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Dysplastic Ears Images, Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Dysplastic ears are the ears with abnormal appearance. The outer shape of ear is not normal. It occurs due to chromosomal defect. The external ear consists of auricle and external acoustic meatus. In dysplastic ears, auricle are defective. The auricles have series of elevations named as auricular hillocks. These hillocks are around 1st pharyngeal cleft. During development of fetus, 3 auricular hillocks are present around 1st pharyngeal cleft and 3 auricular hillocks are present around 2nd pharyngeal arch, seen after 6 weeks of development. After some time of development, these hillocks rearrange themselves to form various parts of external ear.


Dysplastic Ears Images


In dysplastic ears outer look of ear I.e. external ear is totally changed and looks abnormal. Some people with dysplastic ears face problems in hearing. It is a genetic disease. The mutation in chromosomes and genes leads to abnormal appearance of ears. Ears start acquiring abnormal shape during development within the womb of mother. Hearing problems are associated with dysplastic ears. In mild cases, as one is shown in figure show little abnormality but in severe cases whole outer shape is changed.

Dysplastic Ears Images, Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Dysplastic Ears Symptoms


Dysplastic ear is a congenital disease and occurs due to genetic abnormality. The main and common symptom of dysplastic ear is deformity of external ear. The outer ear has different shape like microtia I.e. small sized ears, macrotia I.e. large sized ears, hemifacial microsomia I.e. unilateral microtia, anotia I.e. complete auricle is absent, cup shaped ear i.e. the outer look of the ear is cup shaped and lop ear. All these are the possible shapes of outer ear. Dysplastic ears are similar to these in shape and outer look. The difference is in the bone of ear involved.

Dysplastic Ears Causes


There are many genetic diseases which include dysplastic ears as a symptom. Some of the diseases are as follows

  • Patau syndrome (malformation of the ears at extreme level).
  • Actinic keratosis (dysplastic epidermis along with keratenocyte atypia).
  • Weaver syndrome is a genetic disease which has dysplastic ears as a main symptom.
  • Nager syndrome has dysplastic ears which are low set and outstanding.
  • Ring chromosome no. 4. (Narrow ear canals and dysplastic ears)
  • Humero radial synostosis shows dysplastic ears as symptom.
  • XXXXY syndrome small sized ears in dysplastic ears.
  • Seckel syndrome, humero ulnar synostosis and acrocallosal syndrome have dysplastic ears.

Dysplastic Ears Treatment


It is a genetic abnormality and can only be treated with a surgery. The surgery can reconstitute auricle and make it even. The surgery is performed at the age of 6 to 7 years. It can be reconstituted with rib cartilage. But it involves various procedures. Another way is prosthetic reconstruction whose results are more life like. Local anesthetics can be used but general anesthesia will be preferable because handling a child is not an easy task. There are also various post surgical complications like any kind of infection, scarring at the site and hematoma.
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Precordial Thrill Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Palpation, Treatment

Precordia is a region present over heart and lower chest. It is present on left side of body because heart lies on left side of body. Basically it is the inner wall of chest over heart. Thrill is the vibrational feeling in the precordial region I.e. Auscultatory area of the valves. It is a heart murmur which can be observed during 3rd and 4th interspace systolic thrill. The thrill is nothing but a palpable. It is similar to a murmur and feels like a murmur. Sometimes a thrill can be easily observed while sitting straight and holding breathe.


Precordial Thrill Symptoms


It is not a pathological condition but just a sound which can be easily observed at lower sternum. A thrill is nothing more than a murmur. A murmur sound is same as thrill. It is like a vibration which can be felt easily by placing hand on the lower sternum. Patient does not need to pose specifically, because these thrill can be observed while sitting normally and holding your breath at its maximum expiration. It does not have any other symptoms like pain. It is palpable and loud and it helps a lot in its diagnostic processes.

Precordial Thrill Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Palpation, Treatment

Precordial Thrill Causes


There are different causes behind precordial thrill, some of the common causes are as follows. Patent ductus arteriosus ( during left to right shunt, thrill is produced), aortic valve stenosis (thrill produce due to narrowed pulse pressure), congenital aortic valve stenosis (due to systolic dysfunction of left ventricle), taussing Bing anomaly (in this a diffuse murmur or thrill is usually present), aortic stenosis with bicuspid valve, pulmonary valve stenosis (left to right shunting ), chordae tendons rupture, pulmonary arteriovenous malformation and rheumatic aortic valve obstruction. These are all the possible causes behind precordial thrill. It is not a pathological condition so patient does not have to worry.

Precordial Thrill Treatment


There is not any specific treatment for precordial thrill. Treating the underlying cause can relieve patient. Every possible cause has its specific treatment. So treatment guidelines changes according to the cause behind it. All the possible reasons are discussed in causes section. It is not a Pathological condition so most of the patients take it lightly. It also does not show symptoms. So there is not any medication for the symptoms. Basically incompetent heart valve is the cause behind the precordial thrill, so valves pressure is checked and treated according to the underlying cause.

Precordial Thrill Palpation


Precordial region is the valve region present over heart and lower chest. The precordial area is checked for a thrill or murmur. Thrill or murmur will show abnormality in palpation. Not only thrills but heaves I.e. precordial movements can also be checked. Abnormal palpation shows the problem behind this thrill. Heaves and thrills can be observed easily by placing hand over the precordial region. For heaves, the heel of the hand should be placed on the sternum. The pulses observed give information about the condition and working of heart.
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Dermatochalasis Images, Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Surgery

Baggy eyes is another name of dermatochalasis. In this condition there is excess skin around eyes I.e. upper and lower eye lid. It is common in elder patients and adults. It occurs due to loss of elasticity in skin tissues around eyes. The connective tissue around eyes becomes weak. Frequently the upper eye lid is involved but lower eye lid are also common in dermatochalasis. Dermatochalasis is a cosmetic or functional problem. If the dermatochalasis is functional problem, then it affects superior visual field. Other than this, patient experience ocular irritation, entropion of lower eyelid and entropion of upper eye lid.


Dermatochalasis Images


Dermatochalasis is also known as baggy eyes. It is common in old age patients and adults. If it is a cosmetic problem then patient does not have to worry, some of the home remedies can fix it but if it is a functional problem then vision can be affected. And for that, proper treatment I.e. Surgery is required. In below picture, the loose skin around eyes is prominent and looks like falling downwards. Due to dermatochalasis, patient looks old before age.

Dermatochalasis Images, Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Surgery

Dermatochalasis Symptoms


Heavy eyelids is the commonest symptom of dermatochalasis. Symptoms associated with cosmetic problem of dermatochalasis include puffy eyes, loose skin around eyes, inflammation around eyes, patient can't see properly because of loose upper eyelid covering eyes. Functional problem of dermatochalasis, patient face vision problems like problem in superior vision field, loss of peripheral vision while driving and patient also feels difficulty in reading newspaper and books. Patients with mild to severe dermatochalasis, lift up their eye brows to improve their visual field. And this lifting up of eye brows causes headaches. Other symptoms include dry eyes and ocular irritation.

Dermatochalasis Causes


There are different causes reported behind dermatochalasis. Some of the common causes are as follows:

  • It may occur secondary to trauma.
  • Severe periorbital edema is also responsible for causing dermatochalasis. If the inflammation of eyelid remains for longer duration, it becomes chronic and then it may lead to recurrent edema.
  • Thyroid eye disease is associated with dermatochalasis. In this, the infiltration of orbital fat occurs along with extra occular muscles with immunoglobulins complexes.
  • Chronic renal insufficiency, amyloidosis and floppy eye syndrome are the rare causes of dermatochalasis.
  • Last but not least, blepharospasm is also responsible for dermatochalasis.

Dermatochalasis Surgery


Dermatochalasis can be treated with medications if it is mild. But in case of chronic dermatochalasis, surgery is recommended. In surgery, a crease is marked in the upper eyelid and then pinch technique is used to lift eyelid. The eyelid should be lift up in a right amount that the eye does not open upon lifting eyelid. Many measurements are made to maintain symmetry. Lidocaine or epinephrine are used to make it numb locally. Then incision is made according to the crease line. The cut of upper eyelid should not be less than 7 to 8 mm from eyebrow. A blade, laser or radio frequency device is used to excise skin.
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Circumoral Paresthesia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Circumoral paresthesia is a condition in which patient feels sudden tingling and numbness on the skin. Patient feels like needles and pins pinching in skin. Paresthesia can occur at any part of body. The most common example is elbow hitting a surface. When the funny bone of elbow gets hit with a surface, patient feels sudden numbness and tingling sensation in the elbow. Basically this sensation is called paresthesia. Circumoral is the region around mouth, so when tingling or numbness occurs in circumoral region, it is termed as circumoral paresthesia. It is an adverse event which occurs randomly and ends on its own.


Basically circumoral paresthesia is the symptom of a disease named hyper ventilation. In this condition, the sensations become abnormal. Sometimes people feel burning sensation and nerve type pain sensation. Hyper ventilation is a respiratory disorder, in which patient breathe fastly leading to circumoral paresthesia or circumoral numbness. It occurs along with a panic attack. In hyper ventilation, patient feels like he is not having enough oxygen but in real they have enough oxygen in blood stream. All this phenomenon leads to fast and hastily breathing and as a result circumoral paresthesia or circumoral numbness occurs.

Circumoral Paresthesia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Circumoral Paresthesia Causes


Circumoral paresthesia is the main symptom of hyper ventilation. So hyper ventilation is the disease which is responsible for causing circumoral paresthesia. It may occur secondary to different drugs like EDTA, glat co polymer, copolymer 1, deprenyl, formoterol, gabapentin, bupivacaine, bexarotene, lidocaine, oxybutynin, nabitone, paroxetine and many other drugs. Circumoral paresthesia is the common side effect of these drugs. It may occur in various other medical conditions like acute hyper ventilation, psychogenic hyper ventilation, migraine, panic attacks, malignant neoplasm, malignant neoplasm of pancreas, metabolic alkalosis, hypo parathyroidism and ciguatera poisoning. Circumoral paresthesia is the common symptom of all the diseases mentioned above.

Circumoral Paresthesia Symptoms


Circumoral paresthesia is an adverse event which occurs suddenly. In this condition patient feels numbness and tingling in circumoral region. Sometimes it feels like pins or needles pinching on the skin surface. This condition persist for some time and then disappears on its own. Basically paresthesia is the abnormal sensation at a specific site. So patient feels nerve type pain in circumoral region. Sometimes patient feels burning sensation. The intensity of burning and pain depends on the severity of condition. As it itself is a symptom of many diseases so it accompany different other symptoms. Panic attacks are common with circumoral paresthesia.

Circumoral Paresthesia Treatment


Circumoral paresthesia is a condition secondary to diseases. So treating the cause will treat circumoral paresthesia. Other than this, some anti inflammatory medications are prescribed to calm down symptoms. Drugs like ibuprofen and aspirin are commonly prescribed. Patients with severe paresthesia are prescribed with anti depressants Like amitriptyline. The anti depressants are prescribed at low dose to make patient calm. Some pain killers are also prescribed to combat pain sensation. Medications helps a lot to treat people psychologically. In rare cases, opium derivatives and codeine are also prescribed.
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Long Philtrum Female & Male Causes, Surgery|Celebrities with Long Philtrum

Philtrum is the part lies between lips and nose. It is located at the upper lips region. Philtrum size is according to the face of an organism. Long philtrum is a condition in which the size or we can say length of philtrum is longer than usual. The long philtrum is usually present in older people. It is considered that long philtrum is the sign of old age and short or usual philtrum is the sign of youth. Other than age, long Philtrum may be due to some diseases. It is not a pathological condition so there aren't any systemic symptoms related to it.

Long Philtrum Female & Male Causes, SurgeryCelebrities with Long Philtrum

Long Philtrum In Females


Long philtrum in females is observed in the same ratio with males. Every human has different face structure. Females with long philtrum are more dedicated towards surgical reconstruction. This is so because women are more curious about their beauty. Women believe that short philtrum is the sign of beauty, so they prefer surgery. Females who cannot afford surgical reconstruction, shorten their philtrum with the help of make up products. There are also some home remedies available on internet to shorten the size of philtrum. Women use these remedies to look beautiful.



Long Philtrum Males


Long philtrum in males is also present but in the same ratio with females. Some men look attractive with long philtrum. Long philtrum is the sign of older age and men usually prefer to look old so they do not prefer surgical reconstruction. There are number of celebrities who has long philtrum , and they all look cool and beautiful. Sometimes men with long philtrum try to cover it with surgery, if it looks really odd and affecting their looks. But still we can say women are more conscious about their beauty as compared to men so surgery is mostly performed in women.

Long Philtrum Causes


Long philtrum is not a pathological condition. It is a normal condition. There are some diseases which lead to longer philtrum. Long philtrum is counted as a sign or a symptom of the specified diseases. All the possible anomalies related to long philtrum are as follows.

  • Weaver syndrome (it is a genetic disease)
  • Freeman shelder syndrome.
  • Fryns syndrome.
  • Valproate embryopathy. ( It may show long flattened philtrum).
  • Cornelia de Lange syndrome.
  • Femoral hypoplasia unusual facies syndrome.
  • Aarskog syndrome.
  • DiGeorge syndrome.

All the above mentioned anomalies have long philtrum in common as a symptom.

Long Philtrum Surgery


Philtrum reduction surgery is also known as upper lip lift surgery. This surgery makes the philtrum short and also makes people beautiful. This surgery lift up the upper lip making teeth prominent. The surgery is performed by making an incision at the connection between alar margin and columella bottom. 0.5 to 0.8 cm of skin is excised. Now the lower end is lifted upwards and stitched to ala nasi and columella base. The upper lip and mouth corners are lifted with this surgery and patient looks young. The surgery may leave scar of the incision.

Celebrities With Long Philtrum


There are some celebrities with long philtrum and they don't find it offensive against their beauty. They are okay with long philtrum. Some of the famous celebrities are Zac effron, Mischa Barton and Cavill. They all look cool with long philtrum and do not need surgical reconstruction. Some known celebrities have gone through surgery so that they can look attractive and young. Josh hartnett, Brad Pitt, Christian bale, George clooney and Colin Farrell are the celebrities with naturally long philtrum. There is a long list of celebrities who have undergone various plastic surgeries just to be beautiful and for their face lifting, philtrum reduction surgery is one of them.
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Temple Spasm Left Side & Right Side, Pain, Causes, Treatment

Temple is the region present behind the eyes on both sides of head. Basically it is the junction point of sphenoid bone and temporal bone. Whenever a spasm occurs in this region, it is known as temple spasm. Spasm occurs due to sudden involuntary muscle contractions. Whenever spasm occurs, patient feels twitching in temple region. It is a self controlling condition and remain for some time after that it resolves on its own. Temple twitches and spasm occurs due to stress. These temple spasm can occur on both or either side of head. It mainly affects eyes and ear.


Temple Spasm Left Side


When spasm occurs on left side of head, it mainly affects ear and eye. Because these two organs are nearest to it. It may occur above ear and behind eyes. It feels like a sudden contraction of muscles in temple region which is involuntary. The twitching is persistent and uncontrollable. Basically a single nerve fiber or filament is responsible for causing twitching in temple region. It is not a fatal condition. Temple spasm is benign and self controllable. If the twitches persist, then some investigations are performed via nerve conduction velocity NCV, electrolyte concentration in blood like calcium, magnesium, potassium etc.

Temple Spasm Left Side & Right Side, Pain, Causes, Treatment

Temple Spasm Right Side


Temple spasm can occur on either side of head. The condition is same on both the sides. Patient feels the same. Sometimes twitching occurs simultaneously on both sides. It is uncontrollable and persistent. If it remains for more than 2 minutes, then investigations are performed like electromyography EMG, thyroid and para thyroid function test metabolic profile of blood and blood chemistry. It does not affect the senses I.e. vision and hearing sense. It only feels like beating something fastly in temple region like a twitch. Sometimes patient may become panic due to its sudden occurrence.

Temple Spasm Cause


Temple spasm may occur due to many reasons. Some of them include:

  • Stress (stress is the commonest cause of temple spasm. Over thinking and anxiety makes it worse)
  • Patient taking huge amount of caffeine are more prone to temple spasm.
  • Some times it is secondary to medications.
  • Excessive Alcohol consumption also leads to temple spasm.
  • In most cases it is idiopathic because there is no cause reported. 
  • Neurological disorders are the rare cause of temple spasm.
  • Patient who is deficient in nutrients and minerals and does not consume a good diet can also have temple spasm.


Temple Spasm Pain


Pain occurs when temple spasm occurs. Due to involuntary contraction of muscles, pain occurs all over the temple region. The pain is specific to the site I.e. patient feels pain only in the temple region not in whole head. The pain intensity also varies. According to the condition,  pain is also temporary. When temple twitching ends, pain disappears. If twitching persists for longer duration, then pain also intensifies. Stress, anxiety and over thinking are the common causes behind this temporary temple spasm pain. It is also termed as temporary temple headache which resolves on its own.

Temple Spasm Treatment


Temple spasm is a temporary condition which resolves on its own after some time. Basically spasm is the involuntary movement of muscles which becomes normal after a while. There is no medication for temple spasm. Patient needs to be relax, tension free and stress free. It will help a lot in treating temple spasms because these are the reasons behind its occurrence. Patient needs to check on his diet. He should take diet rich in minerals and nutrients. Vitamin D is essential for which eggs, milk and sunlight are the rich source. Likewise magnesium, potassium and other nutrients are also required.
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Werlhof's Disease Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Werlhof's disease is also known as thrombocytopenic purpura. It is a pathological disease which occurs due to aggregation of the platelets before specified time. Aggregation is the process in which the platelets are combined together and it is the 1st stage of thrombus formation. A specific type of rash occurs on skin with higher chances of bleeding. This disease most commonly occurs in children. Sometimes It also occurs in adults. In this disease the skin of the baby shows hemorrhages on surface without any reason.

The appearance of hemorrhage on skin surface is considered the 1st alarming symptom of werlhof's disease. This disease is not confined to the specific gender. It is calculated that in every 100 cases of skin disease, the chances of werlhof's disease is 1 to 2 percent. The exact cause behind this disease is still unknown. There are different belief regarding its root cause. The appearance of werlhof's disease resembles many other diseases so accurate diagnosis is required. There are different steps of diagnosis like physician have to analyze the clinical picture of the disease. After that detection is continued to inspection. After these three steps, some endothelial tests are carried out which are mandatory.


Werlhof's Disease Symptoms


The symptoms of werlhof's disease depends upon the cause behind it. If this disease occurs due to a lesion, then clogging of capillaries takes place. In this case, the following symptoms are usually observed. There is reduction in the platelets count per unit volume of plasma. It is observed because platelets play a vital role in blood clotting. This disease is largely associated with ischemic disorders because of inappropriate supply of blood due to aggregation. The vital organs of body are mainly affected. Patient feels fast fatigue, pain in the head, poor appetite and decreased body tone.

Werlhof's Disease Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Werlhof's Disease Causes


The exact cause behind this disease is still unknown. Some doctors think that it is a hereditary character which pass on to children from their parents. This disease may occur due to reduction in number of blood cell I.e. platelets and this reduction results from mutation. Any problem in the immune system may also cause this disease. In defective immune system, the protective ability of body is decreased against foreign pathogen and as a result werlhof's disease occurs. Other than these there are different myths about its cause. But the exact cause is still unknown and under dispute.

Werlhof's Disease Treatment


The treatment is designed according to the stage of disease. There are two options either to treat it with medicines or surgery can be performed. Surgery is the last option when medications are of no use. The medications used for the treatment of corticosteroid hormones and immunosuppressants are preferred for werlhof's disease. Here are some examples like prednisolone hemisuccinate, honey Mead, salt decorin N 250, prednisolone, prednisole and decartine N 20. The strength and dosages of these medications is according to the stage of disease. In surgical procedure, the spleen is removed from body.
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Pneumocentesis Definition, Meaning, Procedure, CPT Code | Pneumocentesis vs Thoracentesis

Pneumocentesis is the synonym of paracentesis. Paracentesis is defined as a process in which a catheter or a needle is used to obtain fluid from peritoneal cavity. Pneumocentesis is the same procedure. The only difference between pneumocentesis and paracentesis is the site of needle insertion. Pneumocentesis is the process in which needle or a catheter is inserted inside lungs to obtain fluid for sampling. Pneumocentesis is also performed to remove vacuum from lung cavity. It is the easiest process.

It is performed only when medications are of no use. Usually people with cirrhosis have ascitic fluid in their body and paracentesis or pneumocentesis are performed to remove this ascitic fluid from body. This fluid is then passed on to lab for further testing. There are some other indications for which this process is used. It is performed to collect fluid for evaluation of any bacterial infection. This process is performed in traumatic condition to check blood in cavity and last but not least it is performed to check the presence of cancerous cells. There are some contraindications for pneumocentesis or paracentesis and these contraindications include pregnancy, adhesions in abdomen, any lung infection like asthma, distended bowel and many others.


Pneumocentesis Procedure


Pneumocentesis or paracentesis is the same procedure. It is a simple process which is performed to drain fluid out of lungs. For example in case of pneumonia, fluid start accumulating in the lungs. So pneumocentesis is performed to drain that fluid out of lung. In this procedure, a catheter or a fine needle is used to puncture chest from front side and through this needle the ascitic fluid is drained off. After completing process, the needle is removed and a bandage is applied. The bandage helps to recover wound made by needle. It is the short time process and healing time is also short with faster recovery.

Pneumocentesis Definition, Meaning, Procedure, CPT Code  Pneumocentesis vs Thoracentesis

Pneumocentesis CPT CODE


CPT is abbreviated as current procedural terminology code which is assigned to every procedure in medical science. Pneumocentesis also has a code. The code changes with time. Like in 2012 the CPT code for pneumocentesis was 32420 but this code was deleted in 2013. In 2013 it was directed to use code 32405 for lung biopsy or needle. After that it didn't change but updated every year. The current code for pneumocentesis is 32420. This code is used to report about this procedure. This code will update soon in 2018.

Pneumocentesis Vs Thoracentesis


Pneumocentesis is the process used to drain fluid from lungs whereas thoracentesis is the process used to remove fluid from space between lungs and the chest wall. This is the main difference between pneumocentesis and thoracentesis. In both the process, a hollow needle is used to insert inside body and withdraw fluid for sampling or removing excess fluid. During procedure, in thoracentesis, patient is asked to sit on a specified bench and lean on the table ahead while in pneumocentesis, the patient does not have to sit. The complications are less in pneumocentesis as compared to thoracentesis.
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Perineum Burning Sensation in Female & Male, Itching, during Urination

Perineum burning is also known as perineal burning. Perineum is the region between anus and testicles in males. In case of females, it is the area between vagina and anus. Perineum burning is more like perineum pain so the word pain can also be used instead of burning. The symptoms of perineum burning do not differ in both genders. The burning of perineum is bearable if acute, but if it becomes chronic, patient cant bear it any more and it may last for months. In chronic perineum burning, it may last for at least 3 months but in case of acute perineum burning, it may last for less than 3 months.


Perineum Burning Sensation In Females


Almost every women once in her life experience burning or pain in perineum region. After stepping into puberty or menarche, girls commonly face perineal burning. Sometimes it cures on its own but in some cases, it becomes severe and unbearable. The most common causes in women which may lead to perineum burning include large sized cyst in ovaries, endometriosis, ectopic pregnancy, ovarian torsion I.e. ovary get twisted in a way that causes pain in perineum region. Some inflammatory diseases in pelvic region also leads to perineal burning in women.

Perineum Burning Sensation in Female & Male, Itching, during Urination

Perineum Burning Sensation In Males


Perineum burning in males is as much common in females. The symptoms are same in both male and females. Pain is the main symptom and associated symptoms are fever, chills and weakness. There may be many reasons behind burning in perineum region. Any kind of infection or problems in urethra may lead to pain or burning in perineal region. Any kind of genital infection or problems like ejaculatory issues may also lead to burning or pain in perineum region. Some abdominal issues are also responsible for causing perineum burning like colitis, proctitis and appendicitis.

Perineum Itching


Itching in the perineum region may occur due to any infection in vagina in females and in testicles in males. In females, Pruritus vulvae can cause itching in perineal region. Basically vulva is the skin present just outside the vagina so infection in perineum can cause itching. Causes are different in males as any injury at perineum can cause pain and it's healing causes itching. Patient feels burning and itching at perineum and excessive rubbing or scratching may tear skin apart. And teared skin causes more pain and further leads to soreness, infections and bleeding.

Perineum Burning Sensation During Urination


Painful urination along with perineum burning is usual in case of infection in surrounding parts. Infection in urethra may lead to painful urination and burning sensation in perineum region. When urine touches perineum, burning sensation occurs and after urination patient feels itching. Painful urination along with perineum burning is a vast topic and covers a lot of infections related to genitals and urinary tract. Sometimes teared and rough skin due to perineum itching when comes in contact with urine, it causes a tingling pain in the perineum region. Sometimes this pain becomes unbearable.
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Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

It is not a simple disease to understand because it is the group of different headache disorders. In this condition, headache involves the whole side of face. Pain may be moderate or severe unilateral involving head and face. The associated features include conjunctival injection, lacrimation, ptosis, eyelid edema and nasal congestion. The headache disorders have different duration and frequency of attacks. Cluster headache is the type of headache disorders which have longer duration than all other types and it is also less frequent than others. Contrary to it, short acting neuralgiform headache and paroxysmal hemicrania have less duration but are very frequent.


The group of headache disorders contains the following:

  • Cluster headache: it is the most common headache disorder which occurs in almost 0.1 percent of cases. Male are at higher risk.
  • Episodic and chronic cluster headache: in about 90 percent of cases, cluster headache occurs in the form of episodes. it has longer duration from days to months.  It can reoccur with the average gap of months and years.
  • Paroxysmal hemicrania: this disorder is more frequent i.e. occurs 4 to 5 times a day but last for 20 to 30 minutes.
  • Short lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache: the attack persists for about 600 seconds and is known as most frequent.

Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgia Symptoms


As it's definition tells that it is a group of headache disorders so headache is the primary and common symptom. Pain does not only occur in head region, but face is also involved. Pain occurs on one side of head and face. Sometimes it is bilateral. The associated features of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia are excessive lacrimation, rhinorrhea, conjunctival injection, ptosis, nasal congestion and eyelid edema. Other symptoms are according to every type of headache disorder. Like grittiness or itching occurs in eye in case of hemicrania continua.

Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgia Causes


In trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia, the posterior hypothalamus region is activated. This activation is specific in cluster headache, short lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache and paroxysmal hemicrania. Locus ceruleus, dorsal pons and periaqueductal gray matter are the main areas involved in migraine. The striking in trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia is tha is the autonomic component which accompany each attack. The autonomic symptoms are considered normal physiological response. Basically trigeminal nerve compression is responsible for trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia. The dis inhibition of trigeminal autonomic reflex and hypothalamic direct modulation pathway named trigeminovascular nociceptive are considered the main causes.

Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgia Treatment


There are two main treatment strategies I.e. non pharmacological and pharmacological. In non pharmacological treatment involve the following:

  • Greater occipital nerve injection: the trigeminocervical complex is modulated. This system is either blocked or stimulated to reduce pain. A steroid injection or local anesthetics injection are used in treatment of headache.
  • Occipital nerve stimulation: there is a bit acute abortive effect.
  • In hypothalamic deep brain stimulation, the posterior side of hypothalamus is stimulated and this stimulation give positive results.
  • Every type of headache disorder in trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia show different response to all the above mentioned treatment strategies.

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Peritendinitis Symptoms, Causes, Treatment | Achilles Peritendinitis

Peritendinitis is defined as the inflammation of paratenon. Paratenon is the sheath covering tendons all over the body. Peritendinitis resembles tendinitis in which inflammation of tendon itself occurs. It occurs commonly in people who are used to hard work like athletes and gym guys. Paratenon covers the tendon and help in its movement by reducing friction. So in peritendinitis, the tendon cannot move smoothly. It is a sensitive case. Because moving the stiff tendon with high friction can break it and patient won't be able to move any more. When the inflammation occurs in paratenon, tendon becomes stiff and hard to move freely.


Peritendinitis Symptoms


Peritendinitis involves tendons (joining muscles to the skeleton). When inflammation occurs in paratenon (covering of tendons), it makes the tendon stiff. Patient find it hard to move freely. Severe pain occurs while moving the affected region of body. Limited motion can be produced. On touch, the affected site feels hot and swollen. Swelling occurs on the whole part involved in peritendinitis. Telltale sound is produced while moving the affected site of body. Telltale sound is the cracking sound which produces because of paratenon inflammation and more friction. During inflammation, the surface of tendon looks cracked like water dries up leaving the earth surface cracked.

Peritendinitis Symptoms, Causes, Treatment | Achilles Peritendinitis

Peritendinitis Causes


There is not any defined cause behind peritendinitis. Scientists believe that it can occur secondary to tendinitis which is the inflammation of tendon itself. Inflammation of paratenon occurs due to excessive workout. It commonly occurs in male gender. Athletes and gym guys are at the hit list because they got little time to rest their body and workout most of the time. Moving the limbs excessively can increase the chances of peritendinitis as kneading the dough in restraunts most of the time can cause peritendinitis in wrist or elbow.

Peritendinitis Treatment


Initially, patient is asked to take rest for atleast a week or until the swelling and pain reduces or subside. Some adaptive devices like crutches are used to take off burden from tendons for faster healing. Patient is asked to compress the inflamed area with hot water or cold ice. As it will naturally help a lot in reducing inflammation and muscle relaxing. Tests should be performed regularly with one week interval to check progress. If no progress occurs, then steroid injection is the solution. But it's administration is quite complicated. It should be injected in paratenon not in the tendon.

Achilles Peritendinitis


Achilles is the tendon present in heels. It is a fibrous tissue tough band which connects the heel bone to the calf muscles. Calcaneal tendon is the other name of Achilles tendon. When inflammation of paratenon of Achilles tendon occurs, it is known as Achilles Peritendinitis. Achilles tendon is the most common tendon involved in peritendinitis because heels and feet are the most working part of our body all the time. The symptoms are same I.e. pain and swelling and stiffness. Patient with Achilles Peritendinitis will take at least 15 days to recover with complete bed rest.
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Corneal Infiltrates Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Healing Time

Corneal infiltrates is the kind of ulcer. It is an epithelial defect which occurs due to inflammation. Inflammation may either occurs as a result of infection or without infection. Disruption of corneal epithelium occurs in corneal infiltrates. We can say that corneal infiltrates may lead to corneal ulcer. It is a rare disease. It can be diagnosed easily via visual inspection. Filtrates or ulcer can be clearly seen at the boundary of cornea. Eyes appear red in color. Corneal infiltrates do not involve systemic circulation and is associated with conjunctival mediators and tear film. Management of corneal infiltrates is necessary otherwise it can lead to further diseases.


Corneal Infiltrates Images


Corneal Infiltrates Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Healing Time


Corneal Infiltrates Symptoms


Corneal infiltrates or ulcer occurs as a result of inflammation in corneal epithelium. So inflammation of corneal epithelium is the most prominent sign. The affected eye appears red in color. The accumulated white blood cells are visible in the peripheral cornea of eye and this accumulation is termed as infiltrates. The corneal infiltrates on margin are small in size I.e. approximately 1mm around corneal border. It looks like Gray white circumlimbal lesions. It may be bilateral. In case of sterile marginal corneal infiltrates, the infiltrates are usually asymptomatic. But if symptoms present, mild quadratic conjunctival hyperemia is the commonest.

Corneal Infiltrates Causes


Whenever damage occurs in cornea, it leads to immune response. In case of corneal infiltrates, the immune response is acute. If the cause is infectious, then introduction of an external antigen directly into the eye can cause inflammation. During inflammation, the blood vessels dilate and white blood cells start accumulating in the cornea. Coalescence of white blood cells form infiltrates in cornea. While in case of non infectious corneal infiltrates, it can occur as a result of wearing contact lenses, trauma occurring after surgery, toxins produced by bacteria or any other toxic stimuli and any autoimmune disease.

Corneal Infiltrates Treatment


The treatment strategy of corneal infiltrates is designed on the basis of the cause. If inflammation occurs due to contact lenses, then it is considered a sterile inflammation. The cause may be infectious or non infectious I.e. sterile. So differentiation between sterile and infectious corneal infiltrates is necessary because the treatment is based on it. Antibiotics are prescribed in case of infectious corneal infiltrates. Later, topical corticosteroids are prescribed. In sterile corneal infiltrates, the patient have to avoid some things like wearing contacts, dust and direct sunlight.

Corneal Infiltrates Healing Time


Corneal infiltrates heal fast. Even if it is left untreated, it can easily recover within a week or two. Steroids used along with antibiotics helps to reduce the healing time. Steroids also helps to reduce chances of secondary infections. If corneal infiltrates occurs due to wearing contact lenses, then patient is advised to avoid using contact lenses until complete healing. Improving corneal hygiene, changed lens design and scheduled lens wearing also helps a lot in minimizing healing time. The drug therapy used along with elimination of the initial stimulus contribute a lot in healing process.
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Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Surgery, Recovery

Median arcuate ligament syndrome is the other name of celiac artery compression syndrome. In this symptom, the celiac artery is compressed due to any reason, which leads to severe abdominal pain and weight loss. Celiac artery is responsible for supplying blood to upper part of abdominal region. It is the rare cause of weight loss and abdominal pain. The compression of celiac artery occurs due to median arcuate ligament. Median arcuate ligament is the fibrous muscular band which is present in diaphragm. The abdominal pain is chronic and recurrent. It is a rare disorder with high prevalence.


Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Symptoms


Patients with celiac artery compression syndrome feels a layer of pain in abdomen right after eating. Sudden and visible weight loss occurs. Abnormal sounds are produced in abdomen due to compression of celiac artery and these sounds are termed as abdominal bruit. The most common symptom of all is abdominal pain which occurs in more than 80 percent of cases. Weight loss occurs in almost 48 percent of cases and abdominal bruit occurs in approximately 35 percent cases. Other symptoms related to abdomen are nausea, vomiting, restlessness, weakness, dizziness, delayed gastric emptying and diarrhea.

Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Surgery, Recovery


Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Causes


The exact cause of compression of celiac artery is still not known. There is a great dispute on defining accurate cause. Basically, in ancient times, it was believed that celiac artery compression syndrome occurs due to improper blood supply which in turn occurs due to compression of celiac artery by median arcuate ligament. It can also occur due to nerve dysfunction. Nerve dysfunction is considered the main cause behind following symptoms

  • Delayed gastric emptying
  • Epigastric pain.

There is'nt any other defined cause behind Celiac artery compression syndrome and the causes mentioned above are also not sure.

Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Surgery


Surgery is the only treatment option because no medication can help in relieving compression of celiac artery. During surgery, the median arcuate ligament and celiac plexus (collection or group of nerves supplying blood in abdomen) are divided and Celiac artery become decompressed. The surgical operation may also involve implantation of stent, angiography and vascular reconstruction of celiac artery in abdomen. Surgery can treat the exact cause of celiac artery compression syndrome but the symptoms can be relieved with the help of medication. Pain killers are used to reduce pain intensity. If this syndrome left untreated, it can lead to patient's death.

Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Recovery


The recovery after surgery varies patient to patient. Some people respond better to surgical treatment and recover in less time. Patients with chronic abdominal pain and sudden visible weight loss respond more quickly to the surgical intervention as compare to the one with less pain and less weight loss. The patients at chronic stage recover fast after surgery. Old age patients respond less to the surgery and take time to recover completely. Patient have to follow healthy diet plan to reduce post operative complications. Alcoholic patients will not recover fast.
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Nasal Vestibular Furunculosis Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Remedies

Nasal vestibular is a bacterial infection which occurs in the vestibule of nose. When hair follicle is involved in the infection, then it is termed as nasal vestibular furunculosis. It is a common infection. It is a localized infection and limits to a single hair follicle. Staphylococcus aureus is the cause of nasal vestibular furunculosis. Redness occurs along with inflammation which confirms its diagnosis. Sometimes the involved hair follicle become hard and dry and forms a crust. Itching occurs most of the time. Nasal vestibular furunculosis may be secondary to hair plucking or cutting within the nostrils.


Nasal Vestibular Furunculosis Causes


Staphylococcus aureus is the main cause of infection. It is a bacterial infection. It can occur in reaction to external particle like dust and pollen grains. Plucking hair in nostril can be the cause. Basically abscess occurs in hair follicle. Furunculosis is the term used for abscess. Any other follicle infection inside the nostrils can lead to nasal vestibular furunculosis. Sometimes trimmed nasal hair remain inside nostrils and cause nasal vestibular furunculosis. Some rare causes may be folliculitis, respiratory infections (upper or lower and viral or bacterial), chronic rhinorrhea and hair picking or trimming on regular basis.

Nasal Vestibular Furunculosis Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Remedies


Nasal Vestibular Furunculosis Symptoms


The common symptoms of nasal vestibular furunculosis are:

Inflammation of nostril, localized redness, severe pain accompanying inflammation, pain also occurs on the skin covering nasal vestibule. Redness occurs according to the area involved because it is a localized infection. Abscess formation is rare. Systemic symptom occurs in rare cases. Pustules usually does not occur. These are the only symptoms associated with nasal vestibular furunculosis. The re-occurrence chances are high because, patient already exposed to staphylococcus aureus which contributes in re-occurrence. Whenever patient plucks nasal hair, the follicle exposed to the staphylococcus aureus which causes infection.

Nasal Vestibular Furunculosis Treatment


As it a bacterial infection, so antibiotics are prescribed for the treatment. At initial stage, combination of three antibiotics is used I.e. polymyxin, bacitracin and neomycin. If resistance occurs, then topical antibiotics are used which consist of two antibiotics I.e. mupirocin and retapamulin. The healing process becomes fast with topical antibiotic ointment. It is prescribed two times a day and advised to Apply with cotton. Direct contact should be avoided. Ointment should be continued for almost 3 days. Following this treatment guideline will completely heal infection within days. Antibiotics are the only treatment option for nasal vestibular furunculosis.

Nasal Vestibular Furunculosis Remedies


Along with allopathic treatment, some home remedies helps a lot in reducing the symptoms like pain, swelling, inflammation and redness. The best remedy is applying onion because onion has antiseptic and antimicrobial activity. Onion increases the healing time. Likewise garlic also have antimicrobial, antiseptic and anti inflammatory properties. It is a natural detoxifier of body. Garlic is applied directly on the spot for reducing inflammation. Turmeric is a topical antiseptic and helps a lot in healing. Other remedies involve use of tea tree oil, steam of mint tea and drinking lemon water every day.
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Morpheaform Basal Cell Carcinoma Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Prognosis, Treatment

Basal cell carcinoma is the skin cancer, which develops on the surface layer called epidermis. It occurs due to over growth of basal cells. Morpheaform basal cell carcinoma is the type of basal cell carcinoma. In this type, the skin becomes hard and patchy. It is called as morpheaform basal cell carcinoma because it resembles morphea plaques. The surface become hard and shiny and smooth on touch. These are light colored lesions with waxy texture. The morpheaform basal cell carcinoma looks like scars. The borders are not defined which make it hard to spot or diagnose.


Morpheaform Basal Cell Carcinoma Symptoms


Morpheaform basal cell carcinoma usually does not show symptoms other than its appearance. It appears like lesions on the surface of skin. These lesions are hard and patchy, smooth on touch and have shiny surface. These lesions are light in color with waxy texture. Sometimes it appears in the form of scars with no defined boundary. Bleeding may occur most of the time and looks like these lesions or cuts will not heal. There are some diseases which closely resemble morpheaform basal cell carcinoma. These diseases involve sebaceous hyperplasia, molluscum contagiosum, fibrous papule, mercel cell carcinoma, amelanotic melanoma and cutaneous adnexal tumors.


Morpheaform Basal Cell Carcinoma Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Prognosis, Treatment

Morpheaform Basal Cell Carcinoma Causes


There are many factors which can cause morpheaform basal cell carcinoma. Use of fluorouracil previously can cause morpheaform basal cell carcinoma in future. It may be genetic due to gene mutation in hedgehog signalling pathway. Mutation exactly occurs at patched tumor suppressor gene. Excessive contact with ultraviolet radiations also contribute in causing morpheaform basal cell carcinoma. Many gene defects are considered the predisposing factors of this type of basal cell carcinoma. It commonly occurs in adults and rarely occur in females and young ones. Previous any type of basal cell carcinoma can lead to morpheaform basal cell carcinoma.

Morpheaform Basal Cell Carcinoma Treatment


Morpheaform basal cell carcinoma is a skin disease, so two types of treatment strategies are designed I.e. photodynamic therapy and surgical excision. Topical photodynamic therapy shows a good cosmetic result but alone it is not sufficient for treating morpheaform basal cell carcinoma. Surgical excision is the proposed treatment. If it appears on face, then Moh's surgery is recommended. It is considered best for facial morpheaform basal cell carcinoma. A sharp razor is used primarily in surgical excision to remove tumor from skin surface. It leaves no or less scars on skin.

Morpheaform Basal Cell Carcinoma Prognosis


It is a non fatal condition. It's prognosis is excellent because the treatment options works well and give good outcomes. Treatment is necessary because if left untreated, it may further lead to fatal diseases. The success rate of surgical excision are high as compare to photodynamic therapy. So most of the time both treatments are carried out side by side. Once it is removed completely from epidermal layer of skin, then it never comes back. In some cases, the untreated morpheaform basal cell carcinoma may lead to other types of basal cell carcinoma.
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Left Anterior Fascicular Block Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

It is a condition of heart in which heart muscles show irregular contraction. It occurs due to blockage of anterior half of bundle of His. Bundle of His is the group of cells which are responsible for transmitting electrical impulses from AV node towards apex of heart. Due to blockage of anterior half of bundle of His electrical delay in nerve impulse transmission across heart muscles occurs. And as a result delay in pumping activity of heart occurs. Left anterior fascicular block is also known as left anterior hemiblock.


It is observed via Electro cardio gram of heart. This condition is commonly seen in patient with myocardial infarction. Other conditions with associated left anterior fascicular block involve hypertension, valvular disorder, degenerative fibrotic disease and cardiomyopathy. It is the abnormal condition of left ventricle of heart. It closely resembles left bundle branch block LBBB but both of them are different conditions.  In left anterior fascicular block, only the left half of bundle is involved.

The Electro cardio gram shows deviation of left axis. Patients with pre existing inferior wall myocardial infarction cannot be easily diagnosed for left anterior fascicular block because myocardial infarction itself causes deviation in left axis.

Left Anterior Fascicular Block Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Left Anterior Fascicular Block Symptoms


When left anterior half of bundle of His is blocked, it leads to irregular or abnormal contraction. It is an asymptomatic condition and does not show any specific symptoms. It can only be diagnosed with Electro cardio gram. Some common symptoms which are related to associated condition involve  severe pain in chest region which is intermittent and occur again and again. Pain occurs due to blockage in circulation. Patient may go faint due to improper functioning of heart. On touch, patient can feel double beat I.e. the two ventricles do not beat at a time but bear one at a time.

Left Anterior Fascicular Block Causes


There are no of conditions which may lead to left anterior fascicular block. Some common conditions are listed below.

  • Chronic hypertension is considered the most common cause of left anterior fascicular block.
  • Degenerative fibrotic diseases leads to blockage of anterior half of bundle of His.
  • Aging
  • Aortic stenosis is responsible for development of this condition.
  • Valvular disorder also cause blockage of bundle of His.
  • Myocardial infarction. But only 4 percent of cases show left anterior fascicular block.
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy.
  • Aortic root dilation and some lung diseases can also cause blockage.

Left Anterior Fascicular Block Treatment


The treatment strategy depends upon the severity of condition and degree of blockage. Management is required along with treatment for best results. Dietary modifications are required. Patient is asked to take low carb, low fat and high protein food. Patient is asked to take supplements like omega 3 fatty acids and vitamins. Intake of poly unsaturated fats is recommended. Physical activity is necessary, as it helps a lot in managing tis condition. If patient is a smoker or alcoholic, then he is asked to quit smoking and alcohol consumption as it can cause vasoconstriction.
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Polyclonal Gammopathy Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Every individual have a defence system in his body which protects the body against invading pathogens. It consists of immunoglobulins. Whenever a pathogen invades inside body and causes any infection, the defense system of body get activated against it and produces antibodies against that pathogenic antigen. As we all know that excess of everything is bad, so increased level of immunoglobulins above the usual limit is known as gammopathy.


Polyclonal gammopathy is not a disorder but it is a strong or potent immunoglobulin response against infections. Polyclonal gammopathy does not occur in response to mild or acute infections but it only occurs in response to chronic infections or chronic diseases. Diseases of liver and collagen commonly leads to polyclonal gammopathy. Other diseases or infections which arise polyclonal gammopathy include scleroderma, primary biliary cirrhosis, polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fungal infections, chronic bronchitis, systemic lupus eryhtmatous, tuberculosis, infectious hepatitis and chronic active hepatitis.

So symptoms of polyclonal gammopathy are associated with the underlying cause. The treatment strategy is also designed according to the leading cause because treating the disease or infection automatically decrease the level of immunoglobulins.

Polyclonal Gammopathy Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Polyclonal Gammopathy Symptoms


In most of the cases polyclonal gammopathy does not show symptoms. Symptoms appearing may be associated with the underlying cause. But some common symptoms which appear in almost all infections and diseases are stress, fatigue, depressed mood, pain in the specified area of infection and anxious mood. Remaining symptoms are specified by the underlying disease or infection. It is asymptomatic because it only appears in response to chronic diseases and infections as a potent response. It is not a disorder or disease, but it has a plus point, that it successfully eliminates infectious pathogen from body.

Polyclonal Gammopathy Causes


Polyclonal gammopathy is a potent response against chronic diseases or infection. Some common diseases which leads to polyclonal gammopathy involve tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, osteomyelitis, trauma with slow healing process, chronic bronchitis, scleroderma, chronic fungal infections, syphilis, metastatic carcinoma, polymyositis, primary biliary cirrhosis PBC, infectious hepatitis, chronic active hepatitis CAH, rheumatoid arthritis RA, leishmaniasis also known as kala azar, chronic malaria, filariasis and systemic lupus eryhtmatous SLE. Other than these serum protein electrophoresis SPE strongly increase the level of gamma globulin leading to polyclonal gammopathy. the primary cause of polyclonal gammopathy should be known to design treatment strategy.

Polyclonal Gammopathy Treatment


Polyclonal gammopathy is not a disorder but a potent response which occurs in response to chronic diseases and infections. So treating the underlying cause will automatically decrease the level of immunoglobulins and polyclonal gammopathy will be treated.  As it is an asymptomatic disease, so it does not even require medication to relief symptoms. If cancer is the cause, chemotherapy will help a lot. Otherwise antibiotics are prescribed to treat infection. It only occurs in response to chronic diseases and infections so immediate diagnosis and treatment is required. If left untreated, it can cause death.
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Premature Adrenarche Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Premature adrenarche means premature puberty. It is a condition in which children become mature before their teenage starts. Children start maturing at the age of 8 in case of girls and at the age of 9 in case of boys. Basically adrenarche occurs due to premature awakening of adrenal gland. Adrenal gland is responsible for producing sex hormones. So premature releasing of sex hormones causes puberty i.e. adrenarche. Adrenal gland is present at the top of kidney. The sex hormones include androgens.


Zona reticularis of adrenal gland contains dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). When there is increase in production of these two regulators, it leads to increased adrenal androgen production. And children start maturing before their teenage. Premature adrenarche is not normal and can cause various diseases. There is an increased risk of polycystic ovary syndrome, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance.

When we discuss puberty it means development of secondary sex characteristics which transforms a sexually immature teenager to sexually mature teenager. It is normal at the age of 14 years in case of girls but in boys at the age of 16 years. During puberty, the secondary sex organs starts developing I.e. development of breast and pubic hair in girls and development of testes, pubic hair and chest hair in boys.

Premature Adrenarche Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Premature Adrenarche Sympytoms


When premature adrenarche occurs, secondary sex organs start developing in children before the age
of maturity. Girls start maturing at the age of 8 years while boys start maturing at the age of 9 years. Breast development and pubic hair growth are the symptoms of premature puberty in girls. In boys, development of bigger testes, pubic hair growth and chest hair growth is seen during puberty. There are no other pathological symptoms but premature adrenarche can lead to some medical conditions like insulin resistance.

Premature Adrenarche Causes


The exact cause of premature adrenarche is not known. It's pathology helps a lot in understanding the reason behind premature adrenarche. Dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate DHEAS are present in the zona reticularis of adrenal gland. These are the regulators of adrenal gland secretions. Increased production of DHEAS and DHEA leads to increased release of androgen which is a sex hormone. This hormone is responsible for puberty. When adrenal gland get activated before the usual age of maturity, it leads to premature adrenarche. DHEA and DHEAS are considered the biomarkers of premature adrenarche in children.

Premature Adrenarche Treatment



There is no treatment guidelines for premature adrenarche. It is just sexual growth of children before the usual age so it is considered okay. It is necessary to make sure if these changes are normal and do not causing any complications. Children with premature adrenarche are not self satisfied, so parents have to give them courage and should teach them that it is completely normal. If premature adrenarche is causing problems like insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome in adults and polycystic ovary syndrome in girls, then these conditions do require treatment. These conditions will be treated as per their treatment guidelines.
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Lichen Planus Vulva Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Cancer

Lichen planus is a rarely occurring inflammatory disease. It is a skin disease which has subtypes on the basis of body part involved. It occurs on skin, mucosa, nails and scalp. Likewise lichen planus vulva is the subtype of lichen planus which involves vulva. As vulva and vagina have mucous membrane on its surface. It is characterized as skin erosion, heterotrophic or papular lesions on the surface of vulva. It sometimes involves vagina too. It most commonly occurs on mucosal surfaces like oral cavity, vulvar and vaginal surface. Erosion occurs on the surface which may lead to severe tissue destruction.


Lichen Planus Vulva Images


Lichen Planus Vulva Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Cancer

Lichen Planus Vulva Symptoms


As it is a dermatological condition, so surface of the skin is involved. Erosion occurs on the surface. Sometimes papular or heterotrophic lesion occurs on mucosal surface. In women it commonly covers genital area I.e. vagina and vulva. So common symptoms include rash, itching, pain due to erosion because erosion causes severe tissue damage, redness and burning sensation. Chronic inflammation leads to scarring on vulvar surface. The reddish and inflammed puffy area is known as erosion on vulva. Other symptoms involve construction of vaginal opening and loss of labia minora (inner small lips of vagina).

Lichen Planus Vulva Causes


The exact cause behind lichen planus vulva is not known. But it is believed that it occurs in response to over active immune system. It is considered an autoimmune problem causing inflammation. It does not occur in response to an infection. Likewise age, hygiene, diet, menopause and sexual activity are not responsible for causing lichen planus vulva. It is not contagious and do not spread via direct contact or sexual activity. The common sites which it affects the most are the sites having mucosal surfaces like oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, nasal mucosa,  urethra and conjunctiva.

Lichen Planus Vulva Treatment


Treatment involves some life style changes which helps a lot in combat symptoms. As it is a skin disease, so patient is asked to avoid products which cause irritation. Some topical steroids creams and ointments are used. Local estrogen helps a lot in vulvar and vaginal healing. Lichen planus vulva may disappear on treatment, but it can reoccur after some time with no symptoms. As sexual intercourse is painful and full penetration of penis is almost impossible. So vaginal dilators are used to dilate vaginal opening for easy penetration. Surgery can be performed but in rare cases.

Lichen Planus Vulva Cancer


Rarely lichen planus vulva, if left untreated, can lead to vulvar cancer. But it is very rare I.e. there are only less than 5 percent chances of cancer development. Regular examinations are required to check out cancer cells production. As it is considered an autoimmune disease, so chances of cancer development is rare. Poor hygienic conditions of vagina and vulva may lead to vulvar cancer. If vulvar cancer is diagnosed, then immediate treatment is required. Symptoms become severe in vulvar cancer. Sometimes it left undiagnosed because most of the women do not pay attention and tell some one due to shame, so leaving it as it is is another factor which causes development of vulvar cancer.
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Richter Hernia Pain Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Richter hernia is a rare type of hernia associated with small intestine. Basically it occurs in the anti mesenteric wall of small intestine as a result of defect in abdominal wall. It is different and rare type of abdominal hernias in which only a single wall of intestine protrudes due to defect. It means the intestinal lumen shows incomplete involvement in defect and the uninvolved part remains in peritoneal cavity. If necrosis occurs accompanying protrusion during hernia then it may lead to repair, peritonitis and perforation. It is very dangerous type of hernia that it can prove fatal for health.


Richter's Hernia Symptoms


Initially Richter's hernia shows mild symptoms but with passage of time, the symptoms become severe and some times prove fatal. Common symptoms of Richter's hernia involve systemic malaise and systemic fever. Cramps in abdomen with severe abdominal pain. Patient may experience excessive vomiting and nauseatic feeling. Visually abdomen looks swell. On touch, patient can observe a painful mas in the groin region, which is hard on touch. Problem arises in the digestion of food. Bowel movement of intestine causes pain. As every bowel movement induces a layer of pain in abdomen which is almost unbearable.

Richter Hernia Pain Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Richter's Hernia Causes


Richter's hernia is a type of abdominal hernia. It occurs when intestinal wall starts pushing itself through muscle wall of abdominal opening. It is really small in size and difficult to diagnose. Once it tries to pass through abdominal opening, it got traped. As a result strangulated tissues start forming immediately. It happens because of improper blood supply to the area. When there is no blood, gangrene occurs (gangerene is the cell death and tissue death). As a result, life threatening condition occurs. That's why Richter's hernia has proved fatal for health. It requires immediate management right after diagnosis.

Richter's Hernia Treatment


It is the dangerous and rare type of hernia which occurs in abdomen. It requires immediate treatment right after diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment option for Richter's hernia. It has a drawback, that diagnosis of Richter's hernia is not easy, so treatment delays and patient dies in most of the cases. It has high mortality rate with late diagnosis and late treatment. Gold standard technique is used primarily to repair the part involved in peritoneal cavity. Then laparotomy is performed, in case perforation is suspected. No medications are prescribed other than pain medications I.e. ibuprofen.

Richter's Hernia Pain


As Richter's hernia is the type of abdominal hernia, so all the symptoms are associated with abdomen. Pain is the common symptom. It is mild at the initial stage of Richter's hernia but it becomes worse with the passage of time. When intestinal anti mesenteric wall tries to pass through abdominal opening, it got trapped and pinched. Due to pinching, pain arises. At starting, it is mild but gradually it become unbearable. Intensity of pain increases because of gangerene I.e. cell death. Improper blood and oxygen supply to the site is responsible for gangrene or tissue death.
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Right Ventricular Conduction Delay Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Right ventricular conduction delay means late blood pumping from right ventricle of heart. It is characterized as long QRS complex I.e. more than 0.12 seconds. A single tissue of any branch of bundle of His is involved in delayed conduction. There are three main conditions associated with conduction block which are left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block and interventricular conduction delay. In case of right ventricular conduction delay, right bundle branch block is responsible.


The bundle branch block may be complete or incomplete. Due to right bundle branch block, the conduction of blood towards right bundle of His is reduced and slow. When depolarization occurs in right ventricle, the left one is halfway finished and electrical activity is lost. The QRS interval of right ventricle is marked positive. Right bundle branch block is considered the most common cause behind right ventricular conduction delay.

When we compare complete and incomplete right bundle branch block, the duration of QRS varies. In complete right bundle branch block, the QRS interval is above 120 ms in adults and above 100 ms in children. In case of incomplete right bundle branch block, the QRS interval is between 110 and 120 ms in adults and between 90 and 100 ms in children.

Right Ventricular Conduction Delay Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Right Ventricular Conduction Delay Symptoms


Right  ventricular conduction delay shows symptoms which resemble with symptoms of other heart diseases. Patient suffers from chest pain. Pain may become severe with time due to improper functioning of heart. Patient may become faint due to low blood pressure. Palpitations occur and patient faces difficulties in breathing like shortness of breath with slow exertion. Sometimes rapid breathing occurs due to insufficient conduction of blood and insufficient cellular oxygen supply. Patient may feel nausea and muscle fatigue due to decreased blood supply and cellular oxygen supply.

Right Ventricular Conduction Delay Causes


Right bundle branch block is considered the most common cause of right ventricular conduction delay in healthy individuals. It is responsible for delayed right ventricular depolarization. There may be many reasons behind right bundle branch block. Some of them are atrial septal defect, rheumatic heart disease, right ventricular hypertrophy i.e. increase in size of ventricle, myocarditis, pulmonary embolism I.e. moveable blockage in pulmonary artery or vein, hypertension or cardiomyopathy and brugada syndrome. Bruguda syndrome is defined as prolonged or elevated ST interval due to ventricular fibrillation. These are the all possible reasons which can cause right ventricular conduction delay.

Right Ventricular Conduction Delay Treatment


Right ventricular conduction delay can be treated via following the treatment strategy of the underlying cause. Treating right bundle branch block will help a lot in treating right ventricular conduction delay. Medications are prescribed to control blood pressure. These medications will also reduce the chances of heart failure. Coronary angioplasty is performed in severe cases to open up the pulmonary artery supplying blood to ventricle. In some cases, a pace maker is attached for normal functioning of heart. Cardiac resynchronization is another treatment option which closely resemble pace maker but have an additional wire attached with left side of heart.
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