Blog Archive


Ashy Dermatosis Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

It is also called as a erthma dyschromicum perstans (EDP). It is a rare dermatosis. It is benign skin condition which acquires high pigmentation disorder and characterized by visualized bluish grey color macules of the lesions. These are round , oval irregular patches that are symmetrically distributed on the surface of face, neck and upper trunk and upper limbs of healthy individuals. It may affect any region of the body. Most commonly it affects the dark skin patients specially latin Americans and Indian.


Dermatosis include dermis,epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. It starts from trunk and then involve face and after that spread to extremities. Early lesions are reddish in color with raised borders and some how elevated. Sometimes it mostly considered as lichen variants. They mostly have a sequential distribution but in some cases they show unilateral pattern. Sometimes lichen planus may cause hyper pigmentation. It is basically cell mediated immune reaction to antigen that is located on basal and epidermal keratinocytes. It is slow progressive. It occurs at any age. They mostly appears frequently at young adult age.This condition does not typically treated in adults, but can be treated in children easily. They occur at equal frequency in both male and female.

Ashy Dermatosis Pictures

Ashy Dermatosis Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Ashy Dermatosis Symptoms


Initial condition is slowly increasing of macules with vary grey shade in body region. They start from trunk, involve face and then spread to extremity. Presence of bluish Grey macules and absence of erythmatous raised borders determine ashy dermatosis. They are also related to other inflammatory diseases. Abnormality in cell mediated immunity plays a major role in pathogenesis involvement of cell adhesion and activation molecules cause ashy dermatosis. Initially they appear as a slightly red margins. Itching in effected area starts after 1 week and persist for several week. It includes fever, malaise, headache, pruritis, mild transet anemia and leukopenia may develop.

Ashy Dermatosis Causes


It may occur Due to infections and infestations like hepatitis C virus infection, HIV infection and whipworm infection. Also due to Ingestion of ammonium nitrate and barium sulfate. Immunological response due to viral or worm infection cause hyper pigmentation. Study also revealed that weaker immune response also leads to ashy dermatosis. Major cause is degeneration of basal cells in epidermis leading to pigmentation, accumulation of melanocytes in dermis layer and infiltrated lymphocytes and histiocytes in dermis layer. Absence of basal cells and infiltrates cause hyper pigmentation. Lichen planus pigmentation, drug related dermatosis and occupational dermatosis with hyper pigmentation are also the common reason of ashy dermatosis.

Ashy Dermatosis Treatment


Topical agents like cosmetics and camouflage cream helps in decrease the appearance of lesions to  surroundings. Narrow band ultraviolet therapy is recommended for single use. Tacrolimus ointment is applied twice a day to affected areas, improvement shown after 3 weeks.

Systemic agents like clofazimine not only used in cosmetics but also producing a uniform colouring of skin that masks the pigmented area . Dapsone is used for good results. It is used as antibiotic and anti inflammatory. Vitamin A capsules are also prescribed and show good results, but patients mostly unable to follow the dose.

Anti Histamine, corticosteroids are used in ashy dermatosis.
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Cricopharyngeal Achalasia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

The upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) is a musculoskeletal valve made up of cricopharyngeus muscle. The UES function  is to provide pathway for the passage of components between the pharynx and the esophagus, it normally relax at the process of swallowing for allowing the passage of food bolus. It keeps air from entering the esophagus, allows swallowed material to pass into the esophagus and prevents the esophageal contents into the pharynx. It occurs mostly due to neurological disease and diagnosed late.

Achalasia is motor disorder of the esophagus. Nerve cells that is located between the esophageal muscle layers are damage or degenerate, resulting in complete loss of esophageal contractions and failure of lower esophageal sphincter relaxation.When the lower and upper esophageal sphincter muscle fails to relax,  it causes complete resistance and destruction in esophagogastric junction in addition, loss of effective coordination and propulsion. it will lead to dysphagia. The defective opening of UES may also cause swallowing problems and esophageal muscle weakness. . Long term dysphagia may also be the reason of cricopharyngeal achalasia. Patient suffering from this disorder are usually above 40 years of age and most commonly above 60. Clinical study found that achalasia mostly caused by solid food dysphagia.


Cricopharyngeal Achalasia Symptoms


Food is chewed but it goes round and round, and does not go down. feeling of bolus in throat, chocking, aspiration of food, weight loss may also occur. Feeling of food sticking in the throat or chest. Coughing is also a response due to different stimuli originating in the lungs, pharynx and larynx. Occurring of cough before and after swallowing, this symptom strongly diagnose the swallowing problem. Chest discomfort or pain is also seen in some patient. Severity of symptoms may vary depending upon the narrowing of sphincter, motor dysfunction, and food variety. Patients may complain sticking of food in case of liquids and solid.

Cricopharyngeal Achalasia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Cricopharyngeal Achalasia Causes


Cricopharyngeal spasm are caused by neurological conditions or due to damaging nerves causing stroke e.t.c. it can also be caused by muscular spasm of cricopharyngeus muscle or muscle dysfunction. This dysfunction or muscular spasm leads to dysphagia or cause difficulty in swallowing. Cricopharyngeus achalasia can also be caused by muscle fiber necrosis, abnormal fiber structure, basophilic fibers and fibrosis process. Protective cough is also the cause of cricopharyngeus achalasia. Problem may fall in the era of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) as major factor, as compared to swallowing disorder. Muscle disorder, sphincter dysfunction and spastic disorder are also the cause of Cricopharyngeus achalasia.

Cricopharyngeal Achalasia Treatment


Treatment of cricopharyngeal achalasia include muscle relaxants and also includes botilium toxin injection that injects in cricopharngeal muscle which is used as a trial of therapy, but the effect of botilium toxin injection is for short term relief. patients undergo repeated doses to maintain therapeutic effect. Dietary modification results in reducing aspiration. Surgical treatments are performed for improving pharyngeal clearance and aspiration purpose. Anticholinergic drugs have been associated with decrease in peristalsis.calcium channel blockers may also given for reducing lower esophageal sphincter pressure.Swallowing therapy is recommended for neurogenic dysphagia. Dilator system is used to increase the diameter of swallowing channel.
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Bimaxillary Protrusion Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Braces, Surgery

Bialveolar protrusion is another name of bimaxillary protrusion. It is a condition in which the mandible and maxillary teeth are forward than its base. The base of incisors leads to soft tissue procumbent. It most commonly occur in Africans and commonly affects Arabs and Asians and thirdly it occurs in white people. This condition may be severe enough that it can affect speech. It also imparts negative effects on social life of a person and may cause appearance issues with low self-esteem. Mostly people seek the most effective treatment and surgery is the only solution to this problem.


Bimaxillary Protrusion Symptoms


Bimaxillary protrusion is the dental condition in which the maxilla and mandible incisors are forward from the base line. Teeth from both the jaw lines are forward and can be seen clearly without opening mouth. It does not impart any good effect on the physical appearance of patient. Patient feel hesitation in socializing around with people. Patient with bimaxillary protrusion may face problems while speaking. The words may not come out properly. Patient can’t talk with people confidently. This condition does not cause any painful symptom but patient may face problems while eating and chewing food properly.

Bimaxillary Protrusion Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Braces, Surgery

Bimaxillary Protrusion Causes


Bimaxillary protrusion may occur due to some skeletal problems which are genetic. It may be inherited in children from parents. The other reasons may include the excessive tongue thrush to the base line of both maxillary and mandible jaw line. This tongue thrush leads to abnormal growth of teeth. The incisors start growing in a forward direction. Sometimes incisors erupt naturally in a forward direction. Another main reason is tooth size discrepancy. There may be some pathological conditions which leads to bimaxillary protrusion or Bialveolar protrusion. The severity of bimaxillary protrusion can be judged on the basis of angle of incisors.

Bimaxillary Protrusion Treatment


This condition usually occur in elder patients and it can be treated by extracting first four premolars.  After that the anterior teeth are retrieved. This may reduce the lip size and convexity of face is also reduced. It also depends upon the types of braces used for the alignment of incisors. Instead of extraction of premolars, some high quality braces i.e. H4 braces may be used. These are the Damon braces. The successful treatment depends upon the symptoms of patient which he describe and physician have to design his treatment according to those symptoms.

Bimaxillary Protrusion Braces


Braces are of great help in treatment of bimaxillary protrusion. There are types of braces like the traditional one and the latest one. In case of traditional braces, the 1st 4 premolars are taken out. And this help in treatment of bimaxillary protrusion. But taking out of teeth causes more harm than good. The latest high quality braces i.e. H4 Damon braces are currently used for the alignment of teeth without extraction of the 1st 4 teeth. Availability of braces have made the treatment easy for patients and physicians. Now patients does not have to go through painful extraction process.
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Peribronchial Cuffing Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Peribronchial cuffing is also known as thickening of bronchial wall or Peribronchial thickening. It is a radiological finding which diagnose the fluid buildup or mucous buildup in the air passages in lungs. This fluid buildup causes patches of atelectasis which are localized in nature. Atelectasis is the lung collapse. Due to mucous buildup and atelectasis the area around bronchus looks prominent in x-ray report. This condition looks like a donut which is thinner from inside containing air and thicker from outside.

It is a diagnostic parameter of various pathological conditions. Some of the pathological conditions are bronchiolitis, acute bronchitis, congestive heart failure, cystic fibrosis and many more. Basically Peribronchial cuffing is a sign or we can say a symptom of various conditions. It is clear and visible in the radiological report. The white part in x-ray shows the fluid buildup in the chest region within ribs. All the pathological conditions, are related to the respiration of patient.


In Peribronchial cuffing, the bronchioles get damaged and are not able to supply oxygen to lungs properly. and as a result, patient face difficulty in breathing. The walls of bronchioles become dilated and scattered. This condition is the severity of pathological conditions.

Peribronchial Cuffing Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Peribronchial Cuffing Symptoms


Talking about the symptoms of Peribronchial cuffing, it itself is a symptom of various pathological conditions. It is the buildup of fluid in the chest cavity right within the ribs and the bronchioles swell up. The main symptoms include productive cough. Its symptoms may appear later. After the onset, symptoms start appearing gradually not suddenly. Sometimes the cough becomes so severe that patient spit sputum with every cough. The cough may be persistent and most commonly occurs in morning time and evening time. On radiological report, the bronchioles are seen swollen with fluid accumulated in them.

Peribronchial Cuffing Causes


Peribronchial cuffing may occur as a main sign of various respiratory and chest diseases. These diseases include lung cancer, human metapneumovirus, cystic fibrosis, bronchiolitis, smoke inhalation, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Broncho pulmonary dysplasia, pneumonia, Kawasaki disease, congestive heart failure, diffuse parenchymal lung disease, pulmonary edema and last but not least extreme exertion through physical exercise. The common cause include reoccurring of respiratory infections. This may weaken the defense system of body. Infections may in turn occur due to birth defects, structure and function of airways, blocked airways and immune system problems. It may also occur due to inhalation of any toxic material.

Peribronchial Cuffing Treatment


Peribronchial cuffing is a sign of many pathological conditions. It may appear its symptoms later or we can say its appearance shows the severity of many pathological conditions. There is not any special treatment for this condition. It can only be treated via treating the underlying cause. If there is any infection behind this condition then antibiotics will work. Using cough suppressants as a treatment of cough may make the condition worse. So use of cough suppressants should be avoided. If the volume of mucous is greater, then it has to be drained several times a day via postural drainage.
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Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Life Expectancy, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency is a genetic problem in which band of alpha 1 protein is missing in the serum. It is a common disease which occur genetically and usually it is undiagnosed. Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency is the predisposing factor of liver and lung diseases. it is estimated that it Is commonly inherited in white people. Almost 1 to 5 percent of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will definitely have alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency. Rarely emphysema is observed in the patients with alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency. As the time passes and as the patient becomes aged, the chances of liver diseases increases.


Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Life Expectancy


The disease and death rates of this disease are not specific. It always depends on the complications patient face due to alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency. It is not necessary that every patient develop cirrhosis and symptomatic emphysema. So the chances of mortality varies from patient to patient. It is estimated that the life expectancy is increased in case of symptomatic patients. The patients who does not experience symptoms have less chances of diagnosis and it may prove fatal for patient. The median time observed between the diagnosis and observation of symptoms is estimated about 8 years.

Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Causes


Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency is the genetic disease. It is not a rare disease but still uncommon. It is still under study. It usually inherited in white people. Basically alpha 1 antitrypsin molecule is responsible for inhibition of various neutrophil derived proteases. Hepatocytes are involved in the formation of alpha 1 antitrypsin molecule. After formation, this molecule diffuses into blood and start acting against proteases. Its main function is to inactivate neutrophil elastase which in turn regulates phagocytosis. It is released during normal phagocytosis process.

Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Symptoms


It is an uncommon genetic disease which is responsible for various other lung and liver diseases. .So, the symptoms are according to the complications patient facing. Usually patient develops symptomatic emphysema which shows some characteristic signs like airflow obstruction, respiratory work and hyperinflation. The increased load on lungs causes tachypnea, scalene and intercostal muscle retraction. Airway obstruction shows symptoms like wheezing, pursed lip breathing and pulsus paradoxus. Likewise hyperinflation show symptoms like decreased breathe sound intensity, distant heart sounds, barrel chest and increased percussion note. Patients having emphysema does not show any abnormal findings upon examination.

Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treatment


The complications of alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency includes liver and lung diseases. so the treatment plans include medical care of lungs and liver diseases. The medications are selected according to the disease and some precautions also helps to reduce symptoms. Avoiding smoking and curing asthma and respiratory infections helps to cover up this disease. Emphysema requires treatment, if it is left untreated, then it may prove fatal for patient. There are some points regarding treatment which should be guided to patient.
  • Ask about smoking habits.
  • Arrange follow up
  • Advice about health effects.
  • Assist patient to replace nicotine.

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Jarcho Levin Syndrome Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Life Expectancy

Jarcho and Levin are the names of two different scientists i.e. Saul Jarcho and Paul m. Levin. They described this syndrome and named if after their names. This syndrome is basically the birth defect of skeleton. It mainly involves the deformity of ribs and spine. Due to abnormal formation of ribs, patient may face problem during breathing. Usually babies who are born with Jarcho Levin syndrome, have limited movement of neck because of short length of neck. The stature is short and baby face difficulty in breathing. Due to shorter chest, it looks like crab sitting on body.

Jarcho Levin Syndrome Pictures

Jarcho Levin Syndrome Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Life Expectancy

Jarcho Levin Syndrome Symptoms


Jarcho Levin syndrome is the bone deformity and it mainly involves ribs and vertebrae. The ribs are shorter in size and more looks like crab. Other symptoms include malformation of vertebral column like fused bones. Due to malformation of spinal bones, the spine may be curved outward i.e. kyphosis and if curved inward i.e. lordosis and in side ways i.e. scoliosis. These abnormal spinal bones makes the torso small. The length of neck is small and patient can move his neck in a limited direction. These defects may also affect central nervous system, reproductive system and genitals.


Jarcho Levin Syndrome Causes


Jarcho Levin syndrome is a genetic disease which occurs due to problem in the genetic makeup of infant. The vertebral bones are deformed by birth. The Jarcho Levin syndrome appears in two main types i.e. spondylocostal dysostosis type 1 and spondylocostal dysostosis type 2. In type 2, not all the vertebral bones are involved. The genes involved in the Jarcho Levin syndrome are MESP2, GDF6, LFNG and DLL3. The specific points on these genes where mutation occurs is also defined i.e. 15q26.1, 8q22.1, 7p22 and 19q13 respectively. Gene mutation is the only cause behind Jarcho Levin syndrome.

Jarcho Levin Syndrome Treatment


Jarcho Levin syndrome is the genetic deformity of bones. Babies born with smaller and malformed chest face problems in breathing. And due this problem may develop respiratory infections like pneumonia. When baby grows, it becomes difficult for him to breathe properly with small sized chest. And baby may not survive more than 2 years. So the treatment involves surgical correction and management to avoid respiratory problems. It is a fatal condition because the bones does not grow with age and does not support the physiology of body. The survival rate is low even after surgical correction.

Jarcho Levin Syndrome Life Expectancy


It is a fatal condition because as the baby grows, the deformed bones does not grow and cause problems in breathing. Usually babies with Jarcho Levin syndrome does not survive more than 2 years (upper limit). There are various cases reported regarding Jarcho Levin syndrome. But patients reported with Jarcho Levin syndrome also explained about the complications they are facing side by side. The survival rate is very low. Even after surgical correction of malformed bones, babies does not usually survive. Mostly deformity in ribs and spinal bones are proved fatal for babies.
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Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Peripheral giant cell granuloma is a pathological condition which involves oral cavity. It appears as an overgrown tissue. The main reasons behind this abnormal growth may be irritation or trauma. Basically peripheral giant tissue granuloma involves gingival part of oral cavity, so it may be associated with other diseases as well. These diseases may be peripheral ossifying fibroma and pyogenic granuloma. This granuloma has microscopic appearance and it is considered to be involving soft tissues.


Due to involvement of soft tissues, it is sometimes considered as central giant cell granuloma. The color of this peripheral giant cell carcinoma ranges from red to bluish purple. As compare to pyogenic granuloma, peripheral giant cell granuloma is more blue in color. This granuloma may be sessile and is smaller in size. Its size is usually less than 2 cm. peripheral giant cell carcinoma mostly occur in people around 50 to 60 years of age.

It only involves the gingival part of mouth but rarely it does involves edentulous alveolar ridge. Mandible jaw is more commonly seen with peripheral giant cell granuloma as compare to maxilla jaw line. It may occur on both anterior and posterior areas or on either side.

Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma Pictures

Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma Causes


The cause behind peripheral giant cell granuloma is still not known. There are two main causes reported behind it. the 1st main cause is local irritation. It may occur due to continuous irritation on the gums. This irritation may be due to calculus or formation of dental plaque. Irritation may occur due to periodontal diseases, bad or poor dental restorations and the inappropriate fitting of dental extractions. All these conditions may lead to the local irritation and this irritation leads to the formation of lesion and as a result, peripheral giant cell granuloma occurs.

Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma Symptoms


The granuloma involves the gingival region of oral cavity. It usually occur on the mandible jaw instead of maxilla jaw line. The lesion is smaller in size usually less than 2cm. the color of peripheral giant cell granuloma is dusky purple. It is smooth surfaced and sessile. This granuloma looks like dome shaped papules or nodules. The granuloma may grow larger in size and exceed 5 cm of size. The granuloma involves alveolar mucosa. According to an estimation, there are 70 percent cases with peripheral giant cell granuloma in the anterior side. Commonly premolar, canine and incisor region is involved.

Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma Treatment


Peripheral giant cell granuloma involves the oral cavity which is a complicated area to treat surgically. Great care is needed. There is a surgical way to remove these peripheral giant cell granuloma lesions. There may be complications during surgery if there is any teeth adjacent to lesion. It is more difficult to treat granuloma lesion at the anterior side. Teeth are cleared side by side with scaling process and root planning. As these processes helps in reducing the irritation. The reoccurrence rate of peripheral giant cell granuloma is only 10 percent.
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Molluscoid Pseudotumors Definition, Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Molluscoid pseudotumors are the soft tissue regeneration in ehlers danlos syndrome. Ehlers danlos syndrome is the syndrome of connective tissues of body. Mulluscoid pseudotumors are the tumors which are bluish grey in color and usually appear on the areas which are traumatized like elbows and knees. These are the nodules which are spongy in nature and leave a scar on the pressure points. The scars it leaves on the knees and elbows are thin and wide and papyraceous in nature that's why these are also known as cigarette paper scars.


Basically mulluscoid pseudotumors are the indication of a syndrome named ehlers danlos syndrome. These are the localized skin lesions. In ehlers danlos syndrome the elastin and collagen of skin is not present. It is a skin disease. According to the name of disease, mulluscoid is derived from a phylum of invertebrates i.e. phylum molluscs and pseudotumors mean half tumor in nature. These are localized in nature. It usually occur on for arm, tendo-achilles and shin because these areas are easily traumatized. In molluscoid pseudotumors, the subcutaneous fat is herniated through atropic dermal scars. This is the rare sign of ehlers danlos syndrome and it only occur in this specific syndrome.

Molluscoid pseudotumors Pictures


Molluscoid Pseudotumors Definition, Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Molluscoid pseudotumors Symptoms


Molluscoid pseudotumors are the sign of ehlers danlos syndrome. These are the localized lesions. These are the nodules which are spongy in nature. The color of these lesions is bluish grey. These are basically the scars which occur as a result of spongy nodules. These scars are thin and papyraceous and wide in nature that's why these may also be called cigarette paper scars. These are the main visible symptoms of mulluscoid pseudotumors. It includes the smooth skin. It usually occur on the pressure points of some specific regions. Those regions which are easily traumatized i.e. forearm, knees, elbows and shins etc.

Molluscoid pseudotumors Causes


Molluscoid pseudotumors are the calcified lesions which occur due to the calcification of the fat globules of skin. It is a sign of a disease named ehlers danlos syndrome. Ehlers danlos syndrome is the genetic disease of connective tissues of skin of body. Whenever any surgery is performed in the ehlers danlos syndrome, the point of lesion got calcified and it results in molluscoid pseudotumors. These usually occur on the areas of body which are easily traumatized. The most common sites are the elbow and knee, shin and forearm. Basically lesions on skin leads to formation of mulluscoid pseudotumors.

Molluscoid pseudotumors Treatment


Molluscoid pseudotumors are the sign of ehlers danlos syndrome. So treating ehlers danlos syndrome will ultimately treat molluscoid pseudotumors. There is not any proper treatment of ehlers danlos syndrome because it is a genetic syndrome, but the symptoms can be managed with some physical therapy and medications. The medications involve pain killers and the blood pressure control pills. In molluscoid pseudotumors, the blood vessels may get fragile and in that case, blood pressure should be maintained. Physical therapy helps a lot in strengthening up of muscles and tissues of skin.

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Triphalangeal Thumb Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Anemia

Triphalangeal thumb as the name indicates, is a condition in which the thumb have three phalanges instead of two. It is a congenital abnormality. It is the malformation of bone of thumb. The size of the extra phalangeal may be as small as a pebble or comparative to the non thumb digits size. The incidence of triphalangeal thumb is not known yet. It is observed in only 1 case out of every 25000 live births. It is estimated that in about two third cases of triphalangeal thumb, hereditary component is recorded as a cause. There may be many other malformations of thumb other than triphalangeal thumb.


Triphalangeal Thumb Symptoms


Apparently, triphalangeal thumb is different from normal thumb. The difference is wide and can easily be diagnosed. the length of thumb is longer than usual because of extra phalanges. The direction of triphalangeal thumb may be deviated to the radio ulnar plane. Thumb with three phalanges is not good in case of strength. Its appearance is more like a finger because of its length. it is also present in a plane of fingers that’s why it is usually mixed fingers. There is deficiency of thenar muscle and the length is additional.

Triphalangeal Thumb Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Anemia

Triphalangeal Thumb Causes


Triphalangeal thumb is the congenital malformation of thumb. So it is developed during the third to seventh week of embryonic development. It is also observed that the triphalangeal thumb is hereditary and it is transferred to the young ones as an autosomal dominant trait. It is bilateral and non opposable. It may also occur as a symptom or complication of a syndrome. In syndromes, it may be isolated. The syndromes include holt oram syndrome, diamond blackfan anemia, aase syndrome and townes brocks syndrome. The malformations other than triphalangeal thumb malformation may be syndactyly, radial polydactyly and claw like hand and foot.

Triphalangeal Thumb Treatment


As it is a congenital malformation, so it can only be treated with surgical procedure. The surgical procedure is performed to reduce the length of triphalangeal thumb. Reducing the length will lead to good and proper functioning of thumb. If necessary, the position of the thumb is also improved. Basically the purpose of surgery is to improve functioning of thumb but as a plus point, the triphalangeal thumb appearance is also improved. As there are no other symptoms associated with triphalangeal thumb, so no medications are prescribed to combat pain or any other symptom.

Triphalangeal Thumb Anemia


Talking about triphalangeal thumb anemia, it is termed as aase syndrome. Aase syndrome explains about anemia with triphalangeal thumb. It is a less frequent disorder. This syndrome shows various signs and symptoms at birth and main symptoms involve congenital hypoplastic anemia and triphalangeal thumb. In this syndrome the amount of bone marrow cells is decreased and ultimately red blood cells count falls leading to anemia. presence of both hypoplastic anemia and triphalangeal thumb at a time indicates the presence of aase syndrome in patient. The combination of these two conditions is the main sign of aase syndrome.
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Hypocomplementemia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

As the name indicates the condition, hypo means deficiency and complementemia is about complement system. Whenever there is deficiency or decreased amount of complement is observed, it is known as hypocomplementemia. In this condition, a part or component of complement is reduced in amount. This condition is associated with the immune complex diseases. Hypocomplementemia is an immunodeficiency condition which occurs due to sub-optimal functioning of complement system or absence of complement system.

There are redundancies in the immune system that is the reason various complement disorders are left undiagnosed. Only less than 10 percent are identified on time. There is a term secondary complement disorder, which occurs secondary to any other medical condition and does not occur due genetic cause. The mechanisms which may lead hypocomplementemia are as follows:


In case of c2, there are 5 mutations expected in the genes. The functions of immune system decreases and the opportunities of infection increases. Mostly mutations are responsible for deleting 28 DNA from genes.In case of c3, there are total 17 mutations expected. Mutation in c3 decreases the immune system’s ability and prevent the formation of c3 protein.Mutation in c4 is associated with systemic lupus erythematous, a protein involving in alzheimer’s disease and Abeta42.

Hypocomplementemia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Hypocomplementemia Symptoms


When there is deficiency or low level of any part or component of complement system, the following symptoms appear in general:
  • Patient may experience infection in lungs.
  • Auto immune disorders.
  • Anaphylactoid purpura.
  • Dermatomyositis
  • The most common one are joint problems.
  • The infections may show re-occurrence.
  • Angioedema.
  • Glomerulonephritis.
  • Vasculitis
  • Glomerulonephritis.

All these diseases and infections occur due to weak immune system. Missing part or component of complement system weakens the immune system and due to this, any kind of infection may occur and it becomes difficult to treat these diseases and infections.

Hypocomplementemia Causes


There are two main causes behind hypocomplementemia. It may be genetic or acquired. Most of the deficiencies of complement are autosomal recessive. Properidin deficiency show x linked inheritance. The MBL deficiency can be of both. In case of inherited hypocomplementemia, the c4 levels are low but c1 levels are normal and causes c1 inhibitor deficiency or hereditary angioedema. Due to properdin deficiency, Neisseria infections may occur. If the hypocomplementemia is acquired later in life, then it may occur in setting of infection of lining of heart, infections in bones and cryoglobunemia. Systemic lupus erythematous may occur due to low level of c3 and c4.

Hypocomplementemia Treatment


It is very important to manage this problem. To treat complement deficiency, immunosuppressive therapy is used which depends on the disease occurring. C1-INH concentrate is used in case to treat angioedema because angioedema occurs due to deficiency of C1-INH. Likewise pneumococcus and haemophilus are treated via immunization with the deficient complement. To treat the deficiency of C1-INH, epsilon aminocaproic acid is used. The side effects of intravascular thrombosis should be judged before starting this treatment. As mentioned above, the respective deficiencies are resolved with the concentrates and the symptoms are also get treated.
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Purple Glove Syndrome Definition, Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Purple glove syndrome is a skin disease. It is a rare condition which is commonly known as the rare complication of use of drug named phenytoin. It occurs due to the poor intravenous infiltration of the phenytoin. The exact pathophysiology is not known. Purple glove syndrome is a rarely occurring syndrome which is least understood yet. In this skin disease, the extremities become swollen. Patient feels pain and discomfort. It is a rare but serious pathological condition. Elder people are more prone to this purple glove syndrome.


Other than this, people taking a large amount of phenytoin may develop this syndrome readily. Phenytoin is a drug used in a CNS disease named epilepsy. So people taking treatment of epilepsy may develop purple glove syndrome readily. Though it is a rare complication but once it occurs, it may prove fatal for the patient. Purple glove syndrome may occur within 24 hours after the infusion of phenytoin. It will take about days to week to recover completely. Due to its symptoms, it can easily be mixed up with other diseases like cellulitis, abscess, erysipelas, lymphangitis and many other diseases. Not only on the basis of symptoms, but it's appearance also matters a lot.

Purple Glove Syndrome Images

Purple Glove Syndrome Definition, Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Purple Glove Syndrome Syndrome


It is a skin disease and can easily be seen on the surface. The redness is the initial symptom of purple glove syndrome. There may be peripheral edema and this peripheral edema basically cause redness. This syndrome appear in the form of blisters and patient feels pain on these blisters. The area of blisters may become discolored and it is the most prominent symptom of purple glove syndrome making it different from other diseases. Patient may feel no sensation on the region. There may be no pulse. Necrosis occurs on the ski surface due to itching on blisters.

Purple Glove Syndrome Causes


Intravenous phenytoin is the main cause behind purple glove syndrome appearance. Phenytoin is famous for its neurological side effects. It is a rare complication of phenytoin but it may prove fatal and can cause limbs amputation. The exact pathophysiology behind this is not known but the possible mechanisms may be

Vasculitis, chemical irritation to the agents named sodium hydroxide and propylene glycol, micro thrombus formation, vasoconstriction and leakage of phenytoin in the soft tissue nearby having edema. All these mechanisms may lead to the purple glove syndrome with excess amount of phenytoin on the blood stream.

Purple Glove Syndrome Treatment


As it is the complication of phenytoin so physician recommends to quit the use of phenytoin. Reducing or quiting the intake of phenytoin helps a lot in controlling purple glove syndrome. Other than this, heat packs are applied on the skin to relief pain. Other than intravenous phenytoin, oral phenytoin may also cause purple glove syndrome. Topical nitroglycerin is used on rash. Elevation and massage of soft tissue helps to relief symptoms. Another way to relief symptoms is blockage of brachial nerve plexus. In some cases, anticoagulants are also used but its effect is not known till now.
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Endoscopic Plantar Fasciotomy Procedure, Recovery Time, Success Rate, CPT Code

Endoscopic plantar fasciotomy EPF is a surgical procedure in which the plantar fascia is treated to release strain. The stress is chronic and require treatment on emergency note. Plantar fascia is a tendon or we can say ligament type band which runs along the bottom side of foot. When due to strain on this ligament, inflammation occurs. This causes pain in foot at a point where the arch and heel meet up. In this case, endoscopic plantar fasciotomy is performed to release this strain in plantar fascia. This surgery is the most effective surgery performed to release plantar fascia strain.


Endoscopic Plantar Fasciotomy Procedure


It is an outpatient procedure and hardly requires an hour to complete the surgery. Patient is first injected with the local anesthesia and then 1 or 2 small incisions are made. These incisions are almost half inch long. These may on either side, or on both sides. Via this incision, a small camera is passed inside the fascia. With the help of this camera, the inner view is made clear on a nearby monitor. Then the part of fascia which is near heel is cut off. Patient should not feel pain during this procedure but if patient feels pain, then surgeon should be informed.

Endoscopic Plantar Fasciotomy Procedure, Recovery Time, Success Rate, CPT Code

 

Endoscopic Plantar Fasciotomy Recovery Time


Endoscopic plantar fasciotomy EPF would take around 3 to 12 months to recover fully. As it is a minor surgery, and can be performed easily within an hour. As it consist of 1 or 2 small incisions so it can easily be recovered within 3 to 5 months. Patient have to follow some instructions to make the recovery process faster. The skin may heal easily but the ligament requires time to heal completely. If any kind of infection occurs, then the recovery time may delay further.

Endoscopic Plantar Fasciotomy Success Rate


Endoscopic plantar fasciotomy EPF is a simple process and is mostly used for the release of strain which was on plantar fascia. This is a successful process and the most effective one. The chances of successful endoscopic plantar fasciotomy EPF is about 93 percent. And the remaining 7 percent failure may be due to some complications. A survey report was on 83 patients and the feet which underwent surgery were 94. The successful surgeries were 93 to 95 percent. The remaining feet faced failure due to some complications. Patients recommend this surgery to other patients with the same condition.

Endoscopic Plantar Fasciotomy CPT Code


The fasciotomy of foot is performed on the plantar fascia endoscopically which is termed as endoscopic plantar fasciotomy EPF. The CPT code for this surgery is 29893. The enxensive plantar fasciotomy has further two codes which are also used for endoscopic plantar fasciotomy EPF. These extensive codes are 28060 and 28062. The former one is used for the partial procedure and later one is used for the radical procedure. The radical procedure involves the removal of one third or more part of fascia. These are the specific and billable codes for endoscopic plantar fasciotomy EPF.
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Odontogenic Myxoma Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Odontogenic myxoma is a dental condition in which the embryonic connective tissue is involved. Basically it is a tumor which is associated with the formation of tooth. Odontogenic is the word which describes the involvement of oral cavity and myxoma describes the involvement of mucous. Myxoma is a specific word which is used to describe myxoma tumor involving connective tissue. Odontogenic myxoma consist of tumor cells which are spindle shaped.

In this tumor, the collagen fibers are scattered all around and is distributed along loose mucoid material. The tumor cells of odontogenic myxoma does not have defined boundaries. These cells appear as multilocular radiolucencies. If odontogenic myxoma occurs in case of compact teeth and diagnosed in childhood then these tumor cells may appear as unilocular cysts. The septa which makes the multilocular cyst are thin and straight.


These septa forms a step ladder or tennis racket pattern. All this is observed under the light of microscope. In the diagnostic test reports, this tumor appear as a visible curved and coarse pattern. It resembles a soap bubble or honeycomb appearance. If only one or two straight septa are diagnosed during tests, then tumor is confirmed. The treatment can be started on the basis of this diagnosis.

Odontogenic Myxoma Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Odontogenic Myxoma Symptoms


Mostly people in between 10 and 50 years of age may develop odontogenic myxoma. Most commonly, this tumor occur in adults specifically the age range of 25 to 35 years. The mandible jaw is more affected as compare to maxilla jaw line. Odontogenic myxoma multilocular lesions occur usually at a specific site of jaw i.e. between pre molar and molar. The anterior portion of mouth usually have unilocular variety of small size. Patients experience swelling of the jaw line and there is no pain. The teeth may loosen or displacement may occur.

Odontogenic Myxoma Causes


It is a benign tumor which may occur without any specific reason. The exact reason behind this tumor is still unknown. These are basically the dead skin cells which are not replaced by the new ones. The embryonic connective tissue is involved in the odontogenic myxoma. It may be congenital and can be diagnosed in the early childhood. It becomes severe with the passage of time. It is not an easy task to control odontogenic myxoma. It readily spread in the nearby teeth and proliferate in to them. It may also occur due to poor hygienic conditions.

Odontogenic Myxoma Treatment


There are different treatment strategies for both multilocular and unilocular lesions. For unilocular lesions, curettage and enucleation is performed after chemical bone cautery. Multilocular lesions are treated seriously and more agressively because the reoccurrence chances are high i.e. 25 percent. The tumor part is resected with a generous portion of bone surrounding it. The tumor is gelatenous in nature, so it becomes difficult to remove tumor without the chances of re-occurrence. Other than this, some medications are also prescribed to cover up the infection and inflammation. The recovery time depends on the type of odontogenic myxoma.
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Piezogenic Papules Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

These are the skin colored small papules which are formed on the wrist and feet. These papules are soft on touch. These papules occur due to herniation of the fats under skin i.e. in the dermis layer of skin. The name piezogenic is derived from the papules which are formed under pressure. There is not any specific gender or age at which these papules occur. As these are the fat papules so these are common in person who are obese and have excessive fat around body. Piezogenic papules are also somehow associated with the connective tissues diseases of the body like ehlers danlos syndrome, excessive weight bearing exercises and flat feet.


The exact cause behind this is still unknown. These papules are the soft mass and can be touched without any pain. These papules are asymptomatic and does not show any severe kind of symptoms. Pain is the only symptoms in case of severe piezogenic papules formation. The diagnosis of piezogenic papules is an easy task because of its specific appearance. These papules may resolve on it's own when patient stop performing weight bearing works. These papules are often bilateral. While applying a little bit of pressure, these papules can be easily compressed.

Piezogenic Papules Images



Piezogenic Papules Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Piezogenic Papules Symptoms


Piezogenic papules are asymptomatic and does not show any symptom even on touching. On applying pressure on these papules, these are compressed without any pain. Just in case, if these papules become severe, then pain is the only symptom it shows. The pain may be due to necrosis of fats. Necrosis of fats in piezogenic papules may occur due to compression of nerves and due to inappropriate blood supply, necrosis occurs and causes pain. There is not any other symptom associated with piezogenic papules. These usually occur on wrist and sides of feet.

Piezogenic Papules Causes


There is not any specific cause reported behind the herniation of fats. This condition is common within families And pass on as a trait. These papules usually occur in beings, who are over weight and obese. Because they have excessive fat around their body. So the fats on wrist and feet leads to herniation and forms piezogenic papules. Some beings with some pathological problems may also develop piezogenic papules. In case of flat feet, ehlers danlos syndrome. Ehlers danlos syndrome is a collagen disorder. These papules involve the dermis layer of skin. These may occur in the newborns and the exact cause behind it is unknown.

Piezogenic Papules Treatment


As these papules are asymptomatic that's why treatment is not required. But if the symptoms appear, then treatment becomes necessary. The following points help a lot in treatment.
  • Patient should avoid weight bearing exercises.
  • He should consult with a podiatrist.
  • Compression stockings.
  • Weight loss will help a lot.
  • The foot pads are used made of foam rubber. Other than this, foam fitting plastic heel cups are also used.
  • Corticosteroids injections are injected in case of lesions
  • Surgery is recommended only when the symptoms are not controlled with the above mentioned treatment plans.

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Ischiofemoral Impingement Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Rehabilitation

Ischiofemoral impingement syndrome is defined as a condition in which two bones are involved. 1stly ischium and 2nd one is femoral bone. Basically in this syndrome, there is an extra pressure on the head of femoral bone and ischium. The excessive pressure may be due to trauma, surgery or over use. These bones lie in the hip. Due to pressure, an extra bone which is termed as bone spurs start growing along the one or both of these bones. Due to this elongation of an extra bone, the structure got disturbed and does not fit perfectly together.


Ischiofemoral Impingement Symptoms


As both of the bones i.e. ischium and femoral bone does not fit properly, so upon walking and doing any other activity , these bones rub with each other. Due to rubbing, patient feels pain in hip. The pain may be mild initially but later, the pain may become worse due to excessive running And inflammation. This syndrome resembles a lot to pulled hamstrings but in ischiofemoral impingement syndrome the pain is localized. Sometimes other than buttocks, patient may also feel pain in the groin area. The inflammation increases with the passage of time which may make pain worse and cause swelling.

Ischiofemoral Impingement Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Rehabilitation

Ischiofemoral Impingement Causes


The causes behind ischiofemoral impingement are not the complex ones. This syndrome occurs when there is a connection established between femoral and ischium bone. These two bones may come in contact due to excessive usage of hips, any kind of trauma to the bones, damage and surgery. These main causes sometimes lead to the formation of bone spur which grows along the femoral bone or both of the bones. This bone spur basically start rubbing on the bones of hip due to movement and walk. This makes the condition worse and more damaged.

Ischiofemoral Impingement Treatment


There are various treatment strategies which are used to treat ischiofemoral impingement syndrome. The treatment is started with a mild treatment strategy or we can say it self care. Physician will strongly recommend to stop performing activities which leads to rubbing of bones. Physician highly recommend patient to take rest and take medications which helps a lot in relieving pain. If this treatment strategy does not work, then injections are prescribed. The injections contain pain killer medications and steroids which helps to control pain. If all the above mentioned strategies does not work, then surgical correction of bones is recommended.

Ischiofemoral Impingement Rehabilitation


The rehabilitation from ischiofemoral impingement syndrome is possible. As all the treatment strategies work and show positive results. The recovery process becomes fast when the medications are used to combat pain and along with this some physical exercises are performed to make the movement normal and painless. Other than this , the fastest recovery is with surgical correction. The extra bone I.e. spur bone is removed and the femoral and ischium bones are arranged on their original position. This gives positive results and fast recovery. The rehabilitation is possible with every type of treatment strategy.

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Bertolotti Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Specialist

Bertolotti syndrome is one of the cause of back pain. Bertolotti syndrome may occur due to lumbosacral transitional vertebrae. This syndrome is a congenital condition which is present by birth. It is asymptomatic in early childhood but it starts showing symptoms in the late twenties and early thirties. This syndrome was named after a scientist named Mario bertolotti. He was an Italian physician. In bertolotti syndrome, sacralization occurs in the lowest lumbar vertebrae or lumbarization occurs of the uppermost sacral region. It may involve bilateral or unilateral and total or partial fusion of the transverse process occurring at the lowest lumbar region of vertebrae up to sacrum.


Bertolotti Syndrome Symptoms


The symptoms of bertolotti syndrome are dependent on the site of vertebrae involved. As the lower lumbosacral region is involved in the transition process so the pain may originate from the exact location. Usually patients report pain in the lower back region of body. This pain may radiate to hips and then to the thighs. But pain is the only symptom associated with this syndrome. It is a congenital disease, but is asymptomatic. The symptoms may appear at the late twenties or early thirties. In rare cases, the symptoms may start appearing in childhood.

Bertolotti Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Specialist

Bertolotti Syndrome Causes


Bertolotti syndrome is a congenital disease, in which the lumbosacral region is involved. The lumbar to the sacral region is fused by transverse process. And this transverse process may be bilateral or unilateral and may be total or partial. This fusion leads to the formation of the 5th lumbar vertebrae transitional. All this happens during the development of fetus within the womb of mother. Due to this 5th lumbar vertebrae, patient feels pain in the lower back and sometimes this Pain becomes unbearable. Usually this pain resembles sciatic type of pain.

Bertolotti Syndrome Treatment


There are two main ways of treatment i.e. surgical way and non surgical way. In a non surgical way, the steroid injections are used which are directly injected in the lower back region of body. Other than this, radio frequency sensory ablation is used. Physiotherapy is also helpful and helps in the mobilization of lower back. It includes core stretching and neural stretching exercises. Surgery is only recommended in a way when all other treatment therapy fails. In surgery, there may be posterolateral fusion or resection of the transitional articulation. The recovery time increases in the surgical treatment.

Bertolotti Syndrome Specialist


The bertolotti syndrome specialist are rare. As it is a very sensitive and complicated syndrome that should be treated only under the supervision of it's specialist. It is so because of the pain it generates. It's symptoms resemble the symptoms of sciatic pain which radiate down to the leg. It's diagnosis is not an easy task. It is a rare condition, which makes it difficult to diagnose easily. It may be easily mixed up with sacroiliac joint disease and facet. The symptoms should be keenly observed and then the diagnostic tools like ultrasound and x-rays should be rightly observed to make the right diagnosis. And all this can be done under the observation of a specialist.
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Nevus Comedonicus Images, Symptoms, Causes, Removal, Popping

It is a pathological condition in which papules appear on the surface. These papules are arranged in a specific linear manner. These papules are closely arranged and grouped. These are slightly elevated in structure. Keratenous plugs are present at the center of these papules which resembles comedones. These are closely packed dilated follicular openings with keratinous plugs. These are black in color. When the folliculosebaceous unit in mesodermal layer is not properly developed then hamartoma is formed, which leads to formation of nevus comedonicus. The follicular openings are no more able to generate hair production and sebum production and as a result black colored plugs are formed in centre.


Nevus Comedonicus Images


Nevus Comedonicus Images, Symptoms, Causes, Removal, Popping

Nevus Comedonicus Symptoms


Nevus comedonicus appear in the form of clusters which are closely packed and are plugged with keratenous matter. These papules may be single or multiple. Commonly it is unilateral. It's size may range from a few cm to half of the body. Nevus comedonicus usually occur on the upper half of body  like face, trunk, shoulders and neck etc. Rarely it covers scalp, palms, soles and penis. In case, when it appear on knees and elbow, it appear as verrucous nodules. It appear in a proper linear sequence.

Nevus Comedonicus Causes


Nevus comedonicus occur due to genetic mutation. The whole exome is sequence in this condition which identifies mutations in somatic cells i.e. NEK9. Each of them are effecting the residues which are highly conserved within RCC1 domains or kinase. All the mutation in somatic cells gain functioning, and as a result the process of phosphorylation increases at Thr210. It is a Hallmark of kinase activation of NEK9. Studies revealed that the plug of keratinous material shows the follicular differentiation marker. There is not any other cause behind the formation of such papules on the surface of skin.

Nevus Comedonicus Removal


Nevus comedonicus are the mega black heads which can be removed easily with the help of medication. If medications does not work, then laser treatment is used for the removal. In medications, both topical and oral medications are used. Topically salicylic acid, retinoic acid or ammonium lactate lotion is used. Isotretinoin  require long term treatment that's why, it is not recommended. Some oral medications are administered for the fast recovery. Ammonium lactate lotion is the effective one because it contains lactic acid and alpha hydroxy acid which helps in removal of comedones from the follicles.

Nevus Comedonicus Popping


Nevus comedonicus can be treated with a process named popping. In popping, a surgical instrument is used. The skin around the raised papules is pressed with this instrument. Due to pressing of papule, the blocked follicule become open. This happens when the keratinous material is popped out of the papule due to pressure applied. This popping technique is used in removing black heads. So it is effective in removing mega black heads i.e. nevus comedonicus. Popping process becomes easy when some topical medications are used. These topical medication make the keratenous material loose and then via popping technique, these can be easily removed.
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Myopericarditis Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Prognosis, Recovery

Myopericarditis is a condition in which heart is involved in the pericarditis. Pericarditis is defined as inflammation of pericardium. Pericardium is the membrane which covers the heart. So when pericarditis also involve heart in inflammation, then it is termed as myopericarditis. Heart is involved in pericarditis in the form of myocardial problems that's why it is termed as myopericarditis.

When the level of cardiac troponins increases, they show myocardial involvement in pericarditis. Myocarditis and pericarditis are not more different conditions and their etiologies are almost the same. Myopericarditis is also termed as perimyocarditis. It is most commonly seen in young adults and paeds. It usually occur in men.


Myopericarditis Causes


Myopericarditis may occur due to three main categories of reasons i.e. immune mediated, idiopathic and infectious. Myocarditis and pericarditis both have almost same causes. Immunologic and genetic factors contribute a lot in causing pericarditis and myocarditis. As these two conditions are overlapped due to same causes. There are some hormonal factors which contribute to cause myopericarditis. There are viruses which are responsible for myopericarditis. These Viruses are, cytomegalovirus, coxsackievirus and adenovirus. Epstein Barr virus, influenza virus, varicella zoster virus, hepatitis A and C virus. It may occur secondary to some diseases like inflammatory bowel diseases, connective tissue diseases.

Myopericarditis Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Prognosis, Recovery

Myopericarditis Symptoms


The symptoms shows the severity of myopericarditis. It may be localized or may diffuse in to the neighbouring Chambers and make it complicated. Most of the symptoms of myopericarditis are systemic and show symptoms like fever, myalgias and some gastrointestinal symptoms. Sometimes it is associated with respiratory problems. Gastroentritis. Patient may feel pain in the chest region and it will become difficult to differentiate between ischemic pain and myopericarditis. Inflammation is the common sign of myopericarditis. Another sign is the increased level of white blood cells and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and serum C reactive protein concentration.

Myopericarditis Prognosis


Myopericarditis involves a wide spectrum of pericarditis and myocarditis. There were 40 cases reported and checked in last 12 years with myopericarditis. And no death is seen in all these cases. On the other hand, another study in France reported 21 percent mortality in 14 cases of myopericarditis. In Italy, 62 consecutive cases were reported with no death and the clinical signs were 95 percent resolved successfully. Myopericarditis is proved fatal if the causative agent is a virus. The signs and symptoms it shows is direct heart failure. These are not reported in the myocarditis studies and rarely reported in case of pericarditis.

Myopericarditis Recovery


The recovery time from myopericarditis is not defined. It depends on the severity of condition. Medications are prescribed to calm down the symptoms occurring like NSAIDS and other pain killers. Some drugs are prescribed to make ECG normal. Usually a patient require 6 months to recover from myocarditis. As goes for pericarditis. So the estimated recovery time for myopericarditis is almost 7 months. After that, with the help of exercise and medications, patient can regulate his routine. This recovery time may vary from person to person.
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Necrolytic Migratory Erythema Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Necrolytic migratory erythema is a skin disease and a type of erythema. Erythema is a redness of skin or we can say a rash which occurs on skin surface. Necrolytic migratory erythema occurs as a result of glucagonoma syndrome. Glucagonoma is a syndrome in which a slow growing tumor is present in the alpha cells of pancreas. Glucagonoma syndrome mostly occurs in patients more than 50 years of age. It is a rare syndrome. Necrolytic migratory erythema is basically one of the symptom of glucagonoma syndrome. In glucagonoma syndrome, the tumor secrete excess amount of glucagon hormone.


Necrolytic migratory erythema is red colored rash having blisters on the surface of skin. It has the spreading capability on skin. It usually occur on the area around mouth and spread to distal extremities. Other than mouth, it may appear on ground area, lower abdomen, buttocks and perineum. Necrolytic migratory erythema is not only a symptom of glucagonoma syndrome but it may also occur as a result of intestinal malabsorption and liver disease. The diagnosis of necrolytic migratory erythema is easy as it appears on skin surface. It is an epidermal necrosis, subcorneal pustules, angioplasia of papillary dermis, epidermal hyperplasia and suppurative folliculitis.

Necrolytic Migratory Erythema Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Necrolytic Migratory Erythema Symptoms


Necrolytic migratory erythema occur on some specific region of body. Most commonly it occurs on the anal and genital regions. Other than these, it occurs on groin area, buttocks and lower abdomen and perineal region. The rash is visible but its severity fluctuates it. At the initial stage, it appears as ring shaped red colored blister, crusts or erodes. Patient feels uncomfortable due to excessive itching and pain around these blisters. After healing, these blisters leave brown colored marks on skin surface. Other symptoms may include sore smooth tongue, cracked dry lips, sore mouth and ridging of the nails.

Necrolytic Migratory Erythema Causes


The exact cause behind the occurrence of necrolytic migratory erythema. It may occur due to the deficiency of zinc, essential fatty acids and amino acids. It happens because tumor in glucagonoma syndrome reduces the amount of albumin protein. Albumin protein is responsible for carrying these essential elements in body.

Due to increase level of glucagon hormone in body ( in glucagonoma syndrome), the inflammation around rash increases. Inflammation also occurs on other sites of body too like the friction sites of body. Diabetes mellitus is another main symptom of necrolytic migratory erythema because of increased level of glucogon hormone.

Necrolytic Migratory Erythema Treatment


Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a skin disease, so topical medications will work a lot. Another treatment plan include surgical removal of glucagonoma tumor from pancreas. If the tumor got spread up to liver, and involve the whole liver in it, then surgery will not work.

Before surgery, a drug named somatostatin is prescribed to control the production of glucogon hormone. Zinc supplements are also prescribed. To treat tumor, chemotherapy is recommended. Chemo include dacarbazine, fluorouracil, streptozocin and octreotide. It has high mortality rate i.e. more than 50 percent people die because of it within 5 years of diagnosis.
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Transcortical Motor Aphasia Symptoms, Causes, Speech Therapy, Treatment

Commissural dysphasia and white motor dysphasia are the other names of transcortical motor aphasia. It is a speech disorder which occurs due to damage in anterior superior frontal lobe. It specifically occurs in language control center of hemisphere (frontal lobe). Usually left hemisphere of brain is involved in controlling language center. In this disease, patient can't speak openly I.e. there is reduced speech output.

It is difficult for patient to maintain his speech and initiation. Watershed region of brain is not involved in the direct harm of language production and comprehension center. Executive functions of language are affected if frontal lobe is damage.

Transcortical Motor Aphasia Symptoms



Transcortical motor aphasia is a speech disorder in which patient cant speak properly. He cannot even start a conversation and further maintain it. Executive functions of language are affected which mainly involve Grammer (Syntex) control, patient can't narrate a story or any thing he wants to and language response center is not properly activated. Other symptoms involve:

  • Patient find it hard to compose a sentence and elaborate it properly. 
  • Patient gets confused and cannot select right words during his speech. 
  • Starting a conversation is a hardest task for patient suffering from transcortical motor aphasia. 


Transcortical Motor Aphasia Symptoms, Causes, Speech Therapy, Treatment

Transcortical Motor Aphasia Causes


Transcortical motor aphasia occurs due to damage in the frontal lobe of brain. Frontal lobe specifically left hemisphere contains language control center. Usually damage in anterior superior frontal lobe is responsible for transcortical motor aphasia. This damage occurs due to cerebrovascular problem I.e. infarction. Prefrontal cortex is the part which involves ideation and initiation of verbal speech. So when damage occurs, it becomes difficult to initiate a conversation. Damage in anterior superior frontal lobe does not affect major language network, Broca's and Wernicke area and arcuate fasiculus. Only infarction is not the reason, damage can also occur due to stroke.

Transcortical Motor Aphasia Treatment


Treatment of transcortical motor aphasia involves speech therapy. Its treatment mainly focus on patients strong hearing conversation and skills of repetition and correcting the reduced speech output of patient. Treatment also covers maintenance of speech and initiation of speech including language. Participation approach to aphasia is a treatment  strategy which have greater success rates. In this treatment strategy, patient is asked to focus on his skills he required to talk with people. He is allowed to talk with people in real life situations like talking to nurse about anything he wants to.

Transcortical Motor Aphasia Speech Therapy


A speech and language pathologist is required for treating transcortical motor aphasia. In this therapy some pictures are provided to patient and ask him to elaborate every single thing or event happening in this picture. Pathologist also provide a vocabulary booklet so that he can easily choose words to start his speech. Other than pictures, pathologist also ask some questions related to current affairs, patients past life, general knowledge and about his experiences. He also ask patient about some cooking recipes like baking a cake and cookies. Repetitive questioning helps in improvement of patients speech.
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Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

It is a pathological condition in which a small bowel is encapsulated in the fibrocollagenous membrane. This encasement may be total or partial. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is considered one of the cause behind acute or sub-acute small bowl obstruction. Talking about the term sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, it was originally termed as abdominal cocoon. Other names for sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis are encapsulating peritonitis, sclerosing peritonitis and peritonitis chronica fibrosa incapsulata. It is basically the inflammation of peritoneal cavity with fatal outcome.


The peritoneal dialysis treatment is the major risk factor of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. There may be many other reasons behind it like liver or renal transplantation and secondary to any drug treatment. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis involves both the visceral and parietal surfaces of abdominal cavity. It is a slow disease process and have low incidence. Dialysis of peritoneal cavity is the major risk factor associated with sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis.

The peritoneal membrane may become structurally and functionally damage. People having peritoneal dialysis for more than 4 to 5 years may develop sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. It is a rarely occurring disease with main complication i.e. peritoneal dialysis. The incidence of occurrence of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is about 0.7 to 3.3 percent. It has high mortality rate i.e. more than 50 percent.

Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis Symptoms


Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare but fatal condition. Patient may experience symptoms related to bowel. As a small part of bowel is encapsulated with a fibrous sheet or we can say membrane. This membrane causes various complications. There may be obstruction of bowel due to encapsulation. Mural fibrosis with anorexia is a symptom. Nausea and vomiting are the common symptoms of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. These symptoms often leads to malnutrition. This is a fatal condition because when patient will not able to digest something, then patient may suffer from malnutrition and eventually die.

Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis Causes


Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis may occur secondary to some conditions or may be idiopathic. It may occur secondary to some drug treatment like practolol, chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and ventriculoperitoneal and peritoneovenous shunts. Other causes may include familial Mediterranean fever, sarcoidosis, liver transplantation, tuberculosis, gastrointestinal malignancy and fibrogenic foreign material. Other than these common causes, there is a rare cause i.e. luteinised ovarian thecomas. Usually patients having peritoneal dialysis for more than 4 to 5 years develop sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis easily and it may prove fatal for patient.

Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis Treatment


Talking about the treatment of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, surgical procedure is recommended. Laparotomy is performed to check the severity of condition. Then most suitable surgical procedure is recommended like adhesiolysis and segmental resection. In addition to treatment therapy, peritoneal dialysis should be replaced with hemodialysis to avoid further complications.

Total parental nutrition TPN is recommended to relax bowel. As it helps a lot in relieving symptoms. Medications involve methotrexate and corticosteroids which help in treatment. Tamoxifen is also used for sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. If bowel obstruction is diagnosed, then surgery is recommended. But the mortality rate is higher that's why it is risky.
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Plexiform Neurofibroma Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Plexiform neurofibromatosis is another name of plexiform neurofibroma. Neurofibroma is a type of tumor of peripheral nerve sheath. The nerves which are present just below the skin surface and the nerves deep inside the body both are involved in plexiform neurofibroma. Plexiform is a word which describes plexus formation. Plexiform neurofibroma is the most rare type of neurofibroma which is asymptomatic and really slow growing. These tumors are benign in nature. This tumor has the capability to proliferate in the surrounding tissues. Usually major nerves are involved and it affects young children.


Detailed study on neurofibromatosis reveals that plexiform neurofibroma is kind of unique to the patients with neurofibromatosis 1 i.e. NF-1. In that case, the different tumors can be easily located present inside the body. Usually plexiform neurofibroma is asymptomatic but if it shows symptoms and these symptoms are severe, then treatment is recommended. Surgical excision is the sufficient treatment for that. When the plexiform neurofibroma is removed, the prognosis becomes good. In some cases, this tumor turns into a malignant one and causes serious problems. Usually plexiform neurofibroma occurs in the 15 to 20 years of age but individuals of other age group are also involved.

Plexiform Neurofibroma Pictures

Plexiform Neurofibroma Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Plexiform Neurofibroma Symptoms


Plexiform neurofibroma is usually asymptomatic and does not show problematic symptoms. But if it show symptoms, the symptoms may be;
  • Plexiform neurofibroma is benign in nature and does not proliferate into the surrounding tissues.
  • Involvement of major nerve in tumors is also a sign.
  • Plexiform neurofibroma looks like a soft tissue mass which can be easily seen. These tumor may form anywhere in body because of their large size.
  • The common sites involved are head, legs, arms, chest, neck and abdomen.
  • Patient feels pain at the site involved in plexiform neurofibroma.
  • Neurofibroma present in the deep nerves of body may involve major nerves and grow larger in size.

Plexiform Neurofibroma Causes


  • Plexiform neurofibroma occurs due to Gene mutation. A specific gene named NF-1 is involved in the formation of these tumor. The following abberation in the chromosomes are responsible for Gene mutation.
  • In chromosome no. 17, due to loss of 17q, mutation occurs. It forms neurofibroma on long arm.
  • If mutation occurs on chromosome no. 19, then it may occur on short and long arm).
  • Mutation at chromosome no. 22 occurs due to loss of chromosome no. 22q. This mutation leads to plexiform neurofibroma on long arm.

Plexiform Neurofibroma Treatment


  • The following treatment plan is designed to treat plexiform neurofibroma.
  • As it is asymptomatic so it is recommended to do regular monitoring of tumor.
  • If it involves cosmetic concerns and the symptoms are severe, then surgery is recommended.
  • If the tumor start converting in to the malignant form, then there is an additional treatment plan which involves chemotherapy and radiation.
  • Patient already suffering from neurofibroma 1 have to treat NF-1 1st.
  • Patient have to follow a long term follow up plan. These routine check-up helps to stop converting in to malignant tumor.
  • These plans are the effective one in treating plexiform neurofibroma.

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