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Hypoperfusion Definition, Shock, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

   

Hypoperfusion is a condition which describes inappropriate or decreased blood flow within an organ. Hypoperfusion may occur due to many reasons. Perfusion is basically defined as flow of fluid via circulatory system or lymphatic system within an organ or a tissue. Preferably blood is supplied to the organs or tissues termed as perfusion. Perfusion is a French word which means pouring over or through. So hypoperfusion can be easily understood now i.e. decreased blood flow or blood supply in an organ or a tissue. Hypoperfusion have some specific symptoms associated with it and also various causes are reported behind hypoperfusion.



Hypoperfusion Symptoms


The symptoms of hypoperfusion resemble with symptoms of low blood pressure. The most common of them are as follows.


  • Patient may feel his hands and feet getting cold due to hypoperfusion. Limbs may become clammy. 
  • Cyanosis may occur due to decreased blood supply. In cyanosis, the color of skin turns blue tinged or pale. 
  • Breathing rate may increase and this is known as tachypnea. 
  • Patient may feel weakness and the pulse rate become fast. This condition is termed as tachycardia. 
  • The most common symptom is low blood pressure which is also the main reason behind hypoperfusion i.e. decreased perfusion. 

Hypoperfusion Definition, Shock, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Hypoperfusion Causes


There are various causes behind hypoperfusion. Some of the important one are as follows:

Hypoperfusion may commonly occur due to hypovolemic shock. Hypovolemic shock is the commonest type of shock which occurs due to decreased blood pressure or decreased volume of blood circulating in system.

The primary cause behind hypoperfusion is haemorrhage. In haemorrhage, the excessive blood loss may lead to decreased blood pressure and Ultimately hypoperfusion. Loss of fluid from body is another cause.

Other than these conditions, vomiting and diarrhea are also responsible for causing hypoperfusion. These are covered common causes in case of children.

Hypoperfusion Treatment


Hypoperfusion can be treated in many ways depending upon the reason behind it. If shock is the cause of hypoperfusion, then treatment will include all the medications of shock. Because treating shock will ultimately treat hypoperfusion. Treatment is also selected on the basis of severity of hypoperfusion. The preferred treatment in case of severe hypoperfusion is transfusion of blood and electrolytes. Usually in minor cases it is treated with fluids i.e. saline solution. Same treatment is offered if haemorrhage is the underlying cause. In case of Children,  ORS is recommended because of excessive fluid loss in diarrhea and vomiting.

Hypoperfusion Shock


Hypoperfusion is a condition in which there is decreased blood perfusion within an organ. It may occur due to many reasons. But hypoperfusion is considered a main cause behind shock. Shock is a condition in which inadequate amount of oxygen and nutrients is supplied to the organs or tissues of body. So when there will be inappropriate supply of blood or fluids to the organs and tissues, less oxygen and nutrients will be supplied. It will ultimately lead to shock and finally death of the organ and its tissues. Due to shock, the whole system may collapse.

Renal Hypoperfusion


Renal hypoperfusion is considered common now a days. In kidney, hypoperfusion may occur due to pre renal acute kidney injury. Due to this renal injury, there will be less blood supply to kidney and less perfusion, leading to shock and Ultimately loss of kidney function. But there will be nothing wrong with kidney itself.

Cerebral Hypoperfusion


Hypoperfusion in cerebral hemisphere of brain may lead to cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia is a condition in which there is decreased blood supply to brain leading to less oxygen consumption during metabolic activities of brain. Less oxygen supply will lead to ischemia and ultimately loss of brain function and death of cerebral cells.

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