Blog Archive

Glutathione Nebulizer Treament Benefits, Solution, Side Effects

Glutathione nebulizer is a specially designed device used to inhale glutathione in the form of vapours. It is a type of breathing treatment for the deficiency of glutathione in body. The nebulizer is used to administer medications like glutathione or acetyl cysteine in to the lungs via nasal route. Sometimes an essential oil is blended along with the medication which helps to soothe the lungs and tissues of nasal cavity. Glutathione is administered in the form of two combos i.e. glutathione alone with essential oil or glutathione along with cysteine mixed with essential oil. This breathing treatment is so relaxing that patient may easily sleep.

Glutathione Nebulizer Treatment

Nebulizer is used for the breathing treatment. And glutathione is administered with the help of nebulizer. Glutathione nebulizer is used in case of glutathione deficiency. Glutathione synthase when become deficient, it leads to the inhibition of formation of glutathione molecule. Glutathione is essential for cells, as it is responsible for neutralizing the harmful molecules produced during energy production. There are many reasons behind the deficiency of glutathione. There may be some disease like cystic fibrosis, which will decrease the glutathione level . In such situation, glutathione nebulizer is recommended to fulfil the deficiency of glutathione.

Glutathione Nebulizer Treament Benefits, Solution, Side Effects

Glutathione Nebulizer Benefits

As glutathione is administered with the help of nebulizer so it is the vapours dosage form which is inhaled through nasal cavity. The inhaler have many benefits over other dosage forms. It is specially designed to relief the lungs and nasal tissues. There are many respiratory or lung diseases, for which inhaled glutathione is recommended. Some of the main diseases include, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, emphysema, cancer in lungs, asthma and build up of fluids in the body. Via nebulizer, the drug is successfully inhaled. All the dose is delivered successfully to the target site.

Glutathione Nebulizer Solution

Glutathione nebulizer is recommended for the condition in which there is deficiency of glutathione in body. Glutathione is administered in the three types of combos. It is administered alone without any mixture of essential oil or any other drug solution, or it is administered along with the drug solution of acetyl cysteine, or it is administered by mixing with any essential oil and make a solution. The solution form turns it in the form of vapours and with the help of aerosol principle, these moist vapours are delivered to the nasal cavity and reach to the lung cavity.

Glutathione Nebulizer Side Effects

There are various major and minor side effects associated with glutathione nebulizer and also with glutathione administration. The minor side effects associated with glutathione nebulizer are unpleasant odour and transient coughing. And these are common side effects. Patient is recommended to check his sulfite level in urine before starting treatment of glutathione nebulizer. The major side effect associated with glutathione nebulizer is the bronchoconstriction. Bronchoconstriction with glutathione nebulizer is only reported in asthma patients because patient may be sensitive to sulfite. Side effects of glutathione administration include lower zinc levels in body. It may initiate asthma attack and as a result wheezing may occur.
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Percutaneous Tenotomy in Plantar Fascia, Tennis Elbow, Achilles Tendon, CPT Code

Percutaneous tenotomy is a procedure in which a needle is used to inject inside skin under the supervision of ultrasound. The needle is used to make slices or small holes in the tendon. Percutaneous tenotomy is also known as percutaneous needle tenotomy PNT. This procedure is performed to treat tendinopathy. It is also performed to treat pain in a tendon via making breaks in the scar tissue and microtrauma. Breaks in a scar tissue or microtrauma leads to the local inflammation of the site and as a result blood circulation increases. Due to increased circulation, the healing process becomes fast.

Percutaneous Tenotomy In Plantar Fascia

Plantar fascia is a calcaneous thick tendon attached to the heel bone. Percutaneous needle tenotomy PNT is used to treat the scarring in the plantar fascia. The needle is injected inside the foot from the lower side. It is done under the supervision of ultrasound. Needle will treat the scar tissue and osteophyte. It will also help in treating the pain. Percutaneous tenotomy is helpful for that purpose instead of any other procedure. After percutaneous tenotomy, patient will take about 6 to 10 weeks for recovery. After 10 weeks, patient can walk properly without any support.

Percutaneous Tenotomy In Tennis Elbow

Tennis elbow is a condition in which the degenerative tear of tendon occurs at the origin of extensor muscles. To treat that tear of a tendon, percutaneous needle tenotomy PNT is performed. In this procedure, an 18 guaze needle is used to inject inside the skin. Ultrasound supervision is necessary to check the exact location. The needle is hypodermic and it is safe, effective, simple and patient friendly. Percutaneous tenotomy is an easy reproducible method for the treatment of tennis elbow. The recovery is fast in case of percutaneous needle tenotomy PNT procedure which makes it preferable.

Percutaneous Tenotomy in Plantar Fascia, Tennis Elbow, Achilles Tendon, CPT Code

Percutaneous Tenotomy In Achilles Tendon

Achilles tendon is present in foot of a person. The foot is rigid due to this specific tendon i.e. Achilles tendon. With the help of percutaneous needle tenotomy PNT a small incision is made in the tendon. This incision is done with the help of a fine needle. This fine needle is injected inside the skin under the supervision of ultrasound. The incision on this tendon makes it flexible and relieves rigidity. Flexible Achilles tendon after incision will help a lot in movement of foot during walking and performing other activities.

Percutaneous Tenotomy In CPT Code

Only one CPT code is used for the all types of percutaneous needle tenotomy PNT. Whether it is performed for tennis elbow, lateral or medial, epicondylitis and golfers elbow. The code used is 24357. There are no separate codes for  percutaneous needle tenotomy PNT according  to the location. This latest specific code is in use right now. This is the only billable or specific cpt code used for the percutaneous needle tenotomy PNT. CPT codes are used for the purpose of diagnosis. Physicians usually use CPT codes for the regular discussion of problem or disease.
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Severe Left & Right Lateral Recess Stenosis Treatment

As the name indicates, stenosis means narrowing of the tubular pathways. Recess stenosis is the narrowing of lateral part of spinal cord. We can also call it spinal stenosis. In lateral recess stenosis, the foramen of spinal cord which is known as exit doorway of spinal canal narrows and the available space is decreased. This narrowing may occur due to the following reasons. Due to over growth of the facet joints along with bulging of discs. Discs lose their height and tension which leads to sloppy movement of one vertebrae on another.

Severe Lateral Recess Stenosis Treatment

Treatment of recess stenosis depends upon the severity of symptoms and cause behind it. Medications are always preferred for the treatment but if medications are of no use, then surgical treatment is preferred. Usually some medications are used to relief the symptoms like pain. So pain relievers are used like over the counter analgesics and NSAIDS.  Anti inflammatory drugs are also used. Some anti convulsants and anti depressants are prescribed for recess stenosis. Corticosteroids and anesthetics are also prescribed in the form of injections. Some pain killers are used which are prescribed by doctor like opioids.

Severe Left & Right Lateral Recess Stenosis Treatment

Severe Left Lateral Recess Stenosis

When recess stenosis occurs at extreme level i.e. narrowing of tubular vessels occur beyond limit the space at drainage system of spinal cord is disturbed. Many functions of body are disturbed due to recess stenosis. There are two major sites i.e. left sided recess stenosis and right sided recess stenosis. When the narrowing of tubular vessels of foramen occurs on the left side of the spinal cord, then functions of the same side of body is disturbed or affected. The problem in body parts is depend upon the region involved in recess stenosis.

Severe Right Lateral Recess Stenosis

The narrowing in the tubular vessels of the foramen occurs due to many reasons. Of the joint is swelled on the right side if the running spinal cord, then symptoms may appear on the same side of body. The opposite side of recess stenosis is not affected. The pain may radiate through right sided shoulder to the arm and hand and in the lower limb i.e. right sided hip, knee and then foot. The symptoms on either side of body helps a lot in diagnosing the site of occurrence of recess stenosis in spinal cord.

Cervical Lateral Recess Stenosis

Lateral cervical recess stenosis is not much different from lateral recess stenosis. As cervical part is involved in cervical lateral recess stenosis. Cervical lateral recess stenosis may occur due to the encroachment of the lateral recess. It may also occur due to neuroforamina of the specific cervical region. Neuroforamina primarily may occur due to the uncovertebral joints. As hypertrophy of uncovertebral joints is responsible for this. Annulus bulging of the lateral discs. Hypertrophy of the facet is another reason. As cervical part of spinal cord is mainly involved in recess stenosis, so it may vary 12 to 14 mm in diameter from thoracic spinal canal.
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Biochemical Pregnancy in IVF, Symptoms, Causes, Success Rate, Loss

The pregnancy loss right after implantation of fetus is known as biochemical pregnancy. Biochemical pregnancy is considered a main reason behind 50 to 75 percent of miscarriages. Biochemical pregnancy occurs at very early stage that ultrasound cannot detect it. But a blood test or urine test can show positive pregnancy test because hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)  hormone level increases at initial stage.  hCG hormone (human chorionic gonadotropin) is created right after implantation and before biochemical pregnancy. Some women are not aware of their biochemical pregnancy because it is asymptomatic.

Biochemical Pregnancy Symptoms

Some women undergo biochemical pregnancy without knowing about pregnancy. This is so because biochemical pregnancy is asymptomatic. In some cases, women experience some symptoms like muscle cramps in the lower abdominal region, mentrual like pain, bleeding from vagina in starting days (days in which pregnancy is confirmed). Bleeding is not always considered a symptom of biochemical pregnancy because bleeding is normal while implantation of fetus. Implantation means fusion of a sperm with egg. Biochemical pregnancy does not give enough time for the nausea and fatigue because it occurs after short time of implantation.

Biochemical Pregnancy in IVF, Symptoms, Causes, Success Rate, Loss

Biochemical Pregnancy in-vitro Fertilization

Biochemical pregnancy can also occur after fusion of egg and sperm in in-vitro fertilization IVF. After fusion of egg and sperm in in-vitro fertilization, the zygote is transferred to the womb of mother. But after placing of zygote, biochemical pregnancy occurs. In-vitro fertilization is carried out if the fallopian tubes are damaged, endometriosis occurs, ovulation problems and uterine fibroids. There may be any other problem regarding fertilization. A pregnancy test is performed to check pregnancy within 9 to 14 days after in-vitro fertilization. If there will be a problem or abnormality in embryo, then unfortunately biochemical pregnancy can occur.

Biochemical Pregnancy Causes

Biochemical pregnancy is a miscarriage which does not have any specific cause but can occur due to abnormality in embryo. Embryonic abnormality include low quality of sperms and egg. Causes other than this may include abnormalities in uterus, abnormality in hormonal level, some infections like chlamydia and syphilis also cause biochemical pregnancy and In vitro fertilization i.e. implantation of embryo outside uterus. Other than these, age also affects biochemical pregnancy. Women after 35 years of age can undergo biochemical pregnancy. Other medical problems include thyroid disorder and clotting.

Biochemical Pregnancy Success Rate

Biochemical pregnancy varies from person to person. Patient may have consecutive miscarriages one after the other due to biochemical pregnancy. But in some cases, women may have a successful pregnancy after biochemical pregnancy. It depends on condition of patient and care. The success rate is 48 percent.

Biochemical Pregnancy Loss Rate

After studying various cases of biochemical pregnancy, the chances of pregnancy after IVF are 54 percent, chances of pregnancy after biochemical pregnancy are 61 percent and chances of pregnancy after previous spontaneous abortion are 46 percent. The loss of pregnancy chances are high as compare to successful pregnancy after biochemical pregnancy.
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Mtrr A66g Mutation Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Diet

MTrr is the abbreviation of 5 methyltetrahydrofolate Homocysteine Methyltransferase Reductase. It is an enzyme which is responsible for the production of an important amino acid named methionine. MTrr directly interacts with the methionine synthase for the continuous production of methionine. Methionine Amino acid in turn encoded for the Gene named MTrr. Methionine is the most important amino acid which helps to carry out major functions of body. Vitamin B12 is essential for the coordination with methionine synthase. MTrr basically breaks the bond between methionine synthase and side by side inactivate vitamin B12. When mutation occurs at G allele of A66g in MTrr Gene occurs, this whole chain of methionine formation is disturbed.

Mtrr A66g Mutation Symptoms

When there is mutation in the G allele of A66g in MTrr two main problems occur i.e. deficiency of methionine and imbalance in the level of Homocysteine. Regarding these two problems, following symptoms appear.

Due to deficiency of methionine, there may be fat accumulation, production level of glutathione is reduced, problems regarding cardiovascular system, fatty liver, toxins may build up in body, raised level of inflammatory histamine, less production of SAMe, UTI problems and low immunity and many more.

Mtrr A66g Mutation Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Diet

Mtrr A66g Mutation Cause

Mutation at the 66 position of Gene named MTrr leads to two main problems i.e. Imbalance in the level of Homocysteine in blood and deficiency of an important amino acid named methionine. Mutation in MTrr A66g occurs due to the problem in methionine synthase Reductase Gene. Any kind of defect in the methionine synthase Reductase Gene is the main cause behind MTrr A66g mutation. MTrr A66g is responsible for the balancing of Homocysteine and methionine Amino acid in body.

Mtrr A66g Mutation Treatment

Treatment of MTrr A66g mutation include supplements. As MTrr A66g is responsible for the breakup of methionine synthase and also it helps in bonding of vitamin B12 to form a proper molecule leaving methionine alone. Vitamin B12 is necessary for the whole process so taking supplements of vitamin B12 helps a lot. Vitamin B12 helps to convert homocysteine into methionine by combining actively to methionine synthase. It happens due to an active ingredient of vitamin B12 i.e. methylcobalamine. Another active ingredient named L methionine helps a lot in recovering the low level of methionine in body.

Mtrr A66g Mutation Diet

As treatment of MTrr A66g mutation includes supplements of active vitamin B12. So dietary products containing high level of vitamin B12 are recommended in diet. Diet of such patients should consist of eggs, fish, meat, shell fish and milk etc. Some plants are also recommended to take in diet like mashrooms and dried lavers because they contain high amount of vitamin B12 in them. Other than this, some vitamin supplements are also recommended. Along with this healthy diet, consumption of alcohol is strictly banned. As alcohol contains acetaldehyde in it which can produce toxicity in body.
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Overgrown Toe Skin Pictures, Removal, Surgery, Pain, Home Remedies

Overgrown toe skin as the name indicates is a condition in which the skin around nail of toe is over grown and covers the nail. Nail does not cause problem with the over grown toe skin. It is just piling up of skin around nail of toe and nail has nothing to do with this. Overgrown toe skin and ingrown toenail are almost the same conditions. As in ingrown toenail, the nail is abnormally grown from sides and stuck in between over grown skin around toe. The nail appears to be curled in from sides which makes it abnormal.

Overgrown Toe Skin Surgery

A surgical procedure named vandenbos procedure is used widely to remove overgrown toe skin. It is a minor surgical procedure which can be easily performed in the surgeons office. Surgeon will freeze the toe and then will remove the excessive skin around the nail of toe. He will not touch nail during surgery because it has nothing to do with the nail but will just remove the skin. This minor surgery will take almost 20 to 30 minutes to complete. If one toe is to be treated then it will take only 20 minutes but in case of 2 toes it will take 30 minutes.

Overgrown Toe Skin Pictures

Overgrown Toe Skin Pictures, Removal, Surgery, Pain, Home Remedies

Overgrown Toe Skin Removal

To remove the skin around the nail of toe vandenbos procedure is considered the most effective procedure. It is recommended upon all other removal procedures because it does not touch nail and only remove the excessive piled up skin around the nail of toe. In other overgrown toe skin removal processes, the nail is also effected and complication increases. In vandenbos surgical procedure, the toe is freezed so that patient does not feel pain and then extra piled up skin is removed from the toe.

Overgrown Toe Skin Pain

The skin overgrown around the nail is not normal and is painless most of the time. Unless an infection occurs due to ingrown toenail along with overgrown toe skin. Pain may get worse with the condition. As any injury on the toe can lead to infection and as a result redness and inflammation occurs. Sometimes pus is also formed on the site and make it worse. Due to pus, the pain become unbearable and patient need emergency treatment. Normally without injury or infection, patient feels no pain on the over grown skin around nail of toe.

Overgrown Toe Skin Home Remedies

Patients with ingrown toenail and overgrown toe skin have to follow almost same home remedies to prevent infections. These home remedies include:

  • Patient should soak his foot in like warm water and soapy water.
  • Other than water, patient is asked to soak foot in apple cider vinegar.
  • Pack the toe with cotton and dental floss.
  • Patient should apply antibiotics in the form of ointment.
  • Patient should wear open and comfortable shoes to avoid pressure on toe.
  • Over the counter pain killers are recommended to relief pain and inflammation.
  • A toe protector should be used to avoid direct hit of toe with anything.
  • All these remedies helps to prevent over grown toe skin.
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Scrotal Pearl Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Removal

Scrotal pearl is also known as scrotolith. These are benign in nature.  The occurrence of scrotal pearl is incidental and appears on extra testicular surface. These are like macro calcifications inside the scrotum. Scrotal pearls covers the space of tunica vaginalis (serosal covering of testes) or sinus of the epididymis. Epididymis is present adjacent to the testes inside the sac of scrotum. Scrotal pearls have no clinical significance. Scrotal pearls are symptomatic and do not show any symptoms. The basic cause behind occurrence of scrotal pearls is mountain riding. As trauma may occur on the scrotum leading to scrotal pearls.

Scrotal Pearl Symptoms

Scrotal pearls on scrotum of the testes is asymptomatic and do not show any specific symptoms. These are macro calcifications which appear on the sinus of epididymis or covers the maximum space of tunica vaginalis. Patient experience no problems regarding scrotal pearls. Sometimes patient experience scrotal pain some month before with regular episodes. Scrotal pearls are loose in nature and disappear after some time on it's own. Pain episodes may occur with some interval of time but does not remain for longer term. These scrotal pearls are soft masses and can't be feel without touch.

Scrotal Pearl Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Removal

Scrotal Pearl Causes

There are not any defined causes behind the occurrence of scrotal pearl. These are benign in nature and does not require treatment. Some of the main reasons include mountain riding. When mountain bikers ride on mountain, due to ups and downs there may be small sized trauma on the scrotum. These trauma may lead to formation of scrotal pearl. Another main cause is the torsion of the appendix testis. Scrotal pearls are formed prior to the torsion of appendix testis. And after some time disappear on it's own. No specific treatment is required for the scrotal pearls.

Scrotal Pearl Treatment

Scrotal pearls are benign in nature and can disappear on it's own after specified time. So no treatment is required. If there are pain episodes with scrotal pearls, then some of pain medications are prescribed with proper care. Physicians ask patient to lie down mostly and do not sit for longer time as it can increase pressure on scrotal pearls and this may cause problem. Patients do not have to worry about scrotal pearls because they are of no clinical importance. These scrotal pearl can easily move within the epididymis so it can't be a cancerous lump because it is soft and movable.

Scrotal Pearl Removal

Scrotal pearls are if no clinical importance so patients do not have to worry about it. Pain may occur in the form of acute episodes so it should be managed with the help of over the counter pain medications. In some cases, the symptoms become worse and patient can't bear the pain also the scrotal pearl grow bigger in size. In this situation, surgical removal of scrotal pearl is recommended. In the surgical procedure, a small incision is made on the surface of epididymis and then this macro calcification is removed safely.
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Aldh2 Deficiency Symptoms, Causes, Test, Treatment

Aldh2 is an enzyme which is present at two main sites of liver in human. Aldh is of 2 types depending upon its location. Aldh1 is cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme and aldh2 is mitochondrial dehydrogenase enzyme. About 30 to 40 percent of Asians living in East side are deficient in aldh2 enzyme and have only one enzyme i.e. aldh1. Aldh2 is an active enzyme against any foreign particle entered in body. But people deficient in aldh2 are less active against foreign toxins. The common example explains about acetaldehyde which enters the body due to alcohol consumption. Aldh2 detoxify acetaldehyde but people deficient in aldh2 cannot detoxify it and causes alcohol flush reaction.

Aldh2 Deficiency Symptoms

When we talk about a specific toxin named acetaldehyde which enters the body due to alcohol consumption, aldh2 is not available to break it down. So when acetaldehyde enters to the body, it stimulates the release of histamine, which causes following symptoms:

  • Patient feels headache for longer term. The pain is throbbing and pulsing. 
  • Patient feels tachycardia which means increased heart beat of patient than normal. 
  • Nausea occurs. Patient feels like vomiting but doesn't vomit. 
  • Due to increased level of histamine, the blood flow to the upper level capillaries increases and causes redness of skin. This condition is termed as erythema. 

Aldh2 Deficiency Symptoms, Causes, Test, Treatment

Aldh2 Deficiency Causes

The deficiency of aldh2 is a genetic problem in which the aldh2 Gene is responsible for aldh2 deficiency. Aldh2 Gene is responsible for creating a type of aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme which is not good at detoxifying acetaldehyde (enters in body due to alcohol consumption). There is a geographical correlation between different regions in case of aldh2 deficiency. The aldh2 deficiency is most commonly reported in East Asia but it is also found in some specific regions of South Asia. It is studied that it commonly found in the region where rice are cultivated.

Aldh2 Deficiency Test

The symptoms appearing in the body are the easiest way of diagnosing aldh2 deficiency. People reported that they do not drink alcohol at all or are not at drinking age yet but still want to know about aldh2 deficiency. For that purpose there are some tests to diagnose the Gene mutation of aldh2. A simple DNA test is performed by taking blood samples. Via blood sample, the Gene deficiency can be easily seen. DNA test can also be performed by taking samples of saliva.

Aldh2 Deficiency Treatment

Some researchers in a well known University found out that a specific molecule named alda 89 is responsible for increasing the activity of aldh2 enzyme. But it is also reported that alda 89 is not safe to consume for human beings because of its toxicity. So there is another molecule named ALDA which helps in increasing the activity of aldh2 enzyme. Finally the treatment stretagies is based on the goal to diminish the toxicity of acetaldehyde by taking supplements. The supplements will help in lowering the toxicity of acetaldehyde and side by side help aldh2 enzyme to work properly.
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Amnisure ROM Test Procedure, Resutls, Accuracy, Cost

Amnisure ROM test is a diagnostic device which is approved by FDA. It is widely used in the obstetric practice and have resolved a long standing problem. It is used for the diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes PROM. It is a less invasive and accurate test which is used for diagnosis of rupturing of membranes. Amnisure ROM test is always preferred on other battery methods used for that purpose. Amnisure ROM test is performed in about one in every 10 preganant women for the surety of pre natal and post natal complications. Up to 30 percent women in USA are diagnosed with this PROM test.

Amnisure ROM Test Procedure

Amnisure ROM test is the rapid and non invasive test which is easy to perform. It is used to diagnose rupturing of membranes in preganant women who are showing signs and symptoms of any specific disease or condition. It provides an accurate, timely and easy to interpret diagnosis if the condition. Amnisure ROM test is performed to check placental alpha microglobulin 1 (PAMG 1) protein in the amniotic fluid sac. A sample is collected from the vagina with the help of a sterile swab. The sterile swab is inserted inside vagina up to 2 to 3 inches deep and a clear yes or no result can be seen.

Amnisure ROM Test Procedure, Resutls, Accuracy, Cost

Amnisure ROM Test Results

Amnisure ROM test is an accurate test which can be performed easily and the results are trustable. The results can be seen on the spot within 2 to 3 minutes which helps in timely treatment and proper care. The results received from amnisure ROM test are approximately 99 percent accurate. This test is helpful in detection of PAMG 1 protein marker. The result is on the spot i.e. can be seen within minutes. Speculum examination is not required and this makes it an easy test. No gestational age limit is required for this test.

Amnisure ROM Test Accuracy

Amnisure ROM test is always preferred on other battery procedures which are used to diagnose rupturing of membranes in preganant women. The results received from amnisure ROM test are considered approximately 99 percent accurate. The main reason behind it's accuracy is that it is not a speculum examination. An aseptic swab is used to insert inside vagina and results can be seen within minutes. The aseptic swab is inserted up to 2 to 3 inches inside vagina for accurate results.

Amnisure ROM Test Cost

The cost affects the amnisure ROM test in two ways i.e. indirect cost and direct cost. In direct cost, there are two factors affecting cost i.e. are materials and labor. Tests performed to check the condition of rupturing of membranes cost really high like even a single ultrasound costs 200 dollars. Methods used other than amnisure ROM test, require time of at least 4 hours to get the results and for accurate diagnosis and it also cost high because patient have to pay labor too. Contrary to it, amnisure ROM test hardly take 15 minutes to give accurate result and no labor fee is required. When we talk about indirect cost, the false positive results of other tests lead to further testing and treatment, which affects cost.
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Best Natural Pde5 Inhibitors List of Foods, Supplements & OTC's

Pde is the abbreviation of phosphodiesterase enzyme. The pde5 inhibitors are the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. These are the agents which act on the phosphodiesterase enzyme and block the degradative action of cGMP specific pde5 enzyme. Phosphodiesterase type 5 enzyme is present in the cyclic GMP of smooth muscle lining. This smooth muscle lining covers the blood vessels supplying blood to the corpus cavernosum of penis. The pde5 inhibitors are the drugs which are used to treat erectile dysfunction. These drugs are considered the most effective oral treatment of erectile dysfunction.

As phosphodiesterase type 5 enzyme is also present in the smooth muscle lining of arteries, so these drugs are also used to treat pulmonary hypertension. Whenever there is sexual stimulation, the nitric oxide is produced in the corpus cavernosum. Nitric oxide activates another enzyme named guanylate cyclase. This enzyme in turn increases the level of cyclic GMP. Cyclic GMP relaxes the smooth muscles of blood vessels, increased blood flow and erection of penis. Pde5 inhibitors inhibit the degradation of cyclic GMP by the enzyme pde5 itself. And as a result the blood circulation increases and leads to the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

Best Natural Pde5 Inhibitors List of Foods, Supplements & OTC's

Best natural pde5 inhibitors list of supplements

There are many natural supplements which are used as pde5 inhibitors to treat erectile dysfunction. The five main supplements include arginine, pycnogenol, icariin extract, forskolin and tongkat Ali. These supplements are used instead of pde5 inhibitors. Icariin extract is the main ingredient of the horny goat weed. It has effects like testosterone and helps in stimulation of sexual effects. Pycnogenol is extracted from bark of French maritime pine. Forskolin is a fat burner and affects glucoma. It naturally inhibits pde5 enzyme of smooth muscles.  Arginine is also a natural strengthening agent.

Best natural pde5 inhibitors list of foods

There are no foods which can treat erectile dysfunction but some foods are known to help in treatment of erectile dysfunction. These foods are as follows:

  • Leafy greens and beets contains nitrates in them and these nitrates are responsible for nitric oxide production. 
  • Flavanoids present in dark chocolate also helps in the secual stimulation of penis. 
  • Pistachio helps a lot in strengthening of penis because pistachios contain proteins. 
  • Fishes are good for penis working. As fishes contain zinc in them which helps in working of penis. 
  • Watermelon is also useful. 
  • Pomegranate juice is used a lot to combat erectile dysfunction. 

Best natural pde5 inhibitors list of foods OTCs

OTC drugs available for treatment of erectile dysfunction include viagra. But in case viagra is not available, there are many alternatives which may be used for instead of viagra. These alternatives include verdenafil (levitra and staxyn are the brand names), tadalafil (adcirca and Cialis are the brand names of tadalafil) and avanafil (stendra is the brand name). Other than these oral drugs use for erectile dysfunction, other dosage forms include penile injections of alprostadil, phentolamine and papaverine. Urethral suppositories are also available. Testosterone replacement is another treatment Option.
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Global Hypokinesis of Left Ventricle Mild, Moderate & Severe

Global hypokinesis is a condition which describes the weakness of heart and improper functioning of heart. It also describes obstruction in the coronary blood vessels and this obstruction may range between mild to severe. Global hypokinesis gives information about improper functioning of each and every part of heart i.e. all the Chambers, membranes, walls of heart, ventricles and arteries etc.

Due to improper functioning there is irregularities in the tasks of heart and as a result the heart becomes weak and lose it's strength. Global hypokinesis is a different condition from regional weakness of heart. As the name indicates regional weakness defines weakness in some of the regions of heart and a few parts are involved. But in global hypokinesis ( as the name indicates global) involves the improper functioning of whole heart including all parts. There my be many causes behind global hypokinesis and some of them are heart attack, cardiomyopathy and ischemic heart diseases etc. The common symptoms if global hypokinesis are

Rapid or irregularities in the heart beat. As heart tends to beat fast in order to supply appropriate amount of blood to the body and this may count as abnormal or irregular heart beat.
Water or other body fluids retention. Due to global hypokinesis, there will be decreased blood output and as a result less blood is supplied to body. It may cause retention of fluids in body.

Global Hypokinesis of Left Ventricle Mild, Moderate & Severe

Mild Global Hypokinesis In Left Ventricle

Left ventricle is the chamber of heart and a hard working part of heart which receives blood from lungs and passes it to the body. Electrocardiogram is performed to check the activity of heart. In ECG, the activity of left ventricle of heart is recorded which is irregular. The muscles of heart specially of left ventricle are not contracting properly which is the main reason behind improper functioning of heart (global hypokinesis). The improper contraction of muscles does not affect the ejection fraction of heart.

Moderate Global Hypokinesis In Left Ventricle

Left ventricle is the most important part of heart as it is responsible for supplying blood to the whole body. If there is a problem in the heart specially left ventricle, the functioning of whole heart is disturbed. Global hypokinesis in left ventricle means the whole ventricle is not working properly. The contraction of heart muscles is improper at moderate level which is neither mild nor severe. The activity of heart can be checked on ECG. The electrocardiogram shows the exact location of problem in heart.

Severe Global Hypokinesis In Left Ventricle

Severe global hypokinesis in left ventricle means the whole left ventricle is weak and is not working properly. The muscles of left ventricle of heart are not contracting properly that's why the functioning is impaired. ECG shows the abnormality in function of heart in the left ventricle. The heart is not pumping blood to the body in proper way. In severe global hypokinesis, the ejection fraction of blood is also disturbed. It is a life threatening condition and urgently requires treatment.
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Occlusal Adjustment Definition, Procedure, Side Effects, TMJ, Cost

Occlusal adjustment is the grinding of the surface of teeth. The surface is grinded and made fine for the perfect connection of teeth of both jaws. The contact pattern of teeth is improved with occlusal adjustment. Occlusal adjustment can be used as an endodontic treatment, prosthetic treatment, restorative or orthodontic treatment. In occlusal adjustment, more than one teeth may be involved. Teeth may be natural or prosthetic. It is indicated in the following conditions:

  • For the elimination of isolated occlusal adjustment in case it becomes symptomatic. It usually becomes symptomatic after orthodontic treatment. 
  • Increased mobility of tooth because of traumatic occlusion.

Occlusal Adjustment Procedure

In occlusal adjustment procedure, the patient is reclined and ask him to join both jaws. After joining, the contact point of teeth is marked. The 1st contact point is identified with an accufilm which is a double sided articulating paper. The contacting inclines are reshaped either as a flat surface or a cusp tip. The teeth are adjusted in a line so that occlusion may occur in maximum teeth. The contacts at the posterior side are not altered. And should be a light contact in anterior teeth. Usually the canine and incisors contact are observed. When the occlusal adjustment is completed in reclined position, then it is checked by observing the point of contact.

Occlusal Adjustment Definition, Procedure, Side Effects, TMJ, Cost

Occlusal Adjustment Side effects

When we talk about the side effects of occlusal adjustment, the problems in biting are usually seen. Like patient may face bite off. In bite off, the closing of jaw is uneven on both sides. Patient whenever open or closes his mouth, popping or clicking sounds are produced. The point from where the enamel is ground away or the point from where the teeth is fractured facets are used to wear. Headache and neckache may occur. Pain occurs in the jaw due to uneven closing of both jaws.

Occlusal Adjustment TMJ

TMJ is abbreviated as temporomandibular joint. Person undergoing occlusal adjustment have problem in TMJ. So a guard is used to treat problem in temporomandibular joint. This guard is used at night time. This TMJ guard is frequently used by people at night time because it clenches and grind teeth. It helps a lot in making both jaws aligned and decreases the chances of occlusal adjustment. It also helps smooth muscles to work properly. TMJ guard allows jaws to find their desired place for connection but should prevent from looking.

Occlusal Adjustment Cost

Occlusal adjustment is a sensitive process because teeth are the most important part of life. All the dental surgeries are expensive. There is only a bit variation in the cost of occlusal adjustment. Usually TMJ guard is used to align teeth and grinding of teeth for better connection of both jaws. But if occlusal adjustment is necessary, then the cost ranges from 600.00 dollars to 1855.00 dollars. This cost includes a complete package. This package involves diagnosis, guards, analysis, information, measurements and subsequent appointments. In case braces are used for alignment of teeth, then these may cost approximately 3,050 dollars.
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Radial Traction Definition, Emphysema, COPD, Asthma, Pulmonary Fibrosis

The airway of lungs is composed of parenchyma. Parenchyma are the connective tissues which surrounds the lung airways. A scaffold is formed around airway due to parenchyma and this scaffold apply force on airways to make them open so that person may breathe easily. This force is known as radial traction. Whenever person inspires, the fibers of parenchyma connective tissues get stretched and make the airways wide open with the help of increased traction force. In case of expiration, the opposite phenomenon occurs in which fibers of parenchyma connective tissue contracts with the help of decreased traction force.

Radial Traction Emphysema

Emphysema is a condition in which person face shortness of breath and the elasticity of the cells of airways of lungs increases. As the elasticity increases, the cells stretch more and as a result the radial traction force of the airways increases leading to increased inhalation of air. But due to problem in the cells of air sacs present inside the lungs, person exhales immediately and less oxygen is absorbed leading to shortness of breath. Radial traction force increases during inspiration in emphysema but it is followed by sudden and increased contraction of parenchyma tissues during exhalation with decreased radial traction force.

Radial Traction Definition, Emphysema, COPD, Asthma, Pulmonary Fibrosis

Radial Traction In COPD

COPD is abbreviated as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this disease, there is an obstruction in the flow of air during breathing. Basically COPD is the group of diseases in which is an obstruction in the way of air during breathing. There are four main mechanisms occur during COPD. 1st one include the contraction of walls of airway which in other words is known as bronchoconstriction, Excess mucous production leading to obstruction, Inflammation of walls of airways leading to narrowing of airways and any other tissue destruction may lead to contraction of airways. All these mechanisms show narrowing of airways and loss of radial traction.

Radial Traction In Asthma

Asthma is a chronic lung disease, in which the walls of airways are inflamed and due to inflammation, the walls of airways become thick which leads to the narrowing of airways. Due to these structural changes, the radial traction force is also disturbed. Due to narrowing of airways, the radial traction force is also lost which is not good for person. Because due to lack of radial traction force, the airways may collapse during expiration phase and as a result patient may die.

Radial Traction In Pulmonary Fibrosis

Pulmonary fibrosis is a lot like emphysema, as in this disease, the tissues of lungs are damaged and scarred. These damaged and scarred tissues become thick more than a limit and causes problem during breathing. Due to thickening of cells of lungs, the airways become narrow and radial traction force is lost. When there is decreased radial traction force, the chances are high that the whole respiratory system may collapse. It is a life threatening condition. Patient try hard to inhale oxygen more during breathing but the airways does not support and all this leads to shortness of breath.
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Deep Pressure Therapy for Anxiety, Autism, ADHD, Dogs

Deep pressure therapy is an input of pressure applied equally across the body. The pressure is applied in a tactical way. Deep pressure therapy can be administered in many ways and the commonest examples are hugs, swaddling, squeezing and stroking. In actual, deep pressure therapy DPT works on our senses. As senses are responsible for taking messages to the brain and then brain filters them. In case of deep pressure therapy all the senses are under deep external pressure and brain is receiving messages continuously. As a result it is not easy for nervous system to calm down but deep pressure therapy is considered a source of relaxation of nervous system.

Deep Pressure Therapy DPT For Anxiety

Anxiety is the most common disease growing now a days. And deep pressure therapy is in Trend to treat anxiety of patients. It can be easily explained with an example of a baby. When we roll a baby in a blanket from all sides firmly to make him relax like wise a mature person go through deep pressure therapy to get mentally relax. Reserchers gave information about deep pressure therapy that it increases the level of happy hormones. Happy hormones are serotonin and dopamine which increases 28 percent and 31 percent respectively.

Deep Pressure Therapy for Anxiety, Autism, ADHD, Dogs

Deep Pressure Therapy DPT For Autism

Autism is a condition in which person face difficulty in speech, repetitive speech, social skills challenges and in non verbal communication. Deep pressure therapy is not considered a treatment plan for autism. But it is only used to make patient relax. Deep pressure therapy helps to depress nervous system for a time so that the person suffering from autism get relaxed and does not take much stress while talking. Deep pressure therapy relax patient for some time not for a longer time duration.

Deep Pressure Therapy DPT For ADHD

ADHD is the abbreviation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this disease, children are hyper active and are not able to focus on one thing properly for a defined time. Their impulses are uncontrollable and they face difficulty in paying attention. So deep pressure therapy is administered to make these patient mentally relax because it is a sensory processing issue. For the purpose of administration of deep pressure therapy in ADHD children, a weighted blanket is used for applying pressure. The blanket is 10 percent of child's body weight helps in compression of body sensory receptors.

Deep Pressure Therapy DPT For Dogs

Service dogs are trained for deep pressure therapy. Service dogs have enough weight to apply pressure on the person and they are well trained. Dogs not only apply weight but sometimes provide warmth to the person. They are trained to lie on the lap of person and wrap around him. If person is lying on floor or bed, dogs will lie on their back or on their chest and provide deep pressure therapy with their weight and warmth. It is the favourite strategy of people to calm down and minimize the disengagement from the world.
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Cyclops Lesion Surgery, Recovery, Recurrence, ACL

A Cyclops lesion which is also known as localized anterior arthrofibrosis is defined as a painful lesion in the inner mass present at the anterior side of knee. It occurs as a result of  anterior cruciate ligament ACL reconstruction. It is considered a main complication of anterior cruciate ligament ACL reconstruction. But in rare cases, it also occurs without reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament ACL. Cyclops lesion occurs in approximately 5 percent of patients who had anterior cruciate ligament ACL reconstruction. With a Cyclops lesion, patient can't move his knee without pain specially while extension of affected knee.

Cyclops Lesion Surgery

To treat Cyclops lesion, arthroscopic surgery is recommended. In arthroscopic surgery, a small incision is made near knee joint, And then surgeon inserts a small pencil like instrument inside the joint to lighten up the inner view. A small lens is also fixed with it to visualize the proper problem in the joint. That pencil shaped instrument which is inserted inside joint, is known as arthroscope. According to the injury, the appropriate instruments are also inserted inside via accessory incisions. After surgery, the small incision are covered with dressing and large ones are stitched. Some pain medications are prescribed in case of need.

Cyclops Lesion Surgery, Recovery, Recurrence, ACL

Cyclops Lesion Recovery

Small incision is made in arthroscopy to treat Cyclops lesion. These small wounds will take several days to heal completely. Dressing is preferably removed the very next morning and then adhesive tapes are used. Although there is not much pain associated with arthroscopy and not a big incision or wound is associated but still it takes week to recover the functioning of joint completely. A proper rehabilitation program helps a lot in making the recovery process fast. There is not a defined recovery time because the severity of injury and care of wounds along with proper rehabilitation program affects recovery speed.

Cyclops Lesion Recurrence

After arthroscopic surgery of Cyclops lesion, there are higher chances of recurrence of Cyclops lesion. People treated with arthroscopic surgery, even after great care and physical therapy 2nd Cyclops lesion may occur. Every time Cyclops lesion i.e reoccurred, the pain is worse than before. On every re-occurrence of Cyclops lesion, surgery is necessary. But repetitive surgeries, increase the scarring of tissues. If scarring get worse, then more surgeries may be required which will cause more pain. Surgery after surgery may lead to disappointment of patient and increased expenditure of money.

Cyclops Lesion ACL

ACL is the abbreviation of anterior cruciate ligament which is present in the knee joint of a person. Cyclops lesion occurs after anterior cruciate ligament ACL reconstruction. It is the replacement of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with a surgical tissue graft. It is performed after an injury,  to restore it's function. After successful surgery i.e. reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament ACL , if still patient feels problem in moving his knee ( painful knee extension) then it is the sign of Cyclops lesion. Cyclops lesion is the arthrofibrosis of the mass present in the anterior side of knee joint.
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Kidner Procedure Definition, Recovery, Rehabilitation, Cost

Kidner procedure is a surgery which is performed to remove an extra bone from foot. The bone to be removed in patients is named as accessory navicular bone. This bone is not present in all people but only a few are born with this extra bone. It is only removed if there is any injury or pain in this abnormal bone. Accessory navicular is considered a prominent abnormal bone which is present in the inner side of foot.

Accessory navicular bone is attached to a tendon , so during surgery, the damaged or inflammed bone is removed by making an incision, and then the tendon attached to accessory navicular bone is directly attached to the normal navicular bone. It is considered a minor surgical operation and not difficult at all. The tendon attached to it is posterior tibial tendon. If accessory navicular bone do not cause any pain or disturbance, then kidner procedure is not necessary. It is only recommended in case of pain and damaged or inflammed accessory navicular bone. As any kind of problem with this abnormal accessory navicular bone can be resolved only with kidner procedure so it is the only treatment Option.

Kidner Procedure Definition, Recovery, Rehabilitation, Cost

Kidner Procedure Recovery

Talking about recovery after kidner procedure, it depends upon the patient and the severity of condition of accessory navicular bone. It also depends upon the care of foot. Usually the recovery time recorded is 9 weeks to 2 months. In initial 0 to 6 months, in case of cast boot patient is advised to remain immobilized and must not put weight on foot. Then in next 6 to 10 weeks, the patient is asked to try to increase activity. Physical therapy should accompany for fast recovery. And full recovery is achieved after 9 weeks or 2 months when patient is back to his routine activities.

Kidner Procedure Rehabilitation

There is a designed rehabilitation protocol for accessory navicular bone. It includes 2 main goals in 1st 28 days i.e. pain management and prevent swelling. Tasks include straight leg raise, elevation, short arc quad SAQ, crutches use which is non weight bearing. In next 4 to 8 weeks, the main goal is full DF /PF. The tasks involved is, use of crutches, cam walker, mini squats, wall squats and full gym. In next 8 to 12 weeks, main goal is to achieve normal gait and symmetrical range of motion ROM. Like wise after 6 months , goal is to get back to work.

Kidner Procedure Cost

Cost is a variable factor which varies from place to place. At some places, the cost for kidner procedure is very much high that an average person can't afford. As it is a rare surgery, so it also affects it's cost. When the bone is inflammed or damaged, then it is a very sensitive process to remove it safely from foot without spreading of infection. Cost also varies according to the surgeon and hospitals. Some high standard hospitals charge more and offer a costly kidner procedure as compared to a local hospital as they offer a bit cheaper kidner process.
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Uvulectomy Definition, Procedure, Recovery, Pain, Cost

Uvulectomy is a surgical procedure which is performed to remove uvula from mouth. Uvula may be completely removed or partially removed. Uvula is a hanging soft mass present in the initial position of throat. It hangs downward from the throat. Uvula is a beneficial part of mouth but sometimes some complications require the removal of uvula I.e. uvulectomy. Uvula is an organ having bell shape. Uvula is Rich in moisture because it contains salivary glands which helps to make mouth moist. Uvula is of great help in making person how he articulate. Having a uvula will never make mouth dry.

Uvulectomy Procedure

Uvulectomy may be performed alone but it is mostly performed as a main part of  another procedure named uvulopalatopharyngoplasty UPPP. Both the above mentioned procedure have same purpose i.e. removal of the tissues blocking the airway. A local anesthesia is used to remove uvula. Basically it is performed for sleep apnea. Patient is asked to pull out his tongue and relax with an open jaw. Then sterilized surgical instruments are used to cut out either partial tissues of uvula which we're blocking the airways or complete tissue removal of uvula causing sleep apnea by blocking airways.

Uvulectomy Definition, Procedure, Recovery, Pain, Cost

Uvulectomy Recovery

Uvulectomy is a minor surgery if performed alone. Patients after removal of uvula may feel weird but after 2 to 3 days he'll be used to it. After surgery, the patient is prescribed with some pain killers. These pain killers help in relaxation and narrowing of muscles of throat and patient feels relaxed. Patient can go back to his routine activities within 1 to 2 weeks after surgery. After 2 to 3 weeks patient is allowed to take his meal he wants to. But complete recovery of uvulectomy requires 3 to 6 weeks. After 6 weeks patient is completely good.

Uvulectomy Pain

Uvula is a sensitive part of throat as a good source of moisture in mouth. As it contains glands responsible for causing moisture. So after uvulectomy patient may feel pain in throat. For that purpose, surgeon prescribe some pain killers so that patient feels less pain and pain killers also helps to relax muscles of throat along with narrowing of throat muscles. Liquid dosage form of pain killers is recommended first, with administration after every 3 to 4 hours. After 1 to 2 weeks, the frequency of dosage is decreased even it is recommended to take pain medication right before taking meal for easy swallowing.

Uvulectomy Cost

There isn't any proper intervention related to the cost of uvulectomy. It depends upon the region or location and country. The cost of uvulectomy also depends upon the hospital and surgeon. As an example, on a famous website named MD save, the cost for uvulectomy is 650 dollars. But there are also some cheap hospitals which offer uvulectomy in lower cost. About policy makers of determining uvulectomy a cost effective intervention, there isn't enough data available. Patient should survey in more than one hospital and then should select on the basis of hygienic conditions and cost.
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Ambien Overdose Amount, Side Effects, Antidote, Treatment

Ambien is a medicine which has an active ingredient named zolpidem. Ambien is a sleep inducer or we can say zolpidem is a CNS depressant. But it should be used with the prescription of an authorized physician. It's over usage may cause harm to patient even it may prove fatal for health. Ambien induces sleep and is mainly prescribed for patients facing severe sleep problems. But patient have to administer it according to the physician instructions. It's over use is intentional but sometimes it's dose may exceed due to less education about medication. It's continuous overdose may induce tolerance.

Ambien Amount

Ambien should be initially administered with it's lowest dose recommended i.e. 5 mg for women and 5 to 10 mg for men. It should be administered once in a day i.e. o.i.d. it is recommended to take a tablet right before going to bed for an intentional 7 to 8 hours sleep. If patient does not find 5 mg dose enough for the purpose of sleep, then it may increase up to 10 mg but in some cases, this 10 mg does show impairment in very next morning while driving and performing other activities.

Ambien Overdose Amount, Side Effects, Antidote, Treatment

Ambient Side Effects

Ambient is designed to relief severe insomnia but this drug also cause some serious side effects like nausea, rapid heart beat i.e. tachycardia, muscle cramps, slow rate of breathing, diarrhea, vomiting, impaired near and far vision, patient may no longer feel hunger. Other than these, some rare side effects include, memory loss, anxiety, emotional blunting, allergic reactions, disorientation, depression, insomnia and inability of patient to concentrate on a single thing. With continuous use of ambient, patient may have nightmares, he may remain confused about things all the time, dizziness, sedation, addiction and aggression. It's withdrawal may be life threatening.

Ambient Antidote

Flumazenil is the antidote to ambient (zolpidem). In case of over dose or tolerance, flumazenil administration is considered as a primary treatment or supportive care. Flumazenil is considered an effective drug which can reverse the effects of ambient in central nervous system. Flumazenil recommended dose for ambient over dose is 0.1 to 1 mg via intravenous route of administration. It will reach to it's peak within 10 minutes giving rapid results along with improvement of patient. Other than this antidote administration, some supportive treatments are also recommended to combat the over dose effects of ambient (zolpidem).

Ambient Treatment

Ambient over dose is intentional mostly but it can also be mistaken if patient is not well educated about the medication. It's over dose treatment include 2 strategies i.e. primary and secondary. In primary treatment, an antidote of ambient named flumazenil is administered intravenously for Instant relief. It will give results within 10 minutes of administration. The secondary strategy include some supportive treatment for ambient over dose effects. Supportive care include intubation, Intravenous fluids, mechanical ventilation and gastric lavage. Intubation and mechanical ventilation helps a lot in recovering the level of oxygen in body. Like wise intravenous fluids also helps to make organs work properly.
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Gerdy's Tubercle Pain, Swelling, Palpation, Treatment

Gerdy's tubercle is defined as Tubercle on the tibia which is present laterally. Tubercle itself is defined as an outgrowth which is round in shape and tubia is the one of the main bones present in the lower part of leg i.e. below knee. It is present at the point of insertion of iliotibial tract. Gerdy's tubercle is a smooth facet which is present  laterally in the upper part of tibia. It's exact location is just below the knee joint. Gerdy's tubercle is rightly adjacent to the proximal tibio fibular joint and this is the point for iliotibial tract to run downwards and forms the outside part of the thigh.

Gerdy's Tubercle Pain

Iliotibial band syndrome is the cause of pain in gerdy's tubercle. This syndrome occurs due to over usage of connective tissue in the iliotibial region i.e. outside of knee or lower leg. Iliotibial band syndrome causes severe pain at the point where gerdy's tubercle is located. Person with iliotibial band syndrome cannot run or walk properly because of pain. Along with pain, the outer part of knee may also show inflammation. If this syndrome left untreated, then it may lead to significant morbidity and even cessation of exercise for a longer time.

Gerdy's Tubercle Pain, Swelling, Palpation, Treatment

Gerdy's Tubercle Swelling

Swelling at the gerdy's tubercle may occur due to the iliotibial band friction syndrome. In this syndrome, due to over usage of connective tissue (which forms iliotibial band) may cause severe pain to the gerdy's tubercle and may result in swelling of the outer part of knee. Swelling in the gerdy's tubercle may also occur due to excessive accumulation of fluid in the space of knee around gerdy's tubercle. This accumulated fluid in the knee, may cause friction while working with knee and as a result swelling occurs.

Gerdy's Tubercle Palpation

Palpation is a technique to find out the exact location and severity of pain and swelling via patient's feedback. In this technique, physician touch the area of pain originating and ask patient side by side if he is feeling pain on touching and how much pain he is feeling. Usually the index finger and middle finger are used for touching and examination. The region if originating pain is slightly pressed with the fingers and check of there is any inflammation and swelling and pain. Palpation helps a lot in understanding the cause of pain and swelling in defined region.

Gerdy's Tubercle Treatment

Iliotibial band syndrome is the main cause behind any pain and inflammation and swelling in gerdy's tubercle so the initial treatment stretagy include rest, elevation, compression and ice pack application. Other than this, some anti inflammatory medications to relieve inflammation and swelling are also prescribed like naproxen and Ibuprofen. Patient should avoid using over the counter medications along with the prescribed ones as it may cause drug interaction. Other than these treatment stretagies, physical therapy also helps a lot as exercise may increase mobility if the gerdy's tubercle and helps in recovering fast from iliotibial band syndrome.
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Metacarpophalangeal Joint Pain, Injury, Dislocation, Lump, Thumb Pain

Metacarpophalangeal joint is present in hand which joins the bones of hand with the bones of fingers. In scientific way, metacarpophalangeal joint joins the phalanges of the digits of fingers with the metacarpal bones of fist. Metacarpophalangeal joint is an ovoid articular type of bone which joins the rounded heads of metacarpal bones with the shallow proximal endings of phalanges of the digits of fingers. As metacarpophalangeal joint is condyloid in nature so it would allow various movements of hand like abduction, flexion, adduction, circumduction and extension. The movements like abduction and adduction cannot be performed easily until a fist is formed.

Metacarpophalangeal Joint Pain

If there is pain in the metacarpophalangeal joint, then arthritis may be a commonest cause behind it, if any injury is not reported. Arthritis is known as inflammation of joints and arthritis is commonly used as a word to describe pain in joints. Pain in the metacarpophalangeal joint may also occur due to osteoarthritis i.e. wear and tear of bone on routine basis. If there is a broken bone in hand then the crack may extend up to the metacarpophalangeal joint and cause pain. Gout, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and pseudogout etc. Are the medical conditions which may cause pain in metacarpophalangeal joint.

Metacarpophalangeal Joint Pain, Injury, Dislocation, Lump, Thumb Pain

Metacarpophalangeal Joint Injury

Metacarpophalangeal joint sprain is an injury which may occur when one of the ligaments attached to knuckles got injured. Injury to the knuckle which is nearest to the metacarpophalangeal joint may cause injury to the joint. In injury, the collateral ligaments around knuckles got injured and causes sprain to the nearest metacarpophalangeal joint. The pain due to sprain is very painful and may cause dislocation of the joint. The severity of pain in dislocation of joint and sprain is difficult to assess. A proper stress test is conducted to check severity of injury and sprain.

Metacarpophalangeal Joint Dislocation

Metacarpophalangeal joint may get dislocate due to injury in the ligaments of nearest knuckle. Usually the border finger digits i.e. small and index finger digits are more susceptible to injury because these are not surrounded by any other protective border. The collateral ligaments of the index finger and small finger digits are more susceptible to injury causing dislocation of metacarpophalangeal joint. The dislocation of metacarpophalangeal joint may be treated with buddy tapping for almost 2 to 3 weeks and this is for 1st degree sprain. For 2nd degree sprain, the digits are made immobilized for about 3 weeks in mid flexion.

Metacarpophalangeal Joint Lump

The lumps in the metacarpophalangeal joint are called ganglion cysts. The most common site of formation of ganglion cysts are the joints at the base of fingers like metacarpophalangeal joint and the joints present near to the nails i.e. distal phalangeal joint.

Metacarpophalangeal joint Thumb pain

The joint of thumb is composed of metacarpal bone and is in connection with trapezium bone of wrist. When person do a lot of movement with wrist, then inflammation may occur in the thumb joint causing pain. Basically the tendons joining thumb to the wrist causes pain in thumb joint.
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Sustentaculum Tali Palpation, Fracture, X-ray, CT-Scan, Anatomy

Sustentaculum Tali is a small supporting bone present in the heel of every person. It is derived from a Latin word i.e. sustenus which means support and Tali is referred as talus bone present in body. It is present as a shaft which originates from the anteromedial portion of calcaneus or heel bone. The Tali bone is bowel shaped from its superior side. Tali bone is directly in contact with middle calcaneal surface of talus. The inner side of Tali gives space to attachment of a tendon named flexor hallucis longus. Talar shelf is another name of this above described structure.

Sustentaculum Tali Palpation

Palpation is a diagnostic procedure in which physician check the severity and location of disease in patient's body by touching it externally. To check problem in sustentaculum Tali, physician would allow patient to sit on the examination table. Patient is asked to dangle down his legs from knees (90 degrees flexon). There should be no weight on feet. Now physician will sit right in front of patient and start palpating his foot with his finger tips. He'll ask patient to tell if he feels any pain on touching sustentaculum Tali. If patient feels pain, then right and left sided feet are compared.

Sustentaculum Tali Palpation, Fracture, X-ray, CT-Scan, Anatomy

Sustentaculum Tali Fracture

Sustentaculum Tali may get fracture due to any trauma or injury. It is a serious case and direct medical approach is recommended. If the fracture is the depression in medial facet, then these can be repaired. There are two main types of fracture of sustentaculum Tali i.e. intra articular fracture and extra articular fracture. Both fractures involve different parts of bone. In intra articular fracture, calcaneo cuboid joints and the subtalar joints are involved whereas in extra articular fracture, the subtalar joints and calcaneo cuboid joints are not involved.

Sustentaculum Tali Anatomy

There are many ligaments and tendons are associated with talar shelf or sustentaculum Tali. The three main ligaments are as follows:

  • Medial talocalcaneal ligament.
  • Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament which is attached to the anterior surface. 
  • Deltoid ligament attacher to the medial surface. 
  • Sustentaculum Tali is a console shaped protrusion which is attached to the middle surface of calcaneus. This attachment is from the upper side of sustentaculum Tali which we can also say a dorsal support. This structure corresponds to the mid calcaneal suface of the talus bone. It provides support to the talus bone. The lower part supports a tendon named flexor hallucis longi. 

Sustentaculum Tali X-Ray

Sustentaculum Tali is a supporting small bone which is essential for supporting talus bone. It can be seen easily via X-ray. If palpation indicate any pain or swelling, then physician recommend x-rays. In x-rays the fracture of sustentaculum Tali can be seen clearly.

Sustentaculum Tali CT Scan

If sustentaculum Tali fracture cannot be seen clearly in x-ray, then physician recommend computed tomography CT scan. In CT scan, the intra auricular and extra articular fracture can be seen clearly. In CT scan, the attached ligaments and tendons can also be seen clearly if got damage in fracture.
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Ecthyma Gangrenosum Pictures, Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Ecthyma gangrenosum is a skin disease which effects cutaneous layer of skin. It is a bacterial infection which occurs due to a spcific bacteria named pseudomonas bacteraemia. Ecthyma gangrenosum usually occurs in patients who have compromised immune system or patients who are critically ill. Ecthyma gangrenosum appears as bloody pustules which with the passage of time turn in to necrotic ulcers I.e. black in color. Appearance of ecthyma gangrenosum resembles many other skin diseases so proper tests are performed to diagnosis.

Following tests are performed:

Gram stain: in this test fluid from bloody pustule is taken as a sample and test is performed.

Blood Cultures: in this test blood specimens are taken before starting antibiotic therapy.

Skin Biopsy: in this test, a sample of skin is taken from the wound and then observed with various techniques like staining. Skin biopsy sample is further sent for tissue culture.

The histopathological reports of ecthyma gangrenosum shows necrosis of vascular system and each necrotic part is surrounded by few inflammatory cells and various bacteria surrounding it. During gram staining, various gram negative rods are seen around necrotic vessels under microscope. Ecthyma gangrenosum requires prompt diagnosis and treatment should contain appropriate antibiotics.

Ecthyma Gangrenosum Pictures

Ecthyma Gangrenosum Pictures, Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Ecthyma Gangrenosum Symptoms

Ecthyma gangrenosum is a cutaneous infection which occurs due to bacteria named pseudomonas bacteraemia. The physical appearance of ecthyma gangrenosum is explained below:

Initially ecthyma gangrenosum lesions are painless red patches which are round in shape. These red patches with the passage of time turn in to red colored bloody (hemorrhagic) pustules. The hemorrhagic part lies in the center forming a blister. This bloody or hemorrhagic blister spread peripherally. Gradually this hemorrhagic blister start turning in to black or grey colored gangrenous ulcer. This ulcer is surrounded by red Halo. It has fastest development like it will take only 12 hours to develop lesion in to necrotic ulcer.

Ecthyma Gangrenosum Causes

Ecthyma gangrenosum occurs in patients with compromised immune system or patients who are critically ill. Immuno compromised patients are more susceptible to pseudomonas and other pathogenic bacterias. There are two mechanical defensive barriers of body i.e. skin and mucosa. When these two barriers breakdown due to any reason, the infectious organisms can easily enter to the body.

Lesions occur due to the invasion of bacteria or other pathogens inside the walls of veins and arteries of skin (specially in subcutaneous layer). Damaged vessels lead to inappropriate blood flow and supply to the parts of body.

Ecthyma Gangrenosum Treatment

As ecthyma gangrenosum is a bacterial infection and occurs due to a specific bacteria named pseudomonas bacteraemia. So antibiotics are the main thing in treatment of this infection. The following antibiotics are recommended for ecthyma gangrenosum.

  • Aztreonam
  • Fluroquinolones
  • Aminoglycosides.
  • Third generation cephalosporins.
  • Piperacillin i.e. anti pseudomonal penicillin. 

During culture testing, piperacillin is prescribed in combination with aminoglycosides. When antibiotics sensitivity results are known the adjustment of antibiotics is necessary. If fungus is reported as a causative agent, then systemic anti fungal therapy is recommended to cover following:

Aspergillus, candida and mucor species.
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Bronchovesicular Breath Sounds Location, Indications, Characteristics

Bronchovesicular sounds means sounds that are present between bronchial and vesicular breath sounds. These bronchovesicular breath sounds are normal if heard between 1st and 2nd intercoastal spaces. Observed anteriorly and posteriorly in between scapulae. If these sounds are observed in peripheral region then these bronchovesicular breath sounds are abnormal. These abnormal sounds shows whether there may be lung compression or pneumonia. Bronchovesicular breath sounds are normal if heard near trachea and the pitch of sound is high near trachea and alveoli. Vesicular sounds are near thorax region with low pitch and are softer as compared to bronchial breath sounds.

Bronchovesicular Breath Sounds Location

Bronchovesicular breath sounds are normally observed in the upper region I.e. between 1st and 2nd intercoastal spaces (anteriorly and posteriorly between scapulae). The bronchial breath sounds are normally heard in tracheal region and alveolar region. The pitch of bronchial breath sounds is high. The vesicular breath sounds are normally observed in thorax region. The pitch of vesicular breath sounds is low as compared to bronchial breath sounds. Bronchovesicular breath sounds are observed within these two regions but if observed other than these two regions, then there may any disease. And the most common diseases include lung collapse and pneumonia.

Bronchovesicular Breath Sounds Location, Indications, Characteristics

Bronchovesicular Breath Sounds Indication

Bronchovesicular breath sounds are normal but if these sounds are observed other than its original position, then these sounds become abnormal and indicate the presence of any abnormality or disease. Some of the common abnormal bronchovesicular breath sounds which indicate abnormality are:

Crackles: the abnormal sound which is discontinuous, explosive or we can say popping sound with high pitch. This sound indicate the presence of excessive fluid.

Wheezes: this is a musical type of abnormal sound which can easily be heard at initial inspiration or late expiration during breathing. It indicates the narrowing or collapse of airways.

Bronchovesicular Breath Sounds Characteristics

Bronchovesicular breath sounds are the normal breath sounds which produce during breathing. These sounds can be easily heard in between 1st and 2nd intercoastal spaces anteriorly or posteriorly in between scapulae. The bronchial breath sounds are produced when there is full inspiratory phase and short or soft expiratory phase. Bronchovesicular breath sounds are softer as compared to bronchial breath sounds. Bronchovesicular breath sounds have tubular quality. These breath sounds are equal during expiration and inspiration. The difference in pitch and intensity of sound can be observed only in expiration phase.

Normal Vesicular Breath Sounds

Vesicular breath sounds are normal during breathing. These sounds can be observed at the thorax region. The pitch of vesicular breath sounds is low and soft. We can say it is a blowing or rustling sound produced throughout inspiration and continue until expiration. After that it fades away slowly to almost one third of way during expiration. In a lung, filled with air, vesicular breath sounds can be easily heard throughout lung fields. Usually these sounds can be heard at periphery of lung field. These sounds are produced due to attenuation of breath sounds produced in bronchi instead of inhalation of air inside airway or alveoli.
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Hyperphagia Meaning, Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Hyperphagia is a condition which means excessive hunger. Hyper means increased and phagia is a suffix used for hunger. So hyperphagia means excessive hunger which is uncontrollable. Patient feels hunger most of the time and eating anything couldn't help him for more than a specific time period. The craving for food increases and patient feels helpless without eating. It is considered an emotional and mental health issue because it is related to the activities of brain. This is an abnormal increase in hunger.

Increased hunger is normal after a workout or a walk or any hard physical activity but feeling hunger all the time is not normal. The part of brain named hypothalamus when get damaged or does not function properly, then hyperphagia may occur because hypothalamus is responsible for controlling hunger. It increases hunger in an abnormal way that people start eating without biting or chewing food. This is not good for health of patient. It can affect both male and female. Hyperphagia may occur for a longer time duration or may occur after regular intervals. It depends upon the condition of hypothalamus. Overeating or unhealthy eating due to hyperphagia may cause obesity and patient may become over weight.

Hyperphagia Meaning, Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Hyperphagia Symptoms

The following symptoms are the common symptoms of hyperphagia:

  • Patient may eat without any limit and can eat everything whether he or she likes it or not. 
  • Patient desire about having fatty foods instead of healthy one. 
  • Patient always feel starved and look for something to eat. 
  • Disorder in eating manner can lead to abnormal hunger and patient does not feel satisfied even after eating. 
  • Patient feels severe nervousness due to hyperphagia. 
  • But during eating, person does not feel nervousness and feels less stress.
  • Anxiety disorder. 
  • Due to over eating, the level of cholesterol may increase abnormally. 

Hyperphagia Causes

Hyperphagia is related to the abnormality in hypothalamus. So various conditions related to abnormal functioning of hypothalamus may cause hyperphagia. Other than this hyperthyroidism is also responsible for causing hyperphagia. As in hyperthyroidism, the thyroid gland increases in size and increases metabolic activities as a result the patient feels hunger.

Hypoglycemia is another factor which is also considered a cause behind hyperphagia. In hypoglycemia, the glycemic level of blood become low and patient feels down and hungry. So increased starvation leads to abnormal and excessive eating. Sometimes it is secondary to medications like cyproheptadine and corticosteroids. Antidepressants also increase hunger.

Hyperphagia Treatment

The treatment totally depends upon the underlying cause of hyperphagia. If hyperphagia occurs due to some medications, then doctor may discontinue those medications. If the causative medicine is necessary for patient, than doctor will advise a low calorie diet plan for patient. Therapy is considered a most effective way of treating mental or emotional health issue i.e. hyperphagia. Psychological counseling is preferred in order to guide patient about controlling hunger. Patient is trained how to cope with his increased hunger.

Other than this, some guidelines are also given to patient about maintaining their blood sugar level.
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Hypoperfusion Definition, Shock, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Hypoperfusion is a condition which describes inappropriate or decreased blood flow within an organ. Hypoperfusion may occur due to many reasons. Perfusion is basically defined as flow of fluid via circulatory system or lymphatic system within an organ or a tissue. Preferably blood is supplied to the organs or tissues termed as perfusion. Perfusion is a French word which means pouring over or through. So hypoperfusion can be easily understood now i.e. decreased blood flow or blood supply in an organ or a tissue. Hypoperfusion have some specific symptoms associated with it and also various causes are reported behind hypoperfusion.

Hypoperfusion Symptoms

The symptoms of hypoperfusion resemble with symptoms of low blood pressure. The most common of them are as follows.

  • Patient may feel his hands and feet getting cold due to hypoperfusion. Limbs may become clammy. 
  • Cyanosis may occur due to decreased blood supply. In cyanosis, the color of skin turns blue tinged or pale. 
  • Breathing rate may increase and this is known as tachypnea. 
  • Patient may feel weakness and the pulse rate become fast. This condition is termed as tachycardia. 
  • The most common symptom is low blood pressure which is also the main reason behind hypoperfusion i.e. decreased perfusion. 

Hypoperfusion Definition, Shock, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Hypoperfusion Causes

There are various causes behind hypoperfusion. Some of the important one are as follows:

Hypoperfusion may commonly occur due to hypovolemic shock. Hypovolemic shock is the commonest type of shock which occurs due to decreased blood pressure or decreased volume of blood circulating in system.

The primary cause behind hypoperfusion is haemorrhage. In haemorrhage, the excessive blood loss may lead to decreased blood pressure and Ultimately hypoperfusion. Loss of fluid from body is another cause.

Other than these conditions, vomiting and diarrhea are also responsible for causing hypoperfusion. These are covered common causes in case of children.

Hypoperfusion Treatment

Hypoperfusion can be treated in many ways depending upon the reason behind it. If shock is the cause of hypoperfusion, then treatment will include all the medications of shock. Because treating shock will ultimately treat hypoperfusion. Treatment is also selected on the basis of severity of hypoperfusion. The preferred treatment in case of severe hypoperfusion is transfusion of blood and electrolytes. Usually in minor cases it is treated with fluids i.e. saline solution. Same treatment is offered if haemorrhage is the underlying cause. In case of Children,  ORS is recommended because of excessive fluid loss in diarrhea and vomiting.

Hypoperfusion Shock

Hypoperfusion is a condition in which there is decreased blood perfusion within an organ. It may occur due to many reasons. But hypoperfusion is considered a main cause behind shock. Shock is a condition in which inadequate amount of oxygen and nutrients is supplied to the organs or tissues of body. So when there will be inappropriate supply of blood or fluids to the organs and tissues, less oxygen and nutrients will be supplied. It will ultimately lead to shock and finally death of the organ and its tissues. Due to shock, the whole system may collapse.

Renal Hypoperfusion

Renal hypoperfusion is considered common now a days. In kidney, hypoperfusion may occur due to pre renal acute kidney injury. Due to this renal injury, there will be less blood supply to kidney and less perfusion, leading to shock and Ultimately loss of kidney function. But there will be nothing wrong with kidney itself.

Cerebral Hypoperfusion

Hypoperfusion in cerebral hemisphere of brain may lead to cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia is a condition in which there is decreased blood supply to brain leading to less oxygen consumption during metabolic activities of brain. Less oxygen supply will lead to ischemia and ultimately loss of brain function and death of cerebral cells.
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Retinal Disparity Definition, Psychology, Example, Depth Perception

Retinal disparity is a pathological condition related to eyes. In this conditions, the patient is not able to see the same angle of a thing with both eyes. There is a difference in the vision of both eyes. Basically retinal disparity is a space between both the eyes which create wrong perception about depth of an object. Both eyes converge on the same object but the object's image obtained is not same in both eyes. The object's angle is different in both eyes due to retinal disparity. It is also known as binocular cue. It is called binocular instead of monocular because both eyes are involved.

Retinal Disparity Psychology

The psychology behind retinal disparity is not simple but a bit difficult to understand. Basically in retinal disparity, the brain tries to connect both the images obtained from both right and left sided eye. A seamless view is obtained after merging both images. In psychological point of view, retinal disparity is a condition in which there is difference in angle of images obtained in both eyes. This condition is important for depth perception. Retinal disparity is closely related to brain and is sometimes considered a psychological issue instead of visual issue.

Retinal Disparity Definition, Psychology, Example, Depth Perception

Retinal Disparity Example

A simplest example which can explain retinal disparity is discussed below:

A person is asked to sit on a chair and a box is placed in front of him. Person is asked to look at the box placed straight. Both of his eyes will capture the image which will differ from each other. The box will be straight on looking with left sided eye and the same box will be at a specific angle (not straight) on looking with right sided eye. When brain merges both the images, then person can easily see 2 sides of the box.

Retinal Disparity depth Perception

Depth perception is the ability of our vision to perceive different angles (three different angles) of an object. Depth perception is also important to get an estimation about how far the object is placed. Depth perception is perfect if binocular cue is involved. Monocular cue does not create exact perception about an object. The depth perception is impaired in monocular cue. The perfect example of impaired depth perception is a blind man from one eye have impaired depth perception. But the depth perception is still functional if single eye is involved i.e. monocular cue.

Retinal Disparity and Convergence

Convergence is the movement of eyes towards inside. Whenever a person tries to focus on an object the eyes move inward to converge an object. The eyes of person look striaght whenever an object is placed far from him. But the eyes converge and moves inward when the object is placed near person. Convergence is important in retinal disparity. The apparent position of an object differs in both eyes in retinal disparity. Convergence enables the person to estimate about the distance at which an object is placed and retinal disparity gives information about the depth and size of an object.
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Nephroureterectomy Definition, Steps, Recovery, Indications, Complications

Nephroureterectomy as the name indicates is the surgery related to kidney. It is an invasive surgical procedure which is performed to remove ureter, bladder cuff, kidney and renal pelvis of patient. This surgery is performed in patient with transitional cell cancer.  Renal pelvis, ureter, bladder and kidney can also be removed with an open procedure but nephroureterectomy is recommended over open procedure. It has following benefits.

  • Recovery time is short in nephroureterectomy. 
  • Hospital stay is reduced and heals faster. 
  • Patient returns to his routine life very quickly. 
  • Patient feels less pain in nephroureterectomy. 
  • Nephroureterectomy leaves no scars or less scarring with small sized incisions. 

Nephroureterectomy Definition, Steps, Recovery, Indications, Complications

Nephroureterectomy Steps

There are some steps regarding pre-procedure, during procedure and after procedure. Before procedure, patient is asked to take liquid diet from previous night. Patient is also asked to stop taking any kind of medications before surgery. During surgery, anesthesia is given to the patient. A small incision is made and a camera is inserted inside the body through incision. The organs to be removed are separated from the surrounding nerves and then removed via that incision. After procedure, the patient is moved to the recovery room and then monitored for the side effects.

Nephroureterectomy Recovery

Nephroureterectomy is considered preferable instead of open procedure because of it's fastest recovery rate. The patient gets recover fast and start responding to the regular activities. The recovery time is shorter. Patient return to normal activities within days. After discharge from hospital, the patient is asked to avoid weight lifting and other activities for at least 2 weeks. And in some cases it may extend up to six weeks. Patient is asked to walk and do exercise for faster response. Most of the patients get completely recover within 4 weeks and can join their work again with same passion.

Nephroureterectomy Indications

Nephroureterectomy is performed basically for the cancer treatment. The cancer spreading in the renal pelvis, bladder, kidney and ureter. This procedure is performed to remove organs containing transitional cancer cells. The organs like kidney, ureter and bladder are covered with a lining of transitional epithelial cells. Nephroureterectomy is performed to remove this epithelial lining of transitional cancer cells from organs and it is also performed for upper urinary tract infection. These two conditions require nephroureterectomy because it is localized and requires little time for surgery. It is recommended because of it's fast recovery process after surgery and no scarring.

Nephroureterectomy Complications

Where there are various benefits of this surgery over open surgical procedure, there are some risks and complications also associated with this. As an incision is made to remove the organs from body. After surgery, the incision may turn in to a wound and may cause infection causing late recovery. So proper care is required for the incisional region. During surgery, the surrounding organs may become damage due to the incision. So a professional surgeon is required for the surgery. Last but not least, patient may develop incisional hernia because of negligence about the care of incision.
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