sports, the pain may get worse. Upon applying weight on foot, pain may radiate along the arch of foot and then disappears on rest. Pain will start again as training resumes. Along with pain, patient also feel tenderness in foot if pressure is applied on the top of thumb I.e. N spot.

Navicular Stress Fracture Test, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Navicular Stress Fracture Causes

The following factors can cause navicular stress fracture.

  • If patient starts athletic activity at a very high level. He does not let his bones and muscles to relax, that's why stress increases and as a result fracture occurs.
  • Patient does not relax for sufficient time and body remains under stress so it leads to navicular stress fracture.
  • Biomechanical abnormality.
  • Relative osteopenia.
  • Wrong fitting of equipment.
  • Training under Non professional trainer
  • Due to weight lifting at wrong angle or wrong training is the common cause.
  • The exact mechanism of navicular stress fracture is not known yet.

Navicular Stress Fracture Treatment

There is poor blood supply in navicular bone, so treatment is difficult. A good blood supply is needed to heal it completely. Casting is preferred usually to treat stress fracture in navicular bone. Patient have to rest for atleast 6 weeks because even slow walking absorbs navicular bone. The success rate of casting is 85 to 90 percent. Other methods of treatment invovle use of bone stimulator. It helps a lot in bone healing but it does not effect healing time. Walk during casting is strictly prohibited because even a little walk will increase healing time up to 25 percent.

Navicular Stress Fracture Test

At initial stage, X rays may show nothing but Magnetic resonance imaging or bone scan will clearly show fracture at navicular bone. Navicular drop test is performed to assess fracture specifically in navicular bone. In this test, the height of navicular bone is checked while patient stand in front of physician. 1st height of navicular bone is checked at rest, and it is again checked after applying stress on both foot. So the difference in measurement is known as navicular drop. Greater than 10 mm is considered in excessive foot pronation.
Read More

Kleihauer Betke Test Procedure, Normal Range, Positive, Calculation

Kleihauer betke test is also known as acid elusion test, kleihauer test or kleihauer betke stain. It is a blood test which is performed during pregnancy. In this test the blood sample is taken from the vein of mother and then evaluated the amount of fetal hemoglobin transferred from fetus to mother's blood stream. It is normally performed in women having dominant negative Rh factor in their blood group. The main purpose behind kleihauer betke test is to determine demanded dose of Rh immuno globulin (RhIg). This inhibits the formation of Rh antibodies in the blood stream of mother. It also helps in preventing disease in the coming baby with dominant positive Rh factor.

Kleihauer Betke Test Procedure

Kleihauer betke test is performed by taking blood sample from mother's vein. This is performed in a following way. A cuff or band is wrapped around the arm i.e. 3 to 4 inches above the site of sample collection.
  • The site is made cleared by rubbing 70 percent alcohol swab.
  • Then a sterilized needle of syringe is pinched inside the skin and needle should be inserted inside vein.
  • Now the cuff or band is removed and blood will be start collecting in syringe.
  • This blood sample is used for the further analysis.
Kleihauer Betke Test Procedure, Normal Range, Positive, Calculation

Kleihauer Betke Test Normal Range

There is a test range of kleihauer betke test which defines the severity of the condition. Usually there should not be any traces of fetal hemoglobin in the blood of mother. If there are any traces of fetal hemoglobin in the blood stream of mother then there may be some serious problems. The reference range of Kleihauer betke test is  from 0 to 0.1 percent. This percentage can be calculated by multiplying the counted number of fetal hemoglobin cells in blood with 100.

Kleihauer Betke Test Positive

The kleihauer betke test is positive if the test analysis shows the presence of fetal hemoglobin in mother's blood. If the traces of fetal hemoglobin is found in mother's blood, the kleihauer betke test is positive. The result is positive if the percentage of fetal hemoglobin cells in maternal blood lies in between the normal range. The range is from 0 to 0.1 percent. Even a single cell of fetal hemoglobin in maternal blood shows the positive result. This shows the accuracy of Kleihauer betke test. It is the most accurate test for that purpose.

Kleihauer Betke Test Calculation

There is a formula for the calculation of percentage of fetal hemoglobin in maternal blood. This can be calculated by multiplying the no. Of fetal cells counted with 100 and the answer is then divided with total no. Of red blood cells. And the answer obtained is the percentage of fetal hemoglobin cells and this percentage is checked in the range. After this, further calculations are performed to calculate the volume of antibodies i.e. RhIg (immuno globulin). The no. Of vials required to be injected are calculated according to the test result of fetal hemoglobin cells.
Read More

Popular Posts

This Blog is protected and monitored under Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Duplication or Republishing of its contents without Permission or provision of credit link to the original article is liable to legal action with DCMA. Protection Status
All Rights Reserved.Health Tips, Diseases, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Test, Definitions Copyrights © 2017
Powered by Blogger.