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Atopobium Vaginae Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Atopobium vaginae is a bacterial specie which has a genus named actinobacteria and belongs to the family named coriobacteriaceae. It is an anaerobic bacteria and it is gram positive in nature. Atopobium vaginae are the rods or elliptical coccobacilli. These bacteria are found in the form of small chains, in pairs or in the form of single elements. Usually it is present in women and is isolated from women having bacterial vaginosis. It is usually used in the treatment failures of different diseases.


Atopobium vaginae when comes in relation with gardnerella vaginalis they collectively cause bacterial vaginosis BV. Bacterial vaginosis is the inflammation of vagina due to imbalance in vaginal flora. Usually bacterial vaginosis occurs during the reproductive phase of women. It is present usually in the vaginal wall and is responsible for maintaining the natural flora of vagina. This bacteria is isolated from about 80 percent of women suffering from bacterial vaginosis. There may be many other bacteria involved in causing bacterial vaginosis but atopobium vaginae is considered specific to it. it is also used in various therapeutic treatment failures.

Atopobium Vaginae Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Atopobium Vaginae Symptoms


Atopobium vaginae cause bacterial vaginosis. So the main symptoms include vaginal odor (the bad smell from vagina usually originate after sexual intercourse). The vaginal discharge occurs which may be mild or moderate according to the severity of disease. The less common symptom is irritation in vulva. The least common symptom is the occurrence of dysuria or dyspareunia. Other than these, patient may go through some problems like douching (occurs due to increased frequency of washing vagina), due to use of any antibiotic it may become severe. Patient may feel pain in vagina during sexual intercourse.

Atopobium Vaginae Causes


Atopobium vaginae is the bacteria responsible for causing bacterial vaginosis. It is the main causative agent. Atopobium vaginae when come in association with gardnerella vaginalis they collectively cause bacterial vaginosis. Atopobium vaginae is specific for bacterial vaginalis. Bacterial vaginalis occurs due to inflammation of vagina. Inflammation occurs due to disturbance in natural flora of vagina. This disturbance may occur due to following factors.
  • Due to sexual intercourse with a new partner or having multiple sex partners. The exact connection is unknown but it is a cause.
  • Naturally decrease production of lactobacilli bacteria.
  • Douching is also a main cause.

Atopobium Vaginae Treatment


Atopobium vaginae infection i.e. bacterial vaginosis can be treated with medical therapy. the main medications usually used are metronidazole available with a brand name flagyl, metrogel-vaginal and others. With metronidazole patient should avoid use of alcohol. Another medication used is clindamycin available in the form of clindesse, cleocin and others. It is available in the form of cream which is applied topically to vaginal surface. Other than these two medications, tinidazole is also used. Its brand name available is tindamax. It is available in the form of tablet and patient should avoid alcohol consumption to avoid nausea.
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Double Red cell Donation Requirements, Side Effects, Recovery, Complications

Double red cell donation is the blood donation which only contains red blood cells with no plasma and platelets. Automation is the process which is used to donate this blood I.e. consist of only red blood cells. In this process, the recipient is provided with double the amount of red blood cells instead of whole blood donation. Red blood cells are the most needed components of blood in patient, so automation helps to transfer only red blood cells. People who have blood type O or people who have Rh negative factor in their blood are preferred to donate blood because their red blood cells are mostly required.


Double Red Blood Cell Requirements


A criteria have been set up to select the people who are willing to donate blood. The criteria is different for both males and females. Following are the requirements:

For Males

Donor should have weight atleast 130 pounds or 65 Kg. His height should be at least 5'1". Taller than this is preferred mostly.

For Females

Donor should have weight atleast 150 pounds or 75 kg. Height should be atleast 5'5". Women taller than this are preferred mostly.

The criteria is different for both genders because blood volume is not usually lower in females as compared to male.

Double Red cell Donation Requirements, Side Effects, Recovery, Complications

Double Red Cell Donation Side effects


Double red cell donation is a beneficial process and automation is the best method of specifically red blood cell donation. But it may have some side effects or we can say some risks. Patient may feel irritation at the site of infusion. Itching occurs due to allergic reaction to iodine present in blood. Bruising or hematoma can occur at the site. Patient feels pain and nerve damage at the site of infusion. Because of blood cells acceptance, patient feels vomiting, nausea, increased pulse rate and cardiac arrest.

Double Red Cell Donation Recovery


Patient recovery time varies from case to case. When blood is transferred to the patient, his body starts generating blood to compensate the list amount of blood. Plasma starts recovering in a quick way in almost 24 hours. Patient is asked to stay calm and does not perform any strenuous exercise until all the blood plasma normalizes. Platelets will restore but takes time of about 72 hours. This is considered the standard time in which blood recovers properly. But symptoms will subside according to the patient's body ability.

Double Red Cell Donation Complications


Double red cell donation may cause different blood complications. Sometimes patient's immune system does not accept new blood cells and acts against them. So infection occurs Inside body and as a result patient may die. Cardiac arrest can occur due to non acceptance of new red blood cells. Patient who is donating blood feels nausea, vomiting and light headedness. He feels weakness in his limbs and eyes got blur. So both of the person I.e. the one who is receiving blood and other one who is donating blood have to face complications and various side effects.
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