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Transcortical Motor Aphasia Symptoms, Causes, Speech Therapy, Treatment

Commissural dysphasia and white motor dysphasia are the other names of transcortical motor aphasia. It is a speech disorder which occurs due to damage in anterior superior frontal lobe. It specifically occurs in language control center of hemisphere (frontal lobe). Usually left hemisphere of brain is involved in controlling language center. In this disease, patient can't speak openly I.e. there is reduced speech output.

It is difficult for patient to maintain his speech and initiation. Watershed region of brain is not involved in the direct harm of language production and comprehension center. Executive functions of language are affected if frontal lobe is damage.

Transcortical Motor Aphasia Symptoms



Transcortical motor aphasia is a speech disorder in which patient cant speak properly. He cannot even start a conversation and further maintain it. Executive functions of language are affected which mainly involve Grammer (Syntex) control, patient can't narrate a story or any thing he wants to and language response center is not properly activated. Other symptoms involve:

  • Patient find it hard to compose a sentence and elaborate it properly. 
  • Patient gets confused and cannot select right words during his speech. 
  • Starting a conversation is a hardest task for patient suffering from transcortical motor aphasia. 


Transcortical Motor Aphasia Symptoms, Causes, Speech Therapy, Treatment

Transcortical Motor Aphasia Causes


Transcortical motor aphasia occurs due to damage in the frontal lobe of brain. Frontal lobe specifically left hemisphere contains language control center. Usually damage in anterior superior frontal lobe is responsible for transcortical motor aphasia. This damage occurs due to cerebrovascular problem I.e. infarction. Prefrontal cortex is the part which involves ideation and initiation of verbal speech. So when damage occurs, it becomes difficult to initiate a conversation. Damage in anterior superior frontal lobe does not affect major language network, Broca's and Wernicke area and arcuate fasiculus. Only infarction is not the reason, damage can also occur due to stroke.

Transcortical Motor Aphasia Treatment


Treatment of transcortical motor aphasia involves speech therapy. Its treatment mainly focus on patients strong hearing conversation and skills of repetition and correcting the reduced speech output of patient. Treatment also covers maintenance of speech and initiation of speech including language. Participation approach to aphasia is a treatment  strategy which have greater success rates. In this treatment strategy, patient is asked to focus on his skills he required to talk with people. He is allowed to talk with people in real life situations like talking to nurse about anything he wants to.

Transcortical Motor Aphasia Speech Therapy


A speech and language pathologist is required for treating transcortical motor aphasia. In this therapy some pictures are provided to patient and ask him to elaborate every single thing or event happening in this picture. Pathologist also provide a vocabulary booklet so that he can easily choose words to start his speech. Other than pictures, pathologist also ask some questions related to current affairs, patients past life, general knowledge and about his experiences. He also ask patient about some cooking recipes like baking a cake and cookies. Repetitive questioning helps in improvement of patients speech.
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Navicular Stress Fracture Test, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Navicular stress fracture occurs in foot. It is the most common stress fracture which usually occurs in athletes. Athletes who do jumping and sprinting are at hit list. Navicular is the tasral bone present in foot ankle. It is rightly placed just above the heel bone. Navicular stress fracture results from repetitive strains and continuous use of navicular bone. Guys at gym due to wrong training or weight lifting at wrong angle may suffer from navicular stress fracture. The exact mechanism of injury is not known but it is considered that fracture occurs because of compression of navicular bone within other bones around it due to stress.


Navicular Stress Fracture Symptoms


As navicular bone is present in foot, so symptoms of navicular stress fracture are associated with it. Patient feels unbearable pain in mid foot area. The pain is localized. If patient does not stop exercising or sports, the pain may get worse. Upon applying weight on foot, pain may radiate along the arch of foot and then disappears on rest. Pain will start again as training resumes. Along with pain, patient also feel tenderness in foot if pressure is applied on the top of thumb I.e. N spot.

Navicular Stress Fracture Test, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Navicular Stress Fracture Causes


The following factors can cause navicular stress fracture.


  • If patient starts athletic activity at a very high level. He does not let his bones and muscles to relax, that's why stress increases and as a result fracture occurs.
  • Patient does not relax for sufficient time and body remains under stress so it leads to navicular stress fracture.
  • Biomechanical abnormality.
  • Relative osteopenia.
  • Wrong fitting of equipment.
  • Training under Non professional trainer
  • Due to weight lifting at wrong angle or wrong training is the common cause.
  • The exact mechanism of navicular stress fracture is not known yet.


Navicular Stress Fracture Treatment


There is poor blood supply in navicular bone, so treatment is difficult. A good blood supply is needed to heal it completely. Casting is preferred usually to treat stress fracture in navicular bone. Patient have to rest for atleast 6 weeks because even slow walking absorbs navicular bone. The success rate of casting is 85 to 90 percent. Other methods of treatment invovle use of bone stimulator. It helps a lot in bone healing but it does not effect healing time. Walk during casting is strictly prohibited because even a little walk will increase healing time up to 25 percent.

Navicular Stress Fracture Test


At initial stage, X rays may show nothing but Magnetic resonance imaging or bone scan will clearly show fracture at navicular bone. Navicular drop test is performed to assess fracture specifically in navicular bone. In this test, the height of navicular bone is checked while patient stand in front of physician. 1st height of navicular bone is checked at rest, and it is again checked after applying stress on both foot. So the difference in measurement is known as navicular drop. Greater than 10 mm is considered in excessive foot pronation.
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Double Red cell Donation Requirements, Side Effects, Recovery, Complications

Double red cell donation is the blood donation which only contains red blood cells with no plasma and platelets. Automation is the process which is used to donate this blood I.e. consist of only red blood cells. In this process, the recipient is provided with double the amount of red blood cells instead of whole blood donation. Red blood cells are the most needed components of blood in patient, so automation helps to transfer only red blood cells. People who have blood type O or people who have Rh negative factor in their blood are preferred to donate blood because their red blood cells are mostly required.


Double Red Blood Cell Requirements


A criteria have been set up to select the people who are willing to donate blood. The criteria is different for both males and females. Following are the requirements:

For Males

Donor should have weight atleast 130 pounds or 65 Kg. His height should be at least 5'1". Taller than this is preferred mostly.

For Females

Donor should have weight atleast 150 pounds or 75 kg. Height should be atleast 5'5". Women taller than this are preferred mostly.

The criteria is different for both genders because blood volume is not usually lower in females as compared to male.

Double Red cell Donation Requirements, Side Effects, Recovery, Complications

Double Red Cell Donation Side effects


Double red cell donation is a beneficial process and automation is the best method of specifically red blood cell donation. But it may have some side effects or we can say some risks. Patient may feel irritation at the site of infusion. Itching occurs due to allergic reaction to iodine present in blood. Bruising or hematoma can occur at the site. Patient feels pain and nerve damage at the site of infusion. Because of blood cells acceptance, patient feels vomiting, nausea, increased pulse rate and cardiac arrest.

Double Red Cell Donation Recovery


Patient recovery time varies from case to case. When blood is transferred to the patient, his body starts generating blood to compensate the list amount of blood. Plasma starts recovering in a quick way in almost 24 hours. Patient is asked to stay calm and does not perform any strenuous exercise until all the blood plasma normalizes. Platelets will restore but takes time of about 72 hours. This is considered the standard time in which blood recovers properly. But symptoms will subside according to the patient's body ability.

Double Red Cell Donation Complications


Double red cell donation may cause different blood complications. Sometimes patient's immune system does not accept new blood cells and acts against them. So infection occurs Inside body and as a result patient may die. Cardiac arrest can occur due to non acceptance of new red blood cells. Patient who is donating blood feels nausea, vomiting and light headedness. He feels weakness in his limbs and eyes got blur. So both of the person I.e. the one who is receiving blood and other one who is donating blood have to face complications and various side effects.
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