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Long Face Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Mouth Breathing, Surgery

Skeletal open bite is referred to as long face syndrome. It is a common syndrome in which patient's face show facial development vertically. It may be genetic or acquired. It is a dento facial abnormality. The facial growth is usually associated with lower occlusal and mandibular plane angles. But sometimes it is associated with mandibular hypoplasia and vertical maxillary excess. In literature, The long face syndrome is'nt completely described yet. There are two varients of long face syndrome I.e. dental open and closed bite. The treatment of long face syndrome is necessary to avoid posterior teeth eruption.


Long Face Syndrome Symptoms


Long face syndrome is not a fatal or pathological condition. It's characteristics are as follows.

  • The head become incline
  • The curvature of mandibular canal is curved. 
  • The mandibular lower border is curved downwards. 
  • Inclination occurs in symphysis and slope face backwards. 
  • Vertical or obtuse interincisal angle.
  • Ventricle or obtuse inter molar or inter premolar angles. 
  • Anterior face height from lower side. 
  • All of the above are structural symptoms of long face syndrome. Other systems include difficulty in swallowing and eating food because of open lower jaw. The face of patient looks abnormally large and smart longitudinally.


Long Face Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Mouth Breathing, Surgery

Long Face Syndrome Causes


The long face syndrome may occur genetically or secondary to other diseases. Genetically it occurs by birth and develops during facial development of fetus within womb. There are many diseases which leads to long face syndrome as their main symptom. These diseases include WAGR syndrome, faciodigitogenital syndrome, velo facioskeletal syndrome, fragile X syndrome, velo cardio facial syndrome, marshal Smith syndrome, Snyder Robinson syndrome, myasthenic syndrome, wilmus tumor and renpenning syndrome. Other than these diseases, some medical conditions can increase chances of long face syndrome. These medical conditions are edema, asthma, malnutrition, long term stress and allergy in nasal pathway.

Long Face Syndrome Mouth Breathing


Whenever patient can't breathe from nose, then functions of nasal passage are bypassed. Air intake through nostrils make it hot and moist according to body requirements but air intake through mouth is dry and cold and cause problems. As it is an open bite syndrome, so patient may breathe through mouth and as a result disturbance occurs in muscle forces which are responsible for compression of upper jaw. During breathing, palate constrict and provide smaller space. Tongue may complicate breathing by protrusion from front side teeth and force them outward. Due to constriction in upper jaw, a high vault is created in palate. As a result, the face length increases and termed as long face syndrome.

Long Face Syndrome Surgery


The vertical length of face in patients can be reduced with the help of surgery. It is not sure that in adults, Orthopedic mechanics and orthopodic treatment alone will help to reduce maxillary facial length. Sometimes Orthodontic treatment helps a lot to control vertical facial growth of patients who have passed their growing age. Via surgery, the open bite is corrected. And it is completed via tipping anterior teeth lingually or teeth are elongated.
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