Blog Archive


Chloroma Pictures, Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Survival Rate, Treatment

Chloroma is a condition in which leukemic cells start accumulating around bone marrow. These leukemic cells are solid in nature. Basically it is a tumor of immature white blood cells. Chloroma is also known as extramedullary myeloid tumor and granulocytic sarcoma. The immature white blood cells responsible for tumor are called as myeloblasts. Extramedullary myeloid tumor has a tint of green color in it because of myeloid peroxidase. So due to this green color it is known as chloroma. Chloroma is basically derived from chloros meaning green color in Greek language. There is a link between acute leukemia and chloroma.


Chloroma Symptoms


Chloroma is a rare disease. As it has a link with acute leukemia, so their symptoms resemble a lot. So common signs and symptoms involve

  • Severe and continuous nose bleeding.
  • Blood flows out of nose frequently.
  • As bone marrow is involved, so pain in joints and in bones is common symptom.
  • Along with nose, bleeding may also occur via gums.
  • Activation of immune system can cause fever.
  • Lungs are also affected, as patient faces difficulty in breathing.
  • Weakness and fatigue occurs.
  • Skin may turn pale in color.
  • Patient may feel lumps in armpits, groin area and around neck.


Chloroma Pictures, Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Survival Rate, Treatment

Chloroma Causes


Chloroma occurs as a result of abnormal development of DNA in bone marrow cells. This abnormality let cells grow and divide when normal cells stop growing and dividing themselves and eventually die. This may lead to abnormal blood cells production. Bone marrow starts producing immature cells and these immature cells start converting into leukemic cells. As a result, these leukemic cells start accumulating around bone marrow causing chloroma. Scientists discovered that in most cases, it is not inherited from parents to their offsprings. Still the causative DNA mutations are not known which leads to extramedullary myeloid tumor I.e. chloroma.

Chloroma Treatment


Chloroma is considered a systemic disease rather than localized disease. Leukemic chemotherapy is recommended as a 1st line treatment. Chloroma shows response towards chemotherapy because it is quite sensitive towards standard anti leukemic therapy. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells are transplanted in patients with good health. If chloroma still persists after chemotherapy, then a localized treatment is preferred I.e. surgery or radiation therapy. These localized treatment processes do not have any impact on survival rate. Chemotherapy is mostly recommended for patients with primary chloroma. In case of relapsed leukemia, treatment outcomes are not good and satisfactory.

Chloroma Survival Rate


There isn't any proper data about success rates of treatment. It has been seen that scientists argue about poor prognosis and survival rate of chloroma. People show less response to chemotherapy and as a result condition becomes worse. So survival rate is down. It totally depends upon the stage of tumor. If patient is diagnosed with last stage chloroma or acute lymphocytic leukemia then survival chances are very low. Contrary to it, if chloroma is diagnosed at its initial stage, then patient will well respond to the chemotherapy and there will be greater chances of patient survival.
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Optokinetic Nystagmus Definition, Test, Drum, Pathway

It is an eye related disease in which eyeball moves along with the moving field. In simple words, eye moves if patient focus on the whole scenery moving or rotating. It is not tracking of a single object placed far ahead but it is the tracking of whole field rotating in front. In moving field, there are different targets, so we can say that smooth pursuit is counted under optokinetic nystagmus. Patient tried to move his eyes with the moving object.

One common example of optokinetic nystagmus is: person sitting in a moving car tries to match his eye velocity (vision velocity) with the velocity of moving object. An optokinetic stimulus is used to check movement of eyes. Stimulus should present things moving in both peripheral and central visual fields. The following methods are used commonly to provide stimulus.


  • Physical drum beat
  • Stripe projector or LCD projector
  • Large screen array
  • And light bar.


LCD projector is the stimulus which closely matches with the definition of optokinetic nystagmus. All the above mentioned methods are used for eliciting optokinetic nystagmus. Optokinetic nystagmus is also used as a parameter of assessment of visual system. It is used specially in new borns.

Optokinetic Nystagmus Drum


Optokinetic nystagmus can be elicited with an optokinetic drum. The drum is rotated in front of the patient. Patient is asked to focus on the drum movement. Start rotating that drum in front of patient. In case, if optokinetic drum is not available, a simple paper with black and white strips can be used. The strips are at the distance of at least 2 inch. This paper is moved in front of patient horizontally and patient is asked to focus on it. Nystagmus can occur in both adults and infants with normal vision. Visual pathway can be checked with nystagmus.

Optokinetic Nystagmus Definition, Test, Drum, Pathway

Optokinetic Nystagmus Test


Optokinetic nystagmus is tested with the help of an optokinetic stimulus. The stimulus used can be LCD projector, stripe projector, large screen aray, light bar or physical drum. LCD projector is the stimulus which matches the definition of optokinetic nystagmus. In physical drum stimulus, an optokinetic drum is used. But in stripe projector, a simple paper sheet is used with black and white lines on it. In LCD projector, a proper video is played and fast forward and patient is asked to focus on it. A light bar is also used as a stimulus, in which a light rod is used to move fastly in front of patient and patient tries to focus on its light.

Optokinetic Nystagmus Pathway


The pathway of nystagmus consists of initial smooth pursuits which means patient start focusing on an object placed far ahead in front of patient. That object works as a stimulus for the vision of patient. When smooth pursuit phase ends, it is followed by fast phase or corrective phase known as saccade. The same pathway is followed in case of optokinetic nystagmus but the time period of each phase becomes extremely short. Normally presence of nystagmus shows normal pathway of vision.
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Pericholecystic Fluid Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Ultrasound, Treatment

Gall bladder is an important organ of the body which is present just below liver on the right side of abdomen. When inflammation occurs in the walls of gall bladder it is termed as cholecystitis. Pericholecystic fluid is the severe complication of cholecystitis in which fluid is also found in gall bladder along with inflammation. It is diagnosed upon ultrasound imaging. Basically inflamed walls of gall bladder shows a hypodense layer of sub serosal edema around it. And this layer is known as pericholecystic fluid. It shows the signs and symptoms related to inflammation because of pregnancy existing cholecystitis.


Pericholecystic Fluid Symptoms


Common symptoms of pericholecystic fluid are mainly associated with inflammation of walls of gall bladder. It  involves pain in upper quadrant of gall bladder at right side. Patient may feel temperature because of inflammation. Fever and chills are commonest symptoms of pericholecystic fluid. The amount of white blood cells increases in blood. Other symptoms include no or little appetite, vomiting, nausea and bloating in abdominal area. Patient feels tenderness in the right upper quadrant of gall bladder because of inflammation and pericholecystic fluid. Sweating may occur because of high level of white blood cells in blood.

Pericholecystic Fluid Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Ultrasound, Treatment

Pericholecystic Fluid Causes


It is the severe complication of cholecystitis. So pericholecystic fluid occurs secondary to it. Biliary sludge and stones in gall bladder can cause formation of pericholecystic fluid just because these stones or biliary sludge got stuck in the opening of gall bladder. Other possible causes may include:

  • Longer period of fast.
  • Deficiency in immune system.
  • Vasculitis.
  • Shock
  • Any kind of injury in abdomen at the site of gall bladder.
  • Sepsis or trauma can also cause formation of pericholecystic fluid.
  • Sometimes surgery of abdomen leads to pericholecystic fluid.
  • Any infectious disease or tumor in gall bladder causes inflammation and blockage of out flow of bile.


Pericholecystic Fluid Treatment


The 1st step of treatment of pericholecystic fluid is balanced diet. Patient have to avoid solid food intake and should prefer liquid diet. Hospitalized patients are on intravenous therapy for continuous liquid diet. Doctor prescribes some medications like pain killers and antibiotics in case of an infection. Surgery is another option but there are chances of re-occurrence of inflammation and ultimately formation of pericholecystic fluid due to gall stones.

Surgery is only preferred if there are very less complications. Main complications are gangrene and perforation of gall bladder. Immediate surgery is performed in case of chronic inflammation.

Pericholecystic Fluid Ultrasound


Usually a group of tests are performed to diagnose pericholecystic fluid which normally include blood test, ultrasound, computerized tomography CT scan and hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scan HIDA.

In ultrasound, gall stones are visible and the walls of gall bladder are inflamed. Ultrasound clearly shows infection within gall bladder. A free flowing fluid is also seen in the imaging of ultrasound.
All the diagnostic methods are useful in diagnosing pericholecystic fluid but ultrasound is the easiest and accurate way of diagnosing pericholecystic fluid. Mostly doctors prefer ultrasound report for analysis because it shows the severity of disease.
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Cardiac Cachexia Defenition, Symptoms, Causes, Life Expectancy, Treatment

Cardiac cachexia is a condition in which severe weight loss occurs due to cardiac diseases. Like in case of heart failure, patient losses excessive body fat. Not only body fat, he also loses bone mass and muscle mass. Body wasting is another term which describes cardiac cachexia. It is a one way disease, which if begins, can never be reversed. Even eating more and more doesn't help. Basically this disorder is associated with absorption and usage of nutrients and calories which patient consumes. It is a complex disorder and cannot be understand easily because even after eating can't fulfill muscle and bone mass.


Cardiac Cachexia Symptoms


Cardiac cachexia is associated with extreme weight loss. Severe weight loss can lead to death of patient. Common symptoms of cardiac cachexia involves:

  • Patient does not feel hungry any more.
  • Most of the time patient remains weak and tired.
  • Feels nausea most of the time.
  • Patient cannot perform exercise because of weakness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Taste of food changes.
  • Last but not least, constipation.


Some of the above listed symptoms, can make patient lose even more weight. These symptoms cause serious affect on gastrointestinal tract, lungs, mainly heart and other parts of body.

Cardiac Cachexia Defenition, Symptoms, Causes, Life Expectancy, Treatment

Cardiac Cachexia Causes


There are many beliefs regarding causes of cardiac cachexia. Some scientists think that it may occur secondary to imbalance in the nervous system. Because nervous system does not send messages about break down of food in gastrointestinal tract. Some common causes are enlisted below:
Congestive heart failure causes fluid accumulation. Ultimately it disturbs nutrients absorption.
Malnutrition disturbs the production of albumin which is necessary for chemicals transmission.
Body causes break down of muscles leading to fatigue.

This condition makes your body work hard and utilize energy to perform basic functions. So patient burns more calories causing weight loss.

Cardiac Cachexia Treatment


There are no specific medications for treatment of cardiac cachexia. Physician prescribe medications to treat the root cause. As if heart failure is the cause, then treating heart failure will ultimately reduce symptoms. Other than specific medications for the disease, patient is asked to do some physical activity like yoga and exercise. Patient have to follow his diet plan and should try to eat healthy food. Nutrient supplements are prescribed to fulfil the reduced amount of nutrients like vitamin C and vitamin D and folate. Some special medications are also prescribed to increase hunger of patient.

Cardiac Cachexia Life Expectancy


Cardiac cachexia is a life threatening condition. As it causes severe weight loss. Patient may lose his weight in the form of fats, muscle mass and bone mass. This weight loss is not healthy for patient as he loses all of his muscle mass. Excessive weakness will make patient seriously ill. In this condition patient does not feel hungry at all. So even eating more and more can't help gaining weight. After diagnosis this condition should be treated immediately. If it is left untreated, then patient may die due to weakness. So life expectancy is low with no appropriate treatment.
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Bilirubinuria Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Bilirubinuria is a disease in which conjugated bilirubin is present in the urine. Gall bladder or liver disorders are responsible for bilirubinuria. Bilirubin is the normal physiological component in body. It is produced as a result of breakdown of red blood cells in the liver. Basically hemoglobin in red blood cells are responsible for producing bilirubin after metabolism. Blood usually contains very less amount of bilirubin. Normal values of bilirubin in blood ranges from 0.2 to 1 mg per dL. There are two main types of bilirubin which is present in blood. These are conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin.


Basically unconjugated bilirubin have capacity to bind with other components in blood but conjugated bilirubin is already in bound form so it passes on to different organs and at last accumulates in liver. Usually conjugated bilirubin travels down the small intestine and then passes on to the large intestine. In large intestine it imparts color to fecal matter. And in kidney, it's small amount gives straw color to urine. If an abnormality occurs in functioning of liver, then level of conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin increases abnormally in blood stream. This may lead to jaundice ( as jaundice is the disease related to abnormal bilirubin level).

Bilirubinuria Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Bilirubinuria Symptoms


As increased level of un-conjugated bilirubin leads to jaundice. So main symptoms of bilirubinuria or ultimately jaundice include:

  • Patient may feel nausea all the time.
  • Urine changes its color to dark yellow or straw color.
  • Patient may feel down and fatigue in his muscles.
  • Sometimes vomiting is also associated with nausea.
  • The color of the skin changes i.e. its color changes from normal to yellowish shade. And this change occurs in all parts which are visible or not I.e. eyes, skin and even nail beds.
  • Patient feels weakness and tingling sensation in body.


Bilirubinuria Causes


There are a lot of reasons which are responsible for increasing levels of unconjugated bilirubin in blood stream. Some of them are as follows:

Hepatitis is a liver disease. So abnormal functioning of liver can lead to increaed level of bilirubin in blood. Ulcerative colitis in the large intestine and small intestine leads to increased unconjugated bilirubin. Obstruction in the flow of urine I.e. abnormal functioning of gall bladder can lead to bilirubinuria. Due to narrowing of bile duct, bilirubinuria may occur. Narrowing of bile ducts may result from any inflammatory disease or surgical process. Increased alcohol consumption.

Bilirubinuria Treatment


The treatment of bilirubinuria totally depends upon the underlying cause. In case of hepatitis, antibiotics and anti viral drugs are prescribed initially. In the cirrhosis of liver, surgical removal of liver is recommended. Stones of gall bladder are removed via lithotripsy. In lithotripsy, all the stones of gall bladder are destroyed using ultrasound waves. This can be performed without incision. Some other surgical procedures are also available which have 100 percent success rates. Other than treatment, some life style modifications are also required I.e. patient have to quit alcohol drinking and hepatotoxic drugs (which have 1st pass effect).
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Fundal Massage Definition, Postpartum, After Delivery, Technique

Fundal massage is the massage of uterus. It is performed usually after delivery. It can also be called as uterine massage. Fundal massage helps a lot in reducing excessive bleeding after delivery or abortion. It is recommended because after delivery of an infant, the uterine muscles contract to get back to their non pregnant state. And this contraction causes pain. It is not that much difficult massage, anyone can perform it with a single hand. In this massage, the pubic bone is slightly pressed along with uterine fundus.


Fundus is the top most part of uterus. The other hand can be used in vagina to press slightly uterine arteries. Fundal massage should be performed regularly as regular massage of uterine fundus will help a lot in reducing pain. Also there will be rare chances of hemorrhage after post partum I.e. delivery and post abortion. Fundal massage is the most effective therapy and with this patient does not have to take uterotonics. Utrerotonics perform the same function as fundal massage do. Both of them tone up the uterine muscles. Uterotonics causes uterine contraction. Fundal massage helps to tone up muscles of uterine fundus which will be soft on touch not hard or firm.

Fundal Massage Definition, Postpartum, After Delivery, Technique

Fundal Massage Post Partum


Fundal massage is really important after delivery of an infant or abortion. Usually patient has to face excessive vaginal bleeding due to uterus hemorrhage, in that case fundal massage helps a lot in reducing the flow of vaginal blood. Some women use uterotonics instead of fundal massage. Both of them have same function I.e. toning up the muscles of uterus. But fundal massage has more benefits over uterotonics. As massage will leave uterine fundus more soft on touch instead of hard or firm. Fundal massage reduces uterine post partum or post abortion pain.

Fundal Massage After Delivery


When a women get pregnant, her uterus start expanding because of development of fetus. At the 9th month of pregnancy, it is fully expended. And expansion of uterine walls reverse after delivery or abortion. So when muscles try to contract and try to get back to their original position I.e. pre pregnancy position,  it causes severe pain. Sometimes this pain is unbearable and it spread in all pelvic part. At this point fundal massage is recommended. Fundal massage will help a lot in relaxing muscles of uterus and ultimately helps in reducing pain along with bleeding.

Fundal Massage Technique


Fund massage is not that much difficult task to perform. Nurses have to be careful about every point of muscles in body. In fundal massage, one hand is placed on the pubic bone and start pressing it softly. Gradually uterine fundus is pressed slightly with soft hands. It will help to relax patient. The other hand is used in vagina to slightly press the arteries of uterus. Compression of uterine arteries is not compulsory, but helps a lot. Soft hands should be used for massage otherwise hard touch will cause more pain and couldn't stop bleeding.
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Fallopian Tube Removal Recovery Time, Side Effects, Pregnancy, Birth Control

Fallopian tube removal is a process named salpingectomy. It is defined as surgical removal of unilateral I.e. one sided or bilateral I.e. both sides fallopian tubes. Fallopian tubes are connected to ovaries and are responsible for carrying eggs to the uterus. Salpingectomy is an irreversible process. It is more efficient than tubal ligation. If a part of fallopian tube is removed, then it is known as partial salpingectomy.

Salpingectomy is recommended in various conditions which mainly involve:

  • An infection.
  • Ruptured fallopian tube.
  • In case of blockage of fallopian tubes.
  • Cancer in fallopian tubes.
  • And in case of ectopic pregnancy.


Fallopian Tube Removal Recovery Time


After removal of fallopian tubes, patient is sent to the recovery room. In this room she is observed keenly. Physicians wait for her to come back in her senses. After getting consciousness, patient may feel nausea because of anesthesia. Without any further complications, patient can recover completely within 3 to 6 weeks. This is the average time period which can be extended in case of any complication. If laparoscopy is performed then patient may take less time to recover completely. The average time period is 2 to 4 weeks. During recovery, patient is asked to avoid weight lifting.

Fallopian Tube Removal Recovery Time, Side Effects, Pregnancy, Birth Control

Fallopian Tube Removal Side Effects


The process of fallopian tube removal is counted as a safe process. There are very little complications associated with this process. Common possible side effects may involve infection, excessive blood loss, blood clotting, bleeding ( it may be internal bleeding or excessive bleeding may occur at the site of incision) and damage in nearby organs. Bowel obstruction in small area and scarring may occur in rare cases of process of fallopian tube removal. Damage occurs in blood circulation of nearby organs and as a result the organs may not function properly.

Fallopian Tube Removal Pregnancy


After Fallopian tube removal process, there are no chances of pregnancy at all. Because fallopian tubes are responsible for carrying eggs to the uterus, and when these tubes are removed there will be no other source of carrying egg to uterus. So as a result there will be no pregnancy. Some people prefer removal of fallopian tubes as a birth control process. In case of partial salpingectomy, there are chances of pregnancy but very rare. Women who have undergone the process of fallopian tube removal, can enjoy their private life without any chances of pregnancy.

Fallopian Tube Removal Birth Control


Removal of fallopian tubes is considered a tool of birth control. It is a permanent birth control process. By removing fallopian tubes, birth process can be controlled easily. As we discussed earlier about pregnancy. Fallopian tubes are responsible for carrying eggs to the uterus. If these tubes are removed, then there will be no transfer of egg and no fertilization. Because the process of fertilization takes place in uterus. When there is no fertilization, there will be no pregnancy and as a result birth process can be controlled with happy sex life. Partners can enjoy their private life without any chances of pregnancy.
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Theca Lutein Cyst Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment

It is a type of ovarian cyst which occurs bilaterally. Theca lutein cyst are filled with straw colored, clear fluid. It is a functional cyst because it's diameter is about 3 cm. Excessive physiological stimulation leads to the formation of theca lutein cyst. It is associated with Increased levels of hormone named beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta HCG). It's secretion is associated with many diseases like molar pregnancy which is also known as gestational trophoblastic disease, multiple gestations, chronic kidney disease, alloimmunisation to Rh D and diabetes mellitus. These cysts are formed during pregnancy and resolves itself after pregnancy.



Theca Lutein Cyst Symptoms


Common symptoms of theca lutein cyst include rarely abdominal pain. As these cysts are formed inside ovaries, so symptoms are mostly associated with peritoneal part. Massive ascites are formed due to stimulation of theca lutein cyst. And theca lutein cyst are commonly stimulated by beta human gonadotropin  hormone. Patient feels uncomfortable due to pain when these cysts get ruptured. Due to cyst hemorrhage, patient feels irritation in her peritoneal cavity. Other symptoms involve weakness in lower limbs, severe pain, patient feel uncomfortable during pregnancy. There are chances of abortion due to pain and theca lutein cyst hemorrhage.

Theca Lutein Cyst Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment

Theca Lutein Cyst causes


Theca lutein cyst are formed as a result of higher levels of beta human chorionic gonadotropin hormone. Other than this, theca lutein cyst are associated with many other diseases like gestational trophoblastic disease which is also known as molar pregnancy, multiple pregnancies also affects the level of beta human chorionic gonadotropin hormone and ultimately theca lutein cyst are formed. These cyst may form secondary to severe kidney disease, because kidney disease occurs due to reduced elimination of hCG from body. It may occur due to diabetes mellitus, alloimmunisation Rh D and last but not least hyperthyroidism.

Theca Lutein Cyst Treatment


Treatment of theca lutein cyst are treated according to the condition and associated disease of patient. If it occurs due to multiple pregnancies or molar pregnancy then evacuating pregnancy will treat theca lutein cyst. These cyst will resolve on its own within 2 to 4 months. There are also some cases, in which pregnant women have delivered healthy babies along with the presence of theca lutein cyst. If hemorrhage occurs in theca lutein cyst, then surgical removal of these cysts is recommended.  These is no medicational therapy for theca lutein cyst because it has self resolving property.

Theca Lutein Cyst Diagnosis


Usually theca lutein cyst are diagnosed via ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging test. It's general features include it's size which ranges from 2 to 3 cm. These cyst appear as typical multi locular cysts. During ultrasound, these cysts appear as thin walled cysts containing clear straw colored fluid. Solid components are present which may probably be residual of ovarian stroma. Magnetic resonance imaging test shows enlargement of theca lutein cyst. Due to enlargement, these cysts appear uniform in size. Magnetic resonance imaging test also shows residual parenchyma which is present within enlarged ovaries.
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Corpora Amylacea Prostate, Corpora Amylacea Brain, Corpora Amylacea Urine

Corpora amylacea is a condition in which protein based calcified materials starts accumulating in dense amounts. Corpora amylacea is also known as amyloids. It commonly occurs in men who are over the age of sixty. The calcified material is fibrous protein. Prostatic ducts are blocked due to accumulation of calcified material which is insoluble in nature. It happens when prostate gland cannot function properly and as a result, the fluid it produces got disturbed and do not secreted properly.

Other than this, if there is any infection or pus in prostate gland, then pus will not find any way out of prostate gland. Due to accumulation of pus inside ducts of prostate gland, it start becoming harder with time. The process of calcification start producing tiny stones and these stones blocks ducts of prostate gland. Due to blockage, more fluid start accumulating inside prostate gland leading to more stones production with the passage of time. Corpora amylacea is an asymptomatic disease which may exist for about 5 years with no visible symptoms.


It is believed that corpora amylacea is the underlying cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Treatment start with medications to alleviate symptoms and surgery can be performed if medicines do not work.

Corpora Amylacea Prostate, Corpora Amylacea Brain, Corpora Amylacea Urine

Corpora Amylacea Prostate


Corpora amylacea is the accumulation of calcified material in ducts which is protein based and insoluble in nature. Prostate gland produces a specific fluid which starts accumulating in ducts of prostate gland because of Improper functioning of prostate gland. If there is any infection or pus in prostate gland, then pus does not find its way out of gland and start accumulating. This accumulated fluid start calcifying and produces tiny stones which are insoluble in nature. These stones are responsible for blockage of ducts in prostate gland and more fluid starts accumulating as a result of blockage.

Corpora Amylacea Brain


In case of brain, corpora amylacea is present in the foot processes of astrocytes. Corpora amylacea is present around blood vessels and in sub pial location in brain. Corpora amylacea is different in brain as compared to prostate corpora amylacea. In brain these are faintly laminar and less eosinophilic I.e. contains less red blood cells. The main constituent of corpora amylacea is the presence of amyloid. Polyglucosan bodies is the other name of corpora amylacea in other species. Corpora amylacea is not a pathological condition. It closely resembles fungal yeast forms such as cryptococcus.

Corpora Amylacea Urine


Corpora amylacea is also present in urine ducts. It is derived from degenerative cells. Infrequent Specimens of lamellated and eosinophilic concretions are diagnosed in urine test sample. The common symptoms regarding corpora amylacea in urine is weaken stream of urine because of blockage of duct. Corpora amylacea stones are different from other bladder stones. As bladder stones contains oxalates in them and corpora amylacea are extremely small bodies which are seemingly laminated. It most commonly occurs in males usually of age above 60. Corpora amylacea is most common in ducts of prostate gland as compare to brain and urine ducts.
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Pelvic Obliquity Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Assessment, Treatment

Pelvic obliquity is a condition in which the pelvis is not aligned according to the body. It is an abnormality in posture. In this condition, one side of the hip is higher than the other side. Anterior superior iliac spines or posterior superior iliac spines landmarks are checked and compared with each other. Posterior superior iliac spines of one side are compared with posterior superior iliac spines of other side and it is observed that one side is higher than the other one. Palpation of anterior superior iliac spines are more easy because these are more prominent than posterior one.


Pelvic Obliquity Symptoms


Pelvic obliquity is the misalignment of pelvis or tilted pelvis. In this condition, the hip of one side is higher than the hip of other side. This is due to increased tension in muscles of higher hip side. The spine of patient is also affected. So it appears like patient have uneven hips and unequal legs. Pelvic obliquity further causes problems in neck and shoulder region, in spine, knees, feet and disks. Human body has its own natural righting reactions. So body itself tries to align the tilted pelvis and as a result scoliosis occurs.

Pelvic Obliquity Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Assessment, Treatment

Pelvic Obliquity Causes


Pelvic obliquity may occur either congenitally or acquired. Scoliosis is the most common cause which leads to congenital pelvic obliquity. Scoliosis is the tilted or misaligned bone which transfer genetically from parents to their offsprings. It can occur due to anatomical difference in both legs. This difference may occur due to an accident in which thigh bone or lower leg bone get fractured. Congenital anatomical difference is rare as compare to acquired anatomical difference. Other than scoliosis, contractures of hip bone also causes this anatomical difference. These are the only possible causes behind pelvic obliquity I.e. misaligned hip bone.

Pelvic Obliquity Treatment


Treatment of pelvic obliquity is designed according to its cause. If there is a difference in leg length, then orthopedic inserts or special shoes helps a lot to clear out the difference. Surgical intervention is selected rarely. If pelvic obliquity occurs due to congenital scoliosis, then progressive muscle relaxation and physiotherapy helps a lot in treating pelvic obliquity. Chiropractors are used to initiate spinal manipulation. Electrical muscle stimulation is also used. Other than this, heat therapy helps to reduce muscle spasm. Patient is asked to keep hydrated because dehydration may lead to inflammation of site.

Pelvic Obliquity Assessment


Assessment of pelvic obliquity is not that much difficult but physician have to focus completely. For assessment, palpation from front side is preferred. As anterior superior iliac spines are more prominent as compared to posterior superior iliac spines. During assessment, anterior superior iliac spines of one side is compared with the other side anterior superior iliac spines. Then alignment is checked. If physician gets no data from anterior superior iliac spines, then posterior superior iliac spines of both sides are also compared. Usually both anterior superior iliac spines and posterior superior iliac spines are assessed simultaneously during movement.
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Corneal Cross Linking Recovery, Success Rate, Pain, Side Effects

Corneal cross linking is the treatment strategy of disease named keratoconus. It is an eye disease. In keratoconus, the cornea of eye becomes thin and weak. Due to weakness, the cornea bulge out. Corneal cross linking is a technique in which the tissues of cornea are made strong via some special eye drops and ultraviolet radiation. Corneal cross linking technique helps to minimize bulging of cornea. Corneal cross linking works by adding special bonds between tissues of collagen. These special bonds holds cornea at a place. This process was 1st introduced in 2016 for the treatment of keratoconus. But now a days this is the only treatment option for keratoconus.


Corneal Cross Linking Recovery


Corneal cross linking have many types and it's recovery depends upon  the type of corneal cross linking used. Patient with epi-on can have painless recovery, and can recover even very next day from corneal cross linking. Patients with epi-off are different. Patients have painful recovery in this and recovery takes about a week. Several weeks are required for complete development of corneal epithelium. Doctors recommend to wear black glasses for at least a week with steroid and antibiotics for up to 2 weeks.

Corneal Cross Linking Recovery, Success Rate, Pain, Side Effects

Corneal Cross Linking Success Rate


Every type of corneal cross linking have different success rate. As in case of epi-off corneal cross linking, eyesight is worse at starting days and then it becomes okay after 6 to 12 months. Patient may experience poor vision for at least 3 months after surgery. Well, in case of epi-on corneal cross linking, vision regained from the very next day to surgery. The basic purpose of corneal cross linking is to stop the development of disease. In about 99 percent of people, epi-off corneal cross linking becomes worse and associated with more complications.

Corneal Cross Linking Side Effects


In both types of corneal cross linking, epi-off type cause problems. Some of the problems are as follows;

  • Swelling may occur in eye along with severe pain.
  • Patient have blurry vision and sometimes have hazy vision. It also cause further vision problems.
  • The epithelium and corneum get damaged.
  • An infection may occur in cornea of the eye.
  • These all are the main side effects of epi-off type of corneal cross linking. Usually the 2nd type of corneal cross linking I.e. epi-on type causes no side effects at all.


Corneal Cross Linking Pain


The pain level is also dependent on the type of corneal cross linking. In epi-on type of corneal cross linking, patient may experience no pain and have fast recovery. Patient can start his routine activities from the very next day of epi-on corneal cross linking. Well in case of epi-off corneal cross linking, patient feels generous pain at the site. Sometimes this pain becomes worse. This type of corneal cross linking also have slow healing process. It is more painful to have larger recovery time. So mostly epi-on type is recommended for patients.
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Cavum Septum Pellucidum Symptoms, Causes, Cyst, Treatment

Cavum septum pellucidum is sometimes associated with the cavum vergae (CV). Septum pellucidum is laminated with thin vertical membrane separating right and left ventricle. It is basically cerebro spinal fluid filled between the area of septum pellucidum, common anatomical variation. It is present in normal fetus. It may also referred as 6th ventricle. Cavum vergae is the posterior extended portion of the cavum septum pellucidum, but it may somtime exist separately. Anteriorly it is cavum septum pellucidum, outside it is related to corpus callosum, superiorly it is related to the body of corpus callosum, inferiorly it is related to transevrese fornix.


Cavum Septum Pellucidum Symptoms


Not proper symptoms are shown. Physical examination did not shown any abnormal symptoms. Sort of headache may diagnose this pattern by drawing headache chart. Headache may be of tension type or we can say migraine. it may last for 15 days or up-to 3 months. Headache may be of aggravated type or by some physical activity like climbing stairs or walking. Nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia may also seen. Patient who has headache with these symptoms fulfills the criteria of cavum septum pellucidum. From case history, patient may feel chronic daily headache (NSAIDs will not provide relief). Their symptoms may be connected with CNS abnormalities.

Cavum Septum Pellucidum Symptoms, Causes, Cyst, Treatment

Cavum Septum Pellucidum Causes


Causes of cavum septum pellucidum are mostly connected with other CNS disorders like shizophrenia, post traumatic disorder, chronic brain trauma, seizures, personality changes and traumatic brain injuries. Extentsion of lesion in the cavum destroys the vessels causing suppression of the septum triangle and also optic nerve pathways.

During fetal 12th week of development, space in cavum septum pellucidum forms and round about at 20th week this space starts to close, this closure ends at near birth. This fusion will lead to development of other brain portions. If this closure will not be on time, limbic development interrupts, preservation will be shown into adulthood.

Cavum Septum Pellucidum Cysts


These are the rare lesions. In its transverse diameter it will increase and gradually increase more with time. The outer layer margins will become convex. They compress the midbrain and cause obstruction on large scale leading to hydrocephalus. They also effect the drainage of occipital temporal portion of lateral ventricles.

Sypmtoms of cavum septum pellucidum cysyt increase in intracranial pressure, morning headache becomes worse with time. Ultrasound, CT scan and MRI diagnose the cyst. No such treatment is required. If the patient is suffering from hydrocephalus then CSF shunting will be done and catheter drainage of the cyst will be required.

Cavum Septum Pellucidum Treatment


Dihydroergotamine is recommended for the migraine, or any preventive medication will be given for chronic migraine. Βeta antagonist with calcium channel blocker, anti depressants and anti-convulsants are used to avoid the cardiovascular and cerebral damage and in order to improve the patient’s life. Sometime neurosurgery will be performed. If the patient is suffering from hydrocephalus then CSF shunting will be done and catheter drainage of the cyst will be required. Vraniotomy and open fenestration will be performed, stereotactic fenestration (perofrmed under local anesthesia) , neuroendoscopic surgery (reduce hazard of injury to anatomical sturcutures and allows better control of bleeding) will be performed.
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Lusitropy Definition, Meaning, Positive Lusitropy, Negative Lusitropy

Lusitropic is also called diastolic properties. Relaxation occurs by the removal of calcium ions from the endoplasmic reticulum. Sarcoplasmic reticulum have ATPase pump and Na /Ca exchanger that is responsible for 90% removal of calcium ions. On cellular level, the procedure of relaxation is energy consuming which requires ATP , then releases calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum for its uptake. Left ventricle of heart relaxation begins at the late ejection phase and it continues thoroughly during early rapid filling ends when ventricles are fully relaxed. Lusitropy properties can also be described by both active and passive relaxation. The increase in calcium level in the heart cells that will lead to increase in contraction and decrease relaxation (lusitropy)


For the proper ventricular systolic function inotropy, lusitropy, preload and afterload collectively play an important role in normal healthy heart rate. Change in any one of the factor may alter the function of heart.

Stimulation of beta adrenoreceptors also play a vital role for the lusitropy effect, it has a high sensitivity to beta adrenoreceptor excitation, lusitropy response becomes more efficiently due to increase in cyclic AMP. Lusitrophy results in increase in cardiac output and systolic blood pressure.
Lusitrophy can be detected by measuring the velocity of heart tissues by Tissue Doppler Timing (TDI), in this procedure E wave declared the time of relaxation period on echocardiographic examination. Another way of accessing diastolic feature of heart is speckle tracking echocardiography, where heart muscle (myocardium) are tracked to determine myocardial velocity and strain (which is the change in velocity at particular time period). In case left ventricular is not functioning properly or in disease state, relaxation is delayed.

Lusitropy Definition, Meaning, Positive Lusitropy, Negative Lusitropy

Positive Lusitropy


The activation of sympathetic nervous system increase the heart rate acceleration, increase in cardiac contractility and also increase relaxation called as positive lusitropy. These factors prepared the body for fight or flight response with the release of catecholamines ( nor epinephrine and epinephrine). Increase in cyclic AMP, leads to phosphorylation of receptor present in the sarcoplasm reticulum. This will enhance the greater degree of calcium removal and with the help of catecholamines will lead to relaxation. when next action potential arrives it will leads to positive inotropy effects.
Milrinone and dobutamine are mostly prescribed for the positive lusitropic effects

Negative Lusitropy


The activation of parasymphatheic nervous system decreases the heart rate, cardiac contractility, also rate of relaxation called as negative lusitropy. These factors prepared the body for rest and digest response with the release of acetylcholine. It leads to increase in vagal tone resulting in low heart rate. Relaxation is effected by two major factors, first one is increase in quantity of calcium in the cell and second one is ATPase and Na /Ca exchanger pump that take calcium out of cell will not working properly.

Atropine is used to treat negative lusitropy. it inhibits parasympathetic activity and leads to normal relaxation


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Pig Weed Allergy Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Pigweed is a plant which is the member of genus amaranthus. It belongs to family amaranthaceae. The family amaranthaceae consist of 170 genera and 2360 species. Some of these are weedy herbs and most of them are low or climbing shrubs. Talking about pigweed allergy, it is an adverse effect of immune system of body against pollen grains produced by pigweed plant. Whenever a pollen enters inside body, the body produces an antibody named immunoglobulin E (Ig E) and histamine. These two become activated against the antigen or pollen grain. It leads to a hyper sensitivity reaction.


Pigweed are annual plants which grow in late winter until summer. Pigweed is common in USA, Brazil, Europe, Mozambique, Korea, Mexico, Spain, Germany, Hungary and Spain. Pigweed is 2m in height. Patient suffering from pigweed allergy experience the same symptoms of asthma allergy. Patient feels shortness of breath. Pigweed pollen allergy is mostly observed in Arab areas and Mediterranean areas along with Indian areas. Profilin ama r 2 is the allergic pollen reported behind root cause. The sensitization rate is reported 33 percent with this pollen allergen. Profilins are the allergens of pigweed which are classified as panallergens. Panallergens are highly cross reactive.

Pig Weed Allergy Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Pigweed Allergy Symptoms


The pigweed allergy has the same symptoms like asthma allergy. Patient experience following symptoms in pigweed allergy.

  • Patient feels difficulty in breathing.
  • Itching in the chest region and in throat.
  • Patient experience sneezing and wheezing.
  • Headache is common with sneezing and nasal congestion.
  • Pain in whole sinus and increased problem in breathing.
  • Patient feels like he is not inhaling enough oxygen.
  • Runny nose and tears start falling out of eyes every time patient sneeze.
  • Patient feels itching in throat, nose and eyes.
  • Symptoms other than this include red eyes, cough, asthma, persistent upward rubbing of nose and sore throat.

Pigweed Allergy Causes


Pollen grains are the cause of pigweed allergy. The pollen grains have a specific season to fall off. These pollen grains are spheroidal in shape. These pollens contains 35 to 60 spores. Each has thin and granular exine. These are microscopic and cannot be seen with naked eye. Pollen grains of pigweed plant has 18 to 31 micrometer in diameter. Whenever these pollen grains enter in to the human body, the immune system becomes activated. In response to pollen allergen , immune system of human body start producing antibodies names immunoglobulin E I.e. Ig E.

Pigweed Allergy Treatment


Pigweed allergy is a hyper sensitivity reaction in body. So it can be treated with anti histamines. Anti histamines are the best available treatment of pollens of pigweed plant. Other than this, patient should avoid direct contact with pollen grains. Patient should avoid going to parks and highly green areas. Bronchodilators are also of great help in breathing properly. These medications are available in various dosage forms. They are also available in the form of nasal sprays and topical dosage form. Bronchodilators are widely used as inhalational pumps for proper breathing.
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Boggy Prostate Definition, Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

It is a condition related to prostate gland. Prostate gland becomes boggy in shape due to many reasons. Most common disease behind this condition is prostatitis. In prostatitis, infection or inflammation of prostate gland occurs. It is common in adults who are involved in sexual activity. As it can occur due to sexual activity because the bacteria causing inflammation or infection spread through sexual activity. Basically the cells and tissues of prostate gland become inflamed and leading to boggy prostate.

Boggy prostate is the symptom of prostatitis. There are different bacterial species which are responsible for causing prostatitis or boggy prostate. Common bacterias involved are E.coli, C trachometis, trichomonas vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, pseudomonas, M tuberculosis, coccidioides, histoplasma and candida species are the common organisms responsible for causing boggy prostate or prostatitis. Round about 25 percent of patients are suffering from boggy prostate. All these 25 percent males with boggy prostate are presented with genitourinary problems. There are 64 to 86 percent chances of occurrence of prostatitis or boggy prostate if patient has history UTI's. Adults with age less than 35 years are more prone to this disease.

Boggy Prostate Definition, Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Boggy Prostate Symptoms


The following are the symptoms associated with boggy prostate or prostatitis:


  • Patient feels chills and fever.
  • Malaise is a common symptom. 
  • Arthralgia.
  • Dysuria and myalgia
  • Severe to moderate pain in perineum area or prostate area. 
  • On the spot discharge from urethra.
  • Pain in low back region. 
  • Intermittent dysuria. 
  • Other urinary tract symptoms like nocturia, urgency, hesitancy, weak stream, dysuria and incomplete voiding. 
  • Pain in lower abdominal region. 
  • Common in patients with history of sclerotherapy. 
  • Recurrent urinary tract infection. 
  • Patient sexual life might be disturbed. Patient may have to face problems like erectile dysfunction ejaculatory failure and many more. 

Boggy Prostate Causes


As prostatitis is the main cause behind boggy prostate so it's causes include bacterial infection. The bacterial infection may occur due to some specific bacterial species like E.coli, enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonas, serratia, Proteus and enterococcus. Other than these, staphylococcus aureus is also responsible. Neisseria gonorrhea and Chlamydia trachometis are common causative agents for boggy prostate in adults less than 35 years of age. About 75 to 80 percent cases of boggy prostate or prostatitis is due to E coli. Patients with tuberculosis have higher chances to suffer from this condition due to presence of tuberculosis. Other causes may include non specific inflammation in prostate. Obstruction in flow of ejaculatory duct. Side wall increased tension of pelvic region.

Boggy Prostate Treatment


As boggy prostate or prostatitis is a bacterial infection, so antibiotics specific to the causative agents are prescribed. In case of acute condition, parenteral antibiotics and supportive care is recommended. It includes broad spectrum antibiotics like penicillin and its derivatives, 3rd generation cephalosporins, fluoro-quinolones and amino glycosides. IM ceftriaxone and or azithromycin is recommended orally for 7 days. Patients may take 14 to 20 days to recover from this condition.
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