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Balint's Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

   

Balint syndrome is a neuropsychological condition which is rare and not completely understood yet. Balint syndrome leads to various medical conditions like optic ataxia, visual simultagnosia and oculomotor apraxia. In Balint syndrome patient is not able to move his eyes intentionally to see an object he wants to see. Patient cannot reach to an object he wants to hold and patient is not able to visualize the whole scene with his eyes but can only see a part of the scene. It can be explained via common example. If a patient tries to see a house, he would be able to see only a door or window of that house, not the whole house.


All the above mentioned conditions are related to vision and eye movement. So patient with Balint syndrome have to depend on other senses for guidance. Balint syndrome appears as acute onset after two or more strokes in each hemisphere. These strokes appear at same place in both hemisphere. This is the reason behind its rareness. The strokes may occur due to severe and sudden hypotension. Infarction occurs on bilateral border zone of occipital parietal region. In degenerative diseases, chance of progression of Balint syndrome increases.

Balint's Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Balint Syndrome Symptoms


Balint syndrome leads to three main abnormalities related to eyes. 1st one is optic ataxia. In this condition patient is not able to see intentionally towards an object he wants to see. 2nd one is visual simultagnosia. In this condition patient cannot see the whole scene with his eyes but can see some things in whole scene. Like when patient sees a house, the whole scenery become blur and he can only see the door or window clearly. 3rd condition is oculomotor apraxia in which patient cannot access to an object he is currently watching.

Balint Syndrome Causes


Balint syndrome is a rare neuropsychological abnormality which is not completely understood yet. Its underlying cause is also not known clearly. But the only reported cause behind Balint syndrome is parietaloccipital lobe damage. Damage is On both sides of brain. parietal lobe is present right in the middle of the top part of brain and occipital lobe is present in the back side of brain. Temporal lobes are not affected. This damage to occipital parietal lobe leads to occurrence of stroke in both hemisphere. Hypotension is another leading cause of Balint syndrome. Infarction in border line of occipital parietal lobe also cause Balint syndrome.

Balint Syndrome Treatment


Balint syndrome is related to eye movement and vision. It is a neuropsychological abnormality so its treatment strategy related to it. Rehabilitation training helps a lot in recovering vision and also helps in developing guided manual movements. There are only 3 main treatment strategies which are used. 1st one is adaptive approach in which functional tasks make patient active and provide strength. It is the most popular treatment approach. 2nd one is multicontext approach in which practice is preferred along with visual learning. In this approach patient is asked to perform multiple tasks in different environment. 3rd approach is remedial approach in which recovery of damaged CNS is involved.

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