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Benedikt's Syndrome Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

   

Paramedian mid brain syndrome is the other name of Benedikt's syndrome. It is defined as circulatory stroke in the posterior part of brain. Benedikt's syndrome leads to various symptoms which mainly affects mid brain, cerebellum and other related structures. Even a single lesion in in the tegmentum of the mid brain can cause Benedikt's syndrome. Other than tegmentum of mid brain, lesions in cerebral peduncle, lower oculomotor nucleus, ocular fasciculus and infarction in red nucleus are also observed. Main characteristic of Benedikt's syndrome is ipsilateral palsy in third nerve and hemitremor occurs contralateraly. Posterior cerebral artery is the main artery which cause Benedikt's syndrome.


Benedikt's syndrome closely resembles Claude's syndrome and Weber's syndrome because their symptoms resembles a lot. So accurate diagnosis is required. Benedikt's syndrome mainly affects eye movement either left or right. Hemichorea is also a symptom. Palsy occurs in one side of body which is opposite to the affected side of brain. Tremors are contralateral so tremors occur in whole body.. Pupils dilate and do not respond to any stimulus. Tendons show hyper activity. Ptosis and diplopia occurs. Lesion in motor nerves causes many movement problems like patient can't move his arm and shoulder while walking.

Benedikt's Syndrome Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Benedikt's Syndrome Causes


Benedikt's syndrome is a rare syndrome with less than 1 percent chance of occurrence. Usually a car accident or sports injury can cause Benedict syndrome. Benedikt's syndrome occurs due to lesion in tegmentum of mid brain. Not only lesion, infarction, hemorrhage, tuberculosis or tumor can also cause Benedikt's syndrome. Cerebellum is also involved along with mid brain. In tegmentum of mid brain, mainly posterior cerebral artery is involved in lesion and penetration of basilar artery in paramedian. Median zone is the most affected area which leads to Benedikt's syndrome. Some times it may occur secondary to neurological diseases.

Benedikt's Syndrome Symptoms


Benedikt's syndrome cause many complications. Symptoms of Benedikt's syndrome include dilation of pupils and pupils no more response to any stimulus. Oculomotor nerve palsy and cerebellar ataxia are the main characteristic of Benedikt's syndrome. Movement of eyes got disturb. Ipsilateral palsy and contralateral ataxia are main symptoms of Benedikt's syndrome. Palsy occurs in one side of body which is opposite to the affected side of brain. Tremors are contralateral so tremors occur in whole body. Other symptoms include hemichorea, ptosis and diplopia. Tendons show hyper activity. If lesion occurs in motor nerves, then it affects movement of different parts of body like patient can't swing his arm properly.

Benedikt's Syndrome Treatment


Benedikt syndrome can be treated via deep brain stimulation. But it only helps in relieving some symptoms and does not treat disease. Basically tremors are the main problem which should be treated. If diagnosis shows hemorrhage in mid brain, then thrombolytic therapy is recommended. Tissue plasmin is activated via alteplase if patient have acute ischaemic stroke. Surgery can be performed if no medicines help. Other than treatment, nutritional support is also necessary. Patient have to focus on exercise because exercise increases blood circulation in whole body.

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