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Bilirubinuria Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

   

Bilirubinuria is a disease in which conjugated bilirubin is present in the urine. Gall bladder or liver disorders are responsible for bilirubinuria. Bilirubin is the normal physiological component in body. It is produced as a result of breakdown of red blood cells in the liver. Basically hemoglobin in red blood cells are responsible for producing bilirubin after metabolism. Blood usually contains very less amount of bilirubin. Normal values of bilirubin in blood ranges from 0.2 to 1 mg per dL. There are two main types of bilirubin which is present in blood. These are conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin.


Basically unconjugated bilirubin have capacity to bind with other components in blood but conjugated bilirubin is already in bound form so it passes on to different organs and at last accumulates in liver. Usually conjugated bilirubin travels down the small intestine and then passes on to the large intestine. In large intestine it imparts color to fecal matter. And in kidney, it's small amount gives straw color to urine. If an abnormality occurs in functioning of liver, then level of conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin increases abnormally in blood stream. This may lead to jaundice ( as jaundice is the disease related to abnormal bilirubin level).

Bilirubinuria Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Bilirubinuria Symptoms


As increased level of un-conjugated bilirubin leads to jaundice. So main symptoms of bilirubinuria or ultimately jaundice include:

  • Patient may feel nausea all the time.
  • Urine changes its color to dark yellow or straw color.
  • Patient may feel down and fatigue in his muscles.
  • Sometimes vomiting is also associated with nausea.
  • The color of the skin changes i.e. its color changes from normal to yellowish shade. And this change occurs in all parts which are visible or not I.e. eyes, skin and even nail beds.
  • Patient feels weakness and tingling sensation in body.


Bilirubinuria Causes


There are a lot of reasons which are responsible for increasing levels of unconjugated bilirubin in blood stream. Some of them are as follows:

Hepatitis is a liver disease. So abnormal functioning of liver can lead to increaed level of bilirubin in blood. Ulcerative colitis in the large intestine and small intestine leads to increased unconjugated bilirubin. Obstruction in the flow of urine I.e. abnormal functioning of gall bladder can lead to bilirubinuria. Due to narrowing of bile duct, bilirubinuria may occur. Narrowing of bile ducts may result from any inflammatory disease or surgical process. Increased alcohol consumption.

Bilirubinuria Treatment


The treatment of bilirubinuria totally depends upon the underlying cause. In case of hepatitis, antibiotics and anti viral drugs are prescribed initially. In the cirrhosis of liver, surgical removal of liver is recommended. Stones of gall bladder are removed via lithotripsy. In lithotripsy, all the stones of gall bladder are destroyed using ultrasound waves. This can be performed without incision. Some other surgical procedures are also available which have 100 percent success rates. Other than treatment, some life style modifications are also required I.e. patient have to quit alcohol drinking and hepatotoxic drugs (which have 1st pass effect).

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