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Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

It is not a simple disease to understand because it is the group of different headache disorders. In this condition, headache involves the whole side of face. Pain may be moderate or severe unilateral involving head and face. The associated features include conjunctival injection, lacrimation, ptosis, eyelid edema and nasal congestion. The headache disorders have different duration and frequency of attacks. Cluster headache is the type of headache disorders which have longer duration than all other types and it is also less frequent than others. Contrary to it, short acting neuralgiform headache and paroxysmal hemicrania have less duration but are very frequent.


The group of headache disorders contains the following:

  • Cluster headache: it is the most common headache disorder which occurs in almost 0.1 percent of cases. Male are at higher risk.
  • Episodic and chronic cluster headache: in about 90 percent of cases, cluster headache occurs in the form of episodes. it has longer duration from days to months.  It can reoccur with the average gap of months and years.
  • Paroxysmal hemicrania: this disorder is more frequent i.e. occurs 4 to 5 times a day but last for 20 to 30 minutes.
  • Short lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache: the attack persists for about 600 seconds and is known as most frequent.

Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgia Symptoms


As it's definition tells that it is a group of headache disorders so headache is the primary and common symptom. Pain does not only occur in head region, but face is also involved. Pain occurs on one side of head and face. Sometimes it is bilateral. The associated features of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia are excessive lacrimation, rhinorrhea, conjunctival injection, ptosis, nasal congestion and eyelid edema. Other symptoms are according to every type of headache disorder. Like grittiness or itching occurs in eye in case of hemicrania continua.

Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgia Causes


In trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia, the posterior hypothalamus region is activated. This activation is specific in cluster headache, short lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache and paroxysmal hemicrania. Locus ceruleus, dorsal pons and periaqueductal gray matter are the main areas involved in migraine. The striking in trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia is tha is the autonomic component which accompany each attack. The autonomic symptoms are considered normal physiological response. Basically trigeminal nerve compression is responsible for trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia. The dis inhibition of trigeminal autonomic reflex and hypothalamic direct modulation pathway named trigeminovascular nociceptive are considered the main causes.

Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgia Treatment


There are two main treatment strategies I.e. non pharmacological and pharmacological. In non pharmacological treatment involve the following:

  • Greater occipital nerve injection: the trigeminocervical complex is modulated. This system is either blocked or stimulated to reduce pain. A steroid injection or local anesthetics injection are used in treatment of headache.
  • Occipital nerve stimulation: there is a bit acute abortive effect.
  • In hypothalamic deep brain stimulation, the posterior side of hypothalamus is stimulated and this stimulation give positive results.
  • Every type of headache disorder in trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia show different response to all the above mentioned treatment strategies.

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Peritendinitis Symptoms, Causes, Treatment | Achilles Peritendinitis

Peritendinitis is defined as the inflammation of paratenon. Paratenon is the sheath covering tendons all over the body. Peritendinitis resembles tendinitis in which inflammation of tendon itself occurs. It occurs commonly in people who are used to hard work like athletes and gym guys. Paratenon covers the tendon and help in its movement by reducing friction. So in peritendinitis, the tendon cannot move smoothly. It is a sensitive case. Because moving the stiff tendon with high friction can break it and patient won't be able to move any more. When the inflammation occurs in paratenon, tendon becomes stiff and hard to move freely.


Peritendinitis Symptoms


Peritendinitis involves tendons (joining muscles to the skeleton). When inflammation occurs in paratenon (covering of tendons), it makes the tendon stiff. Patient find it hard to move freely. Severe pain occurs while moving the affected region of body. Limited motion can be produced. On touch, the affected site feels hot and swollen. Swelling occurs on the whole part involved in peritendinitis. Telltale sound is produced while moving the affected site of body. Telltale sound is the cracking sound which produces because of paratenon inflammation and more friction. During inflammation, the surface of tendon looks cracked like water dries up leaving the earth surface cracked.

Peritendinitis Symptoms, Causes, Treatment | Achilles Peritendinitis

Peritendinitis Causes


There is not any defined cause behind peritendinitis. Scientists believe that it can occur secondary to tendinitis which is the inflammation of tendon itself. Inflammation of paratenon occurs due to excessive workout. It commonly occurs in male gender. Athletes and gym guys are at the hit list because they got little time to rest their body and workout most of the time. Moving the limbs excessively can increase the chances of peritendinitis as kneading the dough in restraunts most of the time can cause peritendinitis in wrist or elbow.

Peritendinitis Treatment


Initially, patient is asked to take rest for atleast a week or until the swelling and pain reduces or subside. Some adaptive devices like crutches are used to take off burden from tendons for faster healing. Patient is asked to compress the inflamed area with hot water or cold ice. As it will naturally help a lot in reducing inflammation and muscle relaxing. Tests should be performed regularly with one week interval to check progress. If no progress occurs, then steroid injection is the solution. But it's administration is quite complicated. It should be injected in paratenon not in the tendon.

Achilles Peritendinitis


Achilles is the tendon present in heels. It is a fibrous tissue tough band which connects the heel bone to the calf muscles. Calcaneal tendon is the other name of Achilles tendon. When inflammation of paratenon of Achilles tendon occurs, it is known as Achilles Peritendinitis. Achilles tendon is the most common tendon involved in peritendinitis because heels and feet are the most working part of our body all the time. The symptoms are same I.e. pain and swelling and stiffness. Patient with Achilles Peritendinitis will take at least 15 days to recover with complete bed rest.
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Corneal Infiltrates Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Healing Time

Corneal infiltrates is the kind of ulcer. It is an epithelial defect which occurs due to inflammation. Inflammation may either occurs as a result of infection or without infection. Disruption of corneal epithelium occurs in corneal infiltrates. We can say that corneal infiltrates may lead to corneal ulcer. It is a rare disease. It can be diagnosed easily via visual inspection. Filtrates or ulcer can be clearly seen at the boundary of cornea. Eyes appear red in color. Corneal infiltrates do not involve systemic circulation and is associated with conjunctival mediators and tear film. Management of corneal infiltrates is necessary otherwise it can lead to further diseases.


Corneal Infiltrates Images


Corneal Infiltrates Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Healing Time


Corneal Infiltrates Symptoms


Corneal infiltrates or ulcer occurs as a result of inflammation in corneal epithelium. So inflammation of corneal epithelium is the most prominent sign. The affected eye appears red in color. The accumulated white blood cells are visible in the peripheral cornea of eye and this accumulation is termed as infiltrates. The corneal infiltrates on margin are small in size I.e. approximately 1mm around corneal border. It looks like Gray white circumlimbal lesions. It may be bilateral. In case of sterile marginal corneal infiltrates, the infiltrates are usually asymptomatic. But if symptoms present, mild quadratic conjunctival hyperemia is the commonest.

Corneal Infiltrates Causes


Whenever damage occurs in cornea, it leads to immune response. In case of corneal infiltrates, the immune response is acute. If the cause is infectious, then introduction of an external antigen directly into the eye can cause inflammation. During inflammation, the blood vessels dilate and white blood cells start accumulating in the cornea. Coalescence of white blood cells form infiltrates in cornea. While in case of non infectious corneal infiltrates, it can occur as a result of wearing contact lenses, trauma occurring after surgery, toxins produced by bacteria or any other toxic stimuli and any autoimmune disease.

Corneal Infiltrates Treatment


The treatment strategy of corneal infiltrates is designed on the basis of the cause. If inflammation occurs due to contact lenses, then it is considered a sterile inflammation. The cause may be infectious or non infectious I.e. sterile. So differentiation between sterile and infectious corneal infiltrates is necessary because the treatment is based on it. Antibiotics are prescribed in case of infectious corneal infiltrates. Later, topical corticosteroids are prescribed. In sterile corneal infiltrates, the patient have to avoid some things like wearing contacts, dust and direct sunlight.

Corneal Infiltrates Healing Time


Corneal infiltrates heal fast. Even if it is left untreated, it can easily recover within a week or two. Steroids used along with antibiotics helps to reduce the healing time. Steroids also helps to reduce chances of secondary infections. If corneal infiltrates occurs due to wearing contact lenses, then patient is advised to avoid using contact lenses until complete healing. Improving corneal hygiene, changed lens design and scheduled lens wearing also helps a lot in minimizing healing time. The drug therapy used along with elimination of the initial stimulus contribute a lot in healing process.
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Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Surgery, Recovery

Median arcuate ligament syndrome is the other name of celiac artery compression syndrome. In this symptom, the celiac artery is compressed due to any reason, which leads to severe abdominal pain and weight loss. Celiac artery is responsible for supplying blood to upper part of abdominal region. It is the rare cause of weight loss and abdominal pain. The compression of celiac artery occurs due to median arcuate ligament. Median arcuate ligament is the fibrous muscular band which is present in diaphragm. The abdominal pain is chronic and recurrent. It is a rare disorder with high prevalence.


Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Symptoms


Patients with celiac artery compression syndrome feels a layer of pain in abdomen right after eating. Sudden and visible weight loss occurs. Abnormal sounds are produced in abdomen due to compression of celiac artery and these sounds are termed as abdominal bruit. The most common symptom of all is abdominal pain which occurs in more than 80 percent of cases. Weight loss occurs in almost 48 percent of cases and abdominal bruit occurs in approximately 35 percent cases. Other symptoms related to abdomen are nausea, vomiting, restlessness, weakness, dizziness, delayed gastric emptying and diarrhea.

Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Surgery, Recovery


Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Causes


The exact cause of compression of celiac artery is still not known. There is a great dispute on defining accurate cause. Basically, in ancient times, it was believed that celiac artery compression syndrome occurs due to improper blood supply which in turn occurs due to compression of celiac artery by median arcuate ligament. It can also occur due to nerve dysfunction. Nerve dysfunction is considered the main cause behind following symptoms

  • Delayed gastric emptying
  • Epigastric pain.

There is'nt any other defined cause behind Celiac artery compression syndrome and the causes mentioned above are also not sure.

Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Surgery


Surgery is the only treatment option because no medication can help in relieving compression of celiac artery. During surgery, the median arcuate ligament and celiac plexus (collection or group of nerves supplying blood in abdomen) are divided and Celiac artery become decompressed. The surgical operation may also involve implantation of stent, angiography and vascular reconstruction of celiac artery in abdomen. Surgery can treat the exact cause of celiac artery compression syndrome but the symptoms can be relieved with the help of medication. Pain killers are used to reduce pain intensity. If this syndrome left untreated, it can lead to patient's death.

Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Recovery


The recovery after surgery varies patient to patient. Some people respond better to surgical treatment and recover in less time. Patients with chronic abdominal pain and sudden visible weight loss respond more quickly to the surgical intervention as compare to the one with less pain and less weight loss. The patients at chronic stage recover fast after surgery. Old age patients respond less to the surgery and take time to recover completely. Patient have to follow healthy diet plan to reduce post operative complications. Alcoholic patients will not recover fast.
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Nasal Vestibular Furunculosis Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Remedies

Nasal vestibular is a bacterial infection which occurs in the vestibule of nose. When hair follicle is involved in the infection, then it is termed as nasal vestibular furunculosis. It is a common infection. It is a localized infection and limits to a single hair follicle. Staphylococcus aureus is the cause of nasal vestibular furunculosis. Redness occurs along with inflammation which confirms its diagnosis. Sometimes the involved hair follicle become hard and dry and forms a crust. Itching occurs most of the time. Nasal vestibular furunculosis may be secondary to hair plucking or cutting within the nostrils.


Nasal Vestibular Furunculosis Causes


Staphylococcus aureus is the main cause of infection. It is a bacterial infection. It can occur in reaction to external particle like dust and pollen grains. Plucking hair in nostril can be the cause. Basically abscess occurs in hair follicle. Furunculosis is the term used for abscess. Any other follicle infection inside the nostrils can lead to nasal vestibular furunculosis. Sometimes trimmed nasal hair remain inside nostrils and cause nasal vestibular furunculosis. Some rare causes may be folliculitis, respiratory infections (upper or lower and viral or bacterial), chronic rhinorrhea and hair picking or trimming on regular basis.

Nasal Vestibular Furunculosis Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Remedies


Nasal Vestibular Furunculosis Symptoms


The common symptoms of nasal vestibular furunculosis are:

Inflammation of nostril, localized redness, severe pain accompanying inflammation, pain also occurs on the skin covering nasal vestibule. Redness occurs according to the area involved because it is a localized infection. Abscess formation is rare. Systemic symptom occurs in rare cases. Pustules usually does not occur. These are the only symptoms associated with nasal vestibular furunculosis. The re-occurrence chances are high because, patient already exposed to staphylococcus aureus which contributes in re-occurrence. Whenever patient plucks nasal hair, the follicle exposed to the staphylococcus aureus which causes infection.

Nasal Vestibular Furunculosis Treatment


As it a bacterial infection, so antibiotics are prescribed for the treatment. At initial stage, combination of three antibiotics is used I.e. polymyxin, bacitracin and neomycin. If resistance occurs, then topical antibiotics are used which consist of two antibiotics I.e. mupirocin and retapamulin. The healing process becomes fast with topical antibiotic ointment. It is prescribed two times a day and advised to Apply with cotton. Direct contact should be avoided. Ointment should be continued for almost 3 days. Following this treatment guideline will completely heal infection within days. Antibiotics are the only treatment option for nasal vestibular furunculosis.

Nasal Vestibular Furunculosis Remedies


Along with allopathic treatment, some home remedies helps a lot in reducing the symptoms like pain, swelling, inflammation and redness. The best remedy is applying onion because onion has antiseptic and antimicrobial activity. Onion increases the healing time. Likewise garlic also have antimicrobial, antiseptic and anti inflammatory properties. It is a natural detoxifier of body. Garlic is applied directly on the spot for reducing inflammation. Turmeric is a topical antiseptic and helps a lot in healing. Other remedies involve use of tea tree oil, steam of mint tea and drinking lemon water every day.
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Morpheaform Basal Cell Carcinoma Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Prognosis, Treatment

Basal cell carcinoma is the skin cancer, which develops on the surface layer called epidermis. It occurs due to over growth of basal cells. Morpheaform basal cell carcinoma is the type of basal cell carcinoma. In this type, the skin becomes hard and patchy. It is called as morpheaform basal cell carcinoma because it resembles morphea plaques. The surface become hard and shiny and smooth on touch. These are light colored lesions with waxy texture. The morpheaform basal cell carcinoma looks like scars. The borders are not defined which make it hard to spot or diagnose.


Morpheaform Basal Cell Carcinoma Symptoms


Morpheaform basal cell carcinoma usually does not show symptoms other than its appearance. It appears like lesions on the surface of skin. These lesions are hard and patchy, smooth on touch and have shiny surface. These lesions are light in color with waxy texture. Sometimes it appears in the form of scars with no defined boundary. Bleeding may occur most of the time and looks like these lesions or cuts will not heal. There are some diseases which closely resemble morpheaform basal cell carcinoma. These diseases involve sebaceous hyperplasia, molluscum contagiosum, fibrous papule, mercel cell carcinoma, amelanotic melanoma and cutaneous adnexal tumors.


Morpheaform Basal Cell Carcinoma Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Prognosis, Treatment

Morpheaform Basal Cell Carcinoma Causes


There are many factors which can cause morpheaform basal cell carcinoma. Use of fluorouracil previously can cause morpheaform basal cell carcinoma in future. It may be genetic due to gene mutation in hedgehog signalling pathway. Mutation exactly occurs at patched tumor suppressor gene. Excessive contact with ultraviolet radiations also contribute in causing morpheaform basal cell carcinoma. Many gene defects are considered the predisposing factors of this type of basal cell carcinoma. It commonly occurs in adults and rarely occur in females and young ones. Previous any type of basal cell carcinoma can lead to morpheaform basal cell carcinoma.

Morpheaform Basal Cell Carcinoma Treatment


Morpheaform basal cell carcinoma is a skin disease, so two types of treatment strategies are designed I.e. photodynamic therapy and surgical excision. Topical photodynamic therapy shows a good cosmetic result but alone it is not sufficient for treating morpheaform basal cell carcinoma. Surgical excision is the proposed treatment. If it appears on face, then Moh's surgery is recommended. It is considered best for facial morpheaform basal cell carcinoma. A sharp razor is used primarily in surgical excision to remove tumor from skin surface. It leaves no or less scars on skin.

Morpheaform Basal Cell Carcinoma Prognosis


It is a non fatal condition. It's prognosis is excellent because the treatment options works well and give good outcomes. Treatment is necessary because if left untreated, it may further lead to fatal diseases. The success rate of surgical excision are high as compare to photodynamic therapy. So most of the time both treatments are carried out side by side. Once it is removed completely from epidermal layer of skin, then it never comes back. In some cases, the untreated morpheaform basal cell carcinoma may lead to other types of basal cell carcinoma.
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Left Anterior Fascicular Block Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

It is a condition of heart in which heart muscles show irregular contraction. It occurs due to blockage of anterior half of bundle of His. Bundle of His is the group of cells which are responsible for transmitting electrical impulses from AV node towards apex of heart. Due to blockage of anterior half of bundle of His electrical delay in nerve impulse transmission across heart muscles occurs. And as a result delay in pumping activity of heart occurs. Left anterior fascicular block is also known as left anterior hemiblock.


It is observed via Electro cardio gram of heart. This condition is commonly seen in patient with myocardial infarction. Other conditions with associated left anterior fascicular block involve hypertension, valvular disorder, degenerative fibrotic disease and cardiomyopathy. It is the abnormal condition of left ventricle of heart. It closely resembles left bundle branch block LBBB but both of them are different conditions.  In left anterior fascicular block, only the left half of bundle is involved.

The Electro cardio gram shows deviation of left axis. Patients with pre existing inferior wall myocardial infarction cannot be easily diagnosed for left anterior fascicular block because myocardial infarction itself causes deviation in left axis.

Left Anterior Fascicular Block Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Left Anterior Fascicular Block Symptoms


When left anterior half of bundle of His is blocked, it leads to irregular or abnormal contraction. It is an asymptomatic condition and does not show any specific symptoms. It can only be diagnosed with Electro cardio gram. Some common symptoms which are related to associated condition involve  severe pain in chest region which is intermittent and occur again and again. Pain occurs due to blockage in circulation. Patient may go faint due to improper functioning of heart. On touch, patient can feel double beat I.e. the two ventricles do not beat at a time but bear one at a time.

Left Anterior Fascicular Block Causes


There are no of conditions which may lead to left anterior fascicular block. Some common conditions are listed below.

  • Chronic hypertension is considered the most common cause of left anterior fascicular block.
  • Degenerative fibrotic diseases leads to blockage of anterior half of bundle of His.
  • Aging
  • Aortic stenosis is responsible for development of this condition.
  • Valvular disorder also cause blockage of bundle of His.
  • Myocardial infarction. But only 4 percent of cases show left anterior fascicular block.
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy.
  • Aortic root dilation and some lung diseases can also cause blockage.

Left Anterior Fascicular Block Treatment


The treatment strategy depends upon the severity of condition and degree of blockage. Management is required along with treatment for best results. Dietary modifications are required. Patient is asked to take low carb, low fat and high protein food. Patient is asked to take supplements like omega 3 fatty acids and vitamins. Intake of poly unsaturated fats is recommended. Physical activity is necessary, as it helps a lot in managing tis condition. If patient is a smoker or alcoholic, then he is asked to quit smoking and alcohol consumption as it can cause vasoconstriction.
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Polyclonal Gammopathy Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Every individual have a defence system in his body which protects the body against invading pathogens. It consists of immunoglobulins. Whenever a pathogen invades inside body and causes any infection, the defense system of body get activated against it and produces antibodies against that pathogenic antigen. As we all know that excess of everything is bad, so increased level of immunoglobulins above the usual limit is known as gammopathy.


Polyclonal gammopathy is not a disorder but it is a strong or potent immunoglobulin response against infections. Polyclonal gammopathy does not occur in response to mild or acute infections but it only occurs in response to chronic infections or chronic diseases. Diseases of liver and collagen commonly leads to polyclonal gammopathy. Other diseases or infections which arise polyclonal gammopathy include scleroderma, primary biliary cirrhosis, polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fungal infections, chronic bronchitis, systemic lupus eryhtmatous, tuberculosis, infectious hepatitis and chronic active hepatitis.

So symptoms of polyclonal gammopathy are associated with the underlying cause. The treatment strategy is also designed according to the leading cause because treating the disease or infection automatically decrease the level of immunoglobulins.

Polyclonal Gammopathy Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Polyclonal Gammopathy Symptoms


In most of the cases polyclonal gammopathy does not show symptoms. Symptoms appearing may be associated with the underlying cause. But some common symptoms which appear in almost all infections and diseases are stress, fatigue, depressed mood, pain in the specified area of infection and anxious mood. Remaining symptoms are specified by the underlying disease or infection. It is asymptomatic because it only appears in response to chronic diseases and infections as a potent response. It is not a disorder or disease, but it has a plus point, that it successfully eliminates infectious pathogen from body.

Polyclonal Gammopathy Causes


Polyclonal gammopathy is a potent response against chronic diseases or infection. Some common diseases which leads to polyclonal gammopathy involve tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, osteomyelitis, trauma with slow healing process, chronic bronchitis, scleroderma, chronic fungal infections, syphilis, metastatic carcinoma, polymyositis, primary biliary cirrhosis PBC, infectious hepatitis, chronic active hepatitis CAH, rheumatoid arthritis RA, leishmaniasis also known as kala azar, chronic malaria, filariasis and systemic lupus eryhtmatous SLE. Other than these serum protein electrophoresis SPE strongly increase the level of gamma globulin leading to polyclonal gammopathy. the primary cause of polyclonal gammopathy should be known to design treatment strategy.

Polyclonal Gammopathy Treatment


Polyclonal gammopathy is not a disorder but a potent response which occurs in response to chronic diseases and infections. So treating the underlying cause will automatically decrease the level of immunoglobulins and polyclonal gammopathy will be treated.  As it is an asymptomatic disease, so it does not even require medication to relief symptoms. If cancer is the cause, chemotherapy will help a lot. Otherwise antibiotics are prescribed to treat infection. It only occurs in response to chronic diseases and infections so immediate diagnosis and treatment is required. If left untreated, it can cause death.
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Premature Adrenarche Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Premature adrenarche means premature puberty. It is a condition in which children become mature before their teenage starts. Children start maturing at the age of 8 in case of girls and at the age of 9 in case of boys. Basically adrenarche occurs due to premature awakening of adrenal gland. Adrenal gland is responsible for producing sex hormones. So premature releasing of sex hormones causes puberty i.e. adrenarche. Adrenal gland is present at the top of kidney. The sex hormones include androgens.


Zona reticularis of adrenal gland contains dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). When there is increase in production of these two regulators, it leads to increased adrenal androgen production. And children start maturing before their teenage. Premature adrenarche is not normal and can cause various diseases. There is an increased risk of polycystic ovary syndrome, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance.

When we discuss puberty it means development of secondary sex characteristics which transforms a sexually immature teenager to sexually mature teenager. It is normal at the age of 14 years in case of girls but in boys at the age of 16 years. During puberty, the secondary sex organs starts developing I.e. development of breast and pubic hair in girls and development of testes, pubic hair and chest hair in boys.

Premature Adrenarche Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Premature Adrenarche Sympytoms


When premature adrenarche occurs, secondary sex organs start developing in children before the age
of maturity. Girls start maturing at the age of 8 years while boys start maturing at the age of 9 years. Breast development and pubic hair growth are the symptoms of premature puberty in girls. In boys, development of bigger testes, pubic hair growth and chest hair growth is seen during puberty. There are no other pathological symptoms but premature adrenarche can lead to some medical conditions like insulin resistance.

Premature Adrenarche Causes


The exact cause of premature adrenarche is not known. It's pathology helps a lot in understanding the reason behind premature adrenarche. Dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate DHEAS are present in the zona reticularis of adrenal gland. These are the regulators of adrenal gland secretions. Increased production of DHEAS and DHEA leads to increased release of androgen which is a sex hormone. This hormone is responsible for puberty. When adrenal gland get activated before the usual age of maturity, it leads to premature adrenarche. DHEA and DHEAS are considered the biomarkers of premature adrenarche in children.

Premature Adrenarche Treatment



There is no treatment guidelines for premature adrenarche. It is just sexual growth of children before the usual age so it is considered okay. It is necessary to make sure if these changes are normal and do not causing any complications. Children with premature adrenarche are not self satisfied, so parents have to give them courage and should teach them that it is completely normal. If premature adrenarche is causing problems like insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome in adults and polycystic ovary syndrome in girls, then these conditions do require treatment. These conditions will be treated as per their treatment guidelines.
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Lichen Planus Vulva Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Cancer

Lichen planus is a rarely occurring inflammatory disease. It is a skin disease which has subtypes on the basis of body part involved. It occurs on skin, mucosa, nails and scalp. Likewise lichen planus vulva is the subtype of lichen planus which involves vulva. As vulva and vagina have mucous membrane on its surface. It is characterized as skin erosion, heterotrophic or papular lesions on the surface of vulva. It sometimes involves vagina too. It most commonly occurs on mucosal surfaces like oral cavity, vulvar and vaginal surface. Erosion occurs on the surface which may lead to severe tissue destruction.


Lichen Planus Vulva Images


Lichen Planus Vulva Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Cancer

Lichen Planus Vulva Symptoms


As it is a dermatological condition, so surface of the skin is involved. Erosion occurs on the surface. Sometimes papular or heterotrophic lesion occurs on mucosal surface. In women it commonly covers genital area I.e. vagina and vulva. So common symptoms include rash, itching, pain due to erosion because erosion causes severe tissue damage, redness and burning sensation. Chronic inflammation leads to scarring on vulvar surface. The reddish and inflammed puffy area is known as erosion on vulva. Other symptoms involve construction of vaginal opening and loss of labia minora (inner small lips of vagina).

Lichen Planus Vulva Causes


The exact cause behind lichen planus vulva is not known. But it is believed that it occurs in response to over active immune system. It is considered an autoimmune problem causing inflammation. It does not occur in response to an infection. Likewise age, hygiene, diet, menopause and sexual activity are not responsible for causing lichen planus vulva. It is not contagious and do not spread via direct contact or sexual activity. The common sites which it affects the most are the sites having mucosal surfaces like oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, nasal mucosa,  urethra and conjunctiva.

Lichen Planus Vulva Treatment


Treatment involves some life style changes which helps a lot in combat symptoms. As it is a skin disease, so patient is asked to avoid products which cause irritation. Some topical steroids creams and ointments are used. Local estrogen helps a lot in vulvar and vaginal healing. Lichen planus vulva may disappear on treatment, but it can reoccur after some time with no symptoms. As sexual intercourse is painful and full penetration of penis is almost impossible. So vaginal dilators are used to dilate vaginal opening for easy penetration. Surgery can be performed but in rare cases.

Lichen Planus Vulva Cancer


Rarely lichen planus vulva, if left untreated, can lead to vulvar cancer. But it is very rare I.e. there are only less than 5 percent chances of cancer development. Regular examinations are required to check out cancer cells production. As it is considered an autoimmune disease, so chances of cancer development is rare. Poor hygienic conditions of vagina and vulva may lead to vulvar cancer. If vulvar cancer is diagnosed, then immediate treatment is required. Symptoms become severe in vulvar cancer. Sometimes it left undiagnosed because most of the women do not pay attention and tell some one due to shame, so leaving it as it is is another factor which causes development of vulvar cancer.
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Richter Hernia Pain Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Richter hernia is a rare type of hernia associated with small intestine. Basically it occurs in the anti mesenteric wall of small intestine as a result of defect in abdominal wall. It is different and rare type of abdominal hernias in which only a single wall of intestine protrudes due to defect. It means the intestinal lumen shows incomplete involvement in defect and the uninvolved part remains in peritoneal cavity. If necrosis occurs accompanying protrusion during hernia then it may lead to repair, peritonitis and perforation. It is very dangerous type of hernia that it can prove fatal for health.


Richter's Hernia Symptoms


Initially Richter's hernia shows mild symptoms but with passage of time, the symptoms become severe and some times prove fatal. Common symptoms of Richter's hernia involve systemic malaise and systemic fever. Cramps in abdomen with severe abdominal pain. Patient may experience excessive vomiting and nauseatic feeling. Visually abdomen looks swell. On touch, patient can observe a painful mas in the groin region, which is hard on touch. Problem arises in the digestion of food. Bowel movement of intestine causes pain. As every bowel movement induces a layer of pain in abdomen which is almost unbearable.

Richter Hernia Pain Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Richter's Hernia Causes


Richter's hernia is a type of abdominal hernia. It occurs when intestinal wall starts pushing itself through muscle wall of abdominal opening. It is really small in size and difficult to diagnose. Once it tries to pass through abdominal opening, it got traped. As a result strangulated tissues start forming immediately. It happens because of improper blood supply to the area. When there is no blood, gangrene occurs (gangerene is the cell death and tissue death). As a result, life threatening condition occurs. That's why Richter's hernia has proved fatal for health. It requires immediate management right after diagnosis.

Richter's Hernia Treatment


It is the dangerous and rare type of hernia which occurs in abdomen. It requires immediate treatment right after diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment option for Richter's hernia. It has a drawback, that diagnosis of Richter's hernia is not easy, so treatment delays and patient dies in most of the cases. It has high mortality rate with late diagnosis and late treatment. Gold standard technique is used primarily to repair the part involved in peritoneal cavity. Then laparotomy is performed, in case perforation is suspected. No medications are prescribed other than pain medications I.e. ibuprofen.

Richter's Hernia Pain


As Richter's hernia is the type of abdominal hernia, so all the symptoms are associated with abdomen. Pain is the common symptom. It is mild at the initial stage of Richter's hernia but it becomes worse with the passage of time. When intestinal anti mesenteric wall tries to pass through abdominal opening, it got trapped and pinched. Due to pinching, pain arises. At starting, it is mild but gradually it become unbearable. Intensity of pain increases because of gangerene I.e. cell death. Improper blood and oxygen supply to the site is responsible for gangrene or tissue death.
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Right Ventricular Conduction Delay Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Right ventricular conduction delay means late blood pumping from right ventricle of heart. It is characterized as long QRS complex I.e. more than 0.12 seconds. A single tissue of any branch of bundle of His is involved in delayed conduction. There are three main conditions associated with conduction block which are left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block and interventricular conduction delay. In case of right ventricular conduction delay, right bundle branch block is responsible.


The bundle branch block may be complete or incomplete. Due to right bundle branch block, the conduction of blood towards right bundle of His is reduced and slow. When depolarization occurs in right ventricle, the left one is halfway finished and electrical activity is lost. The QRS interval of right ventricle is marked positive. Right bundle branch block is considered the most common cause behind right ventricular conduction delay.

When we compare complete and incomplete right bundle branch block, the duration of QRS varies. In complete right bundle branch block, the QRS interval is above 120 ms in adults and above 100 ms in children. In case of incomplete right bundle branch block, the QRS interval is between 110 and 120 ms in adults and between 90 and 100 ms in children.

Right Ventricular Conduction Delay Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Right Ventricular Conduction Delay Symptoms


Right  ventricular conduction delay shows symptoms which resemble with symptoms of other heart diseases. Patient suffers from chest pain. Pain may become severe with time due to improper functioning of heart. Patient may become faint due to low blood pressure. Palpitations occur and patient faces difficulties in breathing like shortness of breath with slow exertion. Sometimes rapid breathing occurs due to insufficient conduction of blood and insufficient cellular oxygen supply. Patient may feel nausea and muscle fatigue due to decreased blood supply and cellular oxygen supply.

Right Ventricular Conduction Delay Causes


Right bundle branch block is considered the most common cause of right ventricular conduction delay in healthy individuals. It is responsible for delayed right ventricular depolarization. There may be many reasons behind right bundle branch block. Some of them are atrial septal defect, rheumatic heart disease, right ventricular hypertrophy i.e. increase in size of ventricle, myocarditis, pulmonary embolism I.e. moveable blockage in pulmonary artery or vein, hypertension or cardiomyopathy and brugada syndrome. Bruguda syndrome is defined as prolonged or elevated ST interval due to ventricular fibrillation. These are the all possible reasons which can cause right ventricular conduction delay.

Right Ventricular Conduction Delay Treatment


Right ventricular conduction delay can be treated via following the treatment strategy of the underlying cause. Treating right bundle branch block will help a lot in treating right ventricular conduction delay. Medications are prescribed to control blood pressure. These medications will also reduce the chances of heart failure. Coronary angioplasty is performed in severe cases to open up the pulmonary artery supplying blood to ventricle. In some cases, a pace maker is attached for normal functioning of heart. Cardiac resynchronization is another treatment option which closely resemble pace maker but have an additional wire attached with left side of heart.
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