Blog Archive


Cystic Medial Necrosis Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

The breakdown of muscles, elastin and collagen of blood vessels is known as cystic medial necrosis. It commonly involves aorta which supplies oxygenated blood to all parts of bodies. Aorta is the largest artery which is responsible mainly for supplying oxygenated blood to whole body from heart. As collagen, elastin and muscles surrounding blood vessels are responsible for the shape and structure of blood vessels. During cystic medial necrosis, when these structures get damaged, there is a possibility that blood may leaks out of blood vessels and blood flow regurgitation may occur.


Cystic medial necrosis in aorta is also referred as aortic dissection. It is a life threatening condition. Cystic medial necrosis is a histological finding. It is also termed as connective tissue disorder, because connective tissues i.e. elastin, collagen and muscles of blood vessels get damaged in cystic medial necrosis. This condition sometimes does not appear cystic and necrotic. Cystic medial necrosis is associated with three main medical conditions. These conditions are marfan's syndrome, ehlers danlos syndrome and annuloaortic ectasia. The microscopic features of cystic medial necrosis involve basophilic ground substance. Elastic lamina appears disruptive in media. Elastin stains are used to stain blood vessel sample for histological finding.

Cystic Medial Necrosis Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Cystic Medial Necrosis Symptoms


Cystic medial necrosis is a life threatening condition which if not treated on time, can cause death. It is a histological finding and it's associated symptom involves severe chest pain. The symptoms become worse if it results in aortic dissection. Pain in chest involving both back and front side, vomiting, shock and dizziness are reported as symptoms. Excessive blood loss will lead to low blood pressure and sweating occurs as a result. Vomiting may have blood in it. Bloody stool is also reported as a result of cystic medial necrosis.

Cystic Medial Necrosis Causes


Cystic medial necrosis involves destruction or breakdown of muscles, elastin and collagen (collectively called as connective tissues). Sometimes connective tissue breakdown occurs as a result of any degenerative disease. Three main degenerative diseases are reported behind muscle, elastin and collagen breakdown. These diseases include marfan syndrome, Ehlers danlos syndrome and annuloaortic ectasia. Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder. Under microscopic evaluation of marfan syndrome, aortic aneurysm is seen which is the ultimate cystic medial necrosis. Well ehlers danlos syndrome is a genetic defect and highly associated with aortic dissection I.e. cystic medial necrosis.

Cystic Medial Necrosis Treatment


Cystic medial necrosis can be treated in two ways i.e. medical and surgical way. In surgery, the destructive portion of aorta is replaced with a normal one i.e. Dacron graft. Aortic dissection is performed for type A and type B necrosis. Type A is for ascending aorta and type B is for descending aorta. It is preferred when medications are of no use anymore in treating cystic medial necrosis. Medications are prescribed at mild stage of cystic medial necrosis. Beta blockers are used initially and other drug classes involve calcium channel blockers, nitroprusside to relax vascular walls and ACE inhibitors.
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Keratosis Obturans Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Treatment

Keratin blockage in the ear canal is known as keratosis obturans. Desquamated keratin starts accumulating in ear canal i.e. external ear canal. It is a rare disorder. Keratin plug blocks ear canal at inner half of ear canal. Keratin is a protein which is present in skin and nails. It is responsible for giving strength and rigidity to nails and skin. Highly keratinized skin is more prone to keratosis obturans. Epithelial layer of skin is naturally designed to move from the center of ear drum toward walls of ear canal. This epithelium when mixes with sweat and moisture in ear, it makes ear wax. But keratinized plug is different from ear wax.


Keratosis Obturans Symptoms


Keratosis obturans occurs due to keratin accumulation in ear canal. This keratin accumulation leads to erosion of the bone of ear canal. Patient feels severe pain which may radiate from ear to whole face including jaw line and eyes. Patient may suffer from hearing loss. Tinnitus is the common symptom reported. Accumulation of keratin is itself is not an infectious process but can lead to infection. Patients with compromised immune system are more prone to ear infection as a result of keratosis obturans.

Keratosis Obturans Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Treatment

Keratosis Obturans Causes


Movement of epithelium of skin towards walls of ear canal is normal. But in keratosis obturans, something hinders the keratin movement towards ear canal and as a result it starts accumulating in the inner half part of ear canal. The keratin starts piling up in ear canal and blocks it while skin keeps shedding off. Increase in shedding of skin leads to complete blockage of ear canal. Patients with highly keratinized skin are more prone to keratosis obturans. At initial stage of keratin accumulation, patient will start showing symptoms.

Keratosis Obturans Treatment


Piling up of skin keratin can be removed mechanically from ear canal. A microscope is required for that purpose. Inner half part of ear canal is the most sensitive part of ear. Special care is required for removal of ear canal obstruction. Some there may be nerve exposure at the base of pile of keratin, so special care is strictly needed. Keratosis obturans is a different condition from normal wax accumulation. So it is treated once and then patient have to follow some preventive measures to stop it's recurrence. Once the debris is removed, it's symptoms will disappear too.

Keratosis Obturans Prevention


After removal of ear canal debris, patient is asked to clear his ear canal regularly with cotton bud. It will reduce or eliminate the recurrence of keratosis obturans. If doctor have prescribed any medication, then patient have to take it to control the irregular epithelium flow. As keratosis obturans involve the inner half part of ear canal, so it's regular removal may not be an easy task. So most of the patients prefer mechanical removal of ear canal debris again and again after specific period of time. Patient have to avoid water contact and moisture, is it can make the condition severe.
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Pansystolic Murmur Symptoms, Causes, Sound, Treatment

Pansystolic murmur is the type of systolic heart murmur. Murmur is the sound produced by heart during systolic and diastolic blood filling. It is a specific heart sound which is produced as a result of pathological condition. Basically three main conditions are reported behind pansystolic murmur. These conditions involve mitral regurgitation, ventricular septal defect or tricuspid regurgitation. It starts from 1st sound of systolic pressure and extends up to 2nd sound of diastolic pressure. The murmur sound is at its peak during inspiration. It can be heard properly by placing stethoscope at left fourth sternal border.


When blood regurgitant flow towards right ventricle is increased, the intensity can be checked at this point. Pulmonary hypertension is reported to as a cause of tricuspid regurgitation. Tricuspid regurgitation is rare and can be caused by a bacteria named endocarditis. While in case of mitral regurgitation, there is no peak sound during inspiration. It occurs due to incompetent mitral valve. The pressure in left ventricle increases as compare to left atrium at initial isovolumic contraction. The pressure increases because of mitral valve closing i.e. S1. This reason states that why pansystolic murmur starts at S1. The pressure extends up to closure of aortic valve I e. S2.

Pansystolic Murmur Symptoms, Causes, Sound, Treatment

Pansystolic Murmur Causes


There are only 3 main causes reported behind pansystolic murmur. These reasons include tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation or ventricular septal defect. In case of tricuspid regurgitation, murmur sound produces as a result of increased regurgitation flow towards right ventricle during inspiration. Pulmonary hypotension is responsible for causing this increased flow. In case of mitral regurgitation, the defect in mitral valve leads to increase in pressure towards left ventricle and then towards left atrium while aortic valve closure. This is the main reason why pansystolic murmur sound starts from S1 to S2.

Pansystolic Murmur Symptoms


Symptoms of pansystolic murmur sound resemble other murmur abnormalities. Common symptoms include chest pain during inhalation. As pansystolic murmur is at peak during inspiration. Patient feel heart palpitations during breathing. As high blood pressure is the cause, so sweating will occur with less or no exertion. Difficulty in breathing along with shortness of breathe. The color of skin turns blue specially tips of fingers. Patient feel heavy breathing and fatigue. Sometimes patient become faint due to excessive dizziness. Patient may feel weakness in limbs with heavy sweating.

Pansystolic Murmur Treatment


Pansystolic murmur sounds means heart size is enlarged than usual and weaken than before. So it's treatment is necessary. Basically there is no specific treatment for murmur sounds. But it can be cured by treating the leading cause. As if it is occurring as a result of high blood pressure i.e. hypertension, then treatment for managing hypertension is highly recommended. Medication therapy including blood thinning agents is recommended. Medications to lower blood pressure and increased heart beats. Diuretics are also recommended to regulate salt and water concentration and controlling hypertension. If there is a cause other than hypertension, then surgery can be performed to correct heart defect.
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Boggy Uterus Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

In boggy uterus, uterus looks loose or more flaccid than usually it should be. Boggy uterus may be associated with two main conditions named uterine atony and adenomyosis. Uterine atony is the condition in which uterus loses its natural shape or tone. The muscles become loose and the natural shape of uterus disturbs. While in adenomyosis, the endometrium extends outward. Endometrium is the lining which covers the uterus. The extended endometrium get into the outermost covering named myometrium.


Myometrium consists of fibrous and muscular tissues. Boggy uterus causes problem during pregnancy. When endometrial mass does not flow out of body during menses, it will start accumulating inside myometrium and results in swelling of uterus. Patient may also feel muscle cramps. Boggy uterus does not complicate the pregnancy in fact in some cases women do not even have idea about their boggy uterus during pregnancy.

The symptoms of boggy uterus involve vaginal bleeding and cramps. Initial symptoms of boggy uterus involve pain during sexual intercourse, painful bowel movements and pain during menstrual flow. Blood comes out from vagina in the form of blood clots. In some cases it is asymptomatic and cannot be diagnosed without physical examination. Boggy uterus can be diagnosed by touching lower belly with fingers.

Boggy Uterus Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Boggy Uterus Causes


Boggy uterus have two main leading causes 1st one is uterine atony and 2nd one is adenomyosis. In adenomyosis, glandular de arrangement of uterine muscles leads to boggy uterus. It is considered the common cause of all uterine problems after the age of 30 years. About 20 percent of women with adenomyosis have boggy uterus. The exact reason is still unknown but the abnormality in barrier separating endometrium and myometrium causes endometrium to get into myometrium causing adenomyosis and ultimately boggy uterus. In case of uterine atony, muscular abnormality leads to boggy uterus.

Boggy Uterus Symptoms


As boggy uterus appears more loose or flaccid than normally it should be. Other symptoms include vaginal bleeding as occurs during menstruation, Pain during menstruation, muscle cramps with severe pain and painful sexual intercourse. Uterus appear larger and de shaped than usual. Blood comes out in the form of heavy clots. Most of the time boggy uterus is asymptomatic but if it show symptoms then it's diagnosis will be easy. If it occurs during pregnancy, it do not harm the fetus but bleeding do not stop. This may lead to anemia and can affect fetus.

Boggy Uterus Treatment


Initial diagnosis of boggy uterus does not require any treatment. If mild symptoms appear, then painkilling medications are recommended to relief pain and other symptoms. Birth control pills are also used. No surgery is recommended in case of mild symptoms. But if pain becomes unbearable and uterus appears de shaped, then hysterectomy is highly recommended. Hysterectomy is performed in women near to menopause. Other than these treatment strategies, some hormonal therapy is also used like gonadotropin releasing agents like Lupron. These gonadotropin releasing agents will contract uterus and stop menstruation. But there are high chances of recurrence of boggy uterus after therapy discontinuation.
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Submucous Cleft Palate Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Submucous cleft palate is a type of cleft palate. To understand it, the terms and anatomy of mouth should be cleared. Palate is the roof of mouth cavity and cleft is the partition of palate which separates it into two parts from mid. Submucous is the membrane which covers cleft palate. Palate consist of two main portions I.e. soft palate which is the muscular part and hard palate which is the bony part. Where soft palate ends, a small finger like tissue hangs which is known as uvula. The mucous membrane covers the cleft palate in a way that it becomes difficult to see cleft palate with naked eye.


The submucous cleft palate in case of soft palate appears as deficiency in mid line or incorrect positioning of muscles. Submucous cleft palate in case of hard palate appears as bony defect right in the middle of hard palate. When palate is touched with a finger, it appears as a groove or depression right in the middle of palate. Sometimes uvula or bifid may associate with submucous cleft palate. It is a congenital abnormality which occurs during fetal development within mother's womb. Submucous cleft palate show effects on speech.

Submucous Cleft Palate Images


Submucous Cleft Palate Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Submucous Cleft Palate Symptoms


Submucous cleft palate show effects on speech of patient because of improper functioning of cleft palate muscles. Submucous cleft palate may generate problems in middle ear and patient face problem in hearing. Patient have to face difficulty in swallowing. In some patients it is asymptomatic and do not show apparent signs and symptoms. Submucous cleft palate may transfer from generation to generation as an obvious cleft palate transfers via hereditary. Patient may utter during speech. And sometimes patient cannot pronunciation a word properly because of improper attachment of muscles. These are the visible symptoms which makes its diagnosis easy.

Submucous Cleft Palate Causes


Submucous cleft palate is a congenital disease which occurs during fetal development within the womb of mother. The muscles of cleft in the palate attach abnormally to uvula and cause problems. This condition is known as bifid uvula. As it is a congenital abnormality so many genes are responsible for its cause. During pregnancy, when mother have some medications which are not suitable for fetus and can pass placental barrier can cause submucous cleft palate in fetus. Some environmental factors to which mother during pregnancy is exposed may also cause submucous cleft palate.

Submucous Cleft Palate Treatment


Submucous cleft palate is a congenital abnormality so it cannot be treated. But the symptoms can be resolved with specific treatment options. Like for feeding and swallowing problems some special techniques are used to resolve them. Ear and nose problems can be treated with consultation to ENT specialist. Surgery is the option which is performed to make the abnormality muscles aligned. The palate repairs and there is no pharyngeal flap seen. It is performed under general anesthesia and the primary goal is to have good speech production. Pre and post surgical evaluation is necessary in patients to check progress.
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Obturator Hernia Symptoms, Causes, Location, Treatment

Obturator foramen is present in lower pelvic region. When intestine protrudes through this obturator foramen, it causes hernia and this condition is termed as obturator hernia. It is a type of hernia which is not common. It most commonly occur in women specially adult women. Lean or very thin women are more prone to this. As obturator is not visible so there are no lumps in obturator hernia as other types of hernia have lumps. Its diagnosis is also difficult because of its location. Obturator hernia is a life threatening condition because blood supply is cut off in hernia and it leads to cell death.


Obturator Hernia Symptoms


Obturator hernia involves protrusion of intestine through obturator foramen. It leads to bowel obstruction. Bowel obstruction can be easily diagnosed but the obturator hernia diagnosis is not easy. With bowel obstruction, patient may also feel bloating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, severe pain in abdomen and pelvic region and constipation. Howship-Romberg is another symptom of obturator hernia. Howship-romberg is a pain which arises from the middle of thigh and run towards knee. When intestine herniated through obturator foramen, obturator nerve is pushed and howship-Romberg pain generated.

Obturator Hernia Symptoms, Causes, Location, Treatment

Obturator Hernia Causes


Obturator hernia cause is still unclear. But the reported causes are natural aging process. During aging, person loses muscle mass and fats from body. Sudden or continuous weight loss may also lead to obturator hernia. Malnutrition is another leading cause.  When patient start losing tissues and fats around muscles, small openings start appearing on muscles which covers canals. When these small openings appear on muscles surrounding intestine, obturator hernia may occur. Adult lean or very thin women are five times more likely to have obturator hernia as compare to men. Women with more pregnancies are at hit list.

Obturator Hernia Location


Obturator hernia occurs in the lower pelvic region. As obturator foramen is present in pelvic region near lower abdomen and intestine. Obturator foramen is present in pelvic region and function by allowing blood supply to pelvic region. When a part of intestine accidently passes from the opening of obturator foramen, it leads to obturator hernia. Because of hernia, blood supply will be disturbed and cells will start dying. Its diagnosis is difficult because of its hidden location. Obturator hernia leads to bowel obstruction.

Obturator Hernia Treatment


To select treatment strategy, diagnosis should be accurate and confirmed about obturator hernia. CT scan is performed for diagnosis. Treatment should be started as early as possible. Treatment option include Laparoscopy surgery. In traditional hernia surgery, only one incision is made but in case of latest laparoscopic hernia surgery, several small incision are made to reach dead cells of obturator hernia and protruding intestinal part. There is low risk of fatality in obturator hernia because fatality risk is up to 70 percent higher in old age patients as compare to adult lean women.
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Eczema on Foreskin Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Eczema on skin is also known as penile dermatitis eczema. It is a dermal condition in which skin becomes sore and itchy. Patient feels discomfort and embarrassment in public. Eczema is a skin condition which occurs due to over active immune system. It is externally triggered by various factors including food with high sugar and alcohol levels, extremely hot water wash, dry weather conditions, poor hygiene and reaction of certain harsh chemicals. It is hereditary in nature and is present by birth. It has different levels of severity. Mild eczema on foreskin may not bother but severe eczema causes skin rash.


Eczema can occur on any part of body including neck and face. Patient may experience pain in foreskin which is sometimes unbearable. Blisters form on the surface of foreskin skin. This condition may disturb patient sex life. As it is hereditary, so treating it completely is not possible. Medications can reduce its severity and symptoms but patient cannot get rid of it completely. There are some environmental factors which can initiate eczema or trigger pre existing eczema in patients. These factors involve skin rubbing or friction, latex allergy, allergy from a type of cloth, heat, sweat and reaction of any chemical product.

Eczema on Foreskin Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Eczema on Foreskin Symptoms


Eczema appears in different forms. And it can initiates with just a rash. Symptoms of eczema are as follows:Skin become dry and scaly. Blisters start appearing on surface of foreskin skin. Bumps will start raising on surface. Blister and bump formation will lead to scratch and scratching will make it severe. Eczema may affect penile shaft and glands. Itching will become severe. Eczema will show all the above mentioned symptoms if occur on any part of body. But on foreskin it is quite embarrassing and not comfortable at all.

Eczema on Foreskin Causes


Eczema on foreskin is hereditary but may exist in different forms. It may exist in mild form and do not bother. But there are some environmental factors which may trigger pre existing eczema and make it severe. These environmental factors involve dry weather conditions, extremely hot water wash, poor hygiene and as a result of some harsh chemicals. High level of sugar and alcohol in diet may also trigger eczema on foreskin. People find comfort in washing eczema, but it is not a good option because washing will make it severe. Other causes involve latex allergy, fabric allergy, rubbing or friction, sweat and heat.

Eczema on Foreskin Treatment


Eczema on foreskin cannot be treated completely but its severity can be reduced. Mostly topical medications are used for eczema. These medications involve anti histamines. Anti histamines helps to reduce itching and pain. Long term use of emollients is recommended. Emollients will make skin smooth and rash free. It keeps foreskin moisturized. UV light therapy is also recommended but in severe conditions. There is a drawback that UV light may burn the skin of foreskin. Steroid therapy involve topical steroids and are recommended in severe condition. Along with medications, patient have to follow some preventive measures to avoid its recurrence.
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Balint's Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Balint syndrome is a neuropsychological condition which is rare and not completely understood yet. Balint syndrome leads to various medical conditions like optic ataxia, visual simultagnosia and oculomotor apraxia. In Balint syndrome patient is not able to move his eyes intentionally to see an object he wants to see. Patient cannot reach to an object he wants to hold and patient is not able to visualize the whole scene with his eyes but can only see a part of the scene. It can be explained via common example. If a patient tries to see a house, he would be able to see only a door or window of that house, not the whole house.


All the above mentioned conditions are related to vision and eye movement. So patient with Balint syndrome have to depend on other senses for guidance. Balint syndrome appears as acute onset after two or more strokes in each hemisphere. These strokes appear at same place in both hemisphere. This is the reason behind its rareness. The strokes may occur due to severe and sudden hypotension. Infarction occurs on bilateral border zone of occipital parietal region. In degenerative diseases, chance of progression of Balint syndrome increases.

Balint's Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Balint Syndrome Symptoms


Balint syndrome leads to three main abnormalities related to eyes. 1st one is optic ataxia. In this condition patient is not able to see intentionally towards an object he wants to see. 2nd one is visual simultagnosia. In this condition patient cannot see the whole scene with his eyes but can see some things in whole scene. Like when patient sees a house, the whole scenery become blur and he can only see the door or window clearly. 3rd condition is oculomotor apraxia in which patient cannot access to an object he is currently watching.

Balint Syndrome Causes


Balint syndrome is a rare neuropsychological abnormality which is not completely understood yet. Its underlying cause is also not known clearly. But the only reported cause behind Balint syndrome is parietaloccipital lobe damage. Damage is On both sides of brain. parietal lobe is present right in the middle of the top part of brain and occipital lobe is present in the back side of brain. Temporal lobes are not affected. This damage to occipital parietal lobe leads to occurrence of stroke in both hemisphere. Hypotension is another leading cause of Balint syndrome. Infarction in border line of occipital parietal lobe also cause Balint syndrome.

Balint Syndrome Treatment


Balint syndrome is related to eye movement and vision. It is a neuropsychological abnormality so its treatment strategy related to it. Rehabilitation training helps a lot in recovering vision and also helps in developing guided manual movements. There are only 3 main treatment strategies which are used. 1st one is adaptive approach in which functional tasks make patient active and provide strength. It is the most popular treatment approach. 2nd one is multicontext approach in which practice is preferred along with visual learning. In this approach patient is asked to perform multiple tasks in different environment. 3rd approach is remedial approach in which recovery of damaged CNS is involved.
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Dennie Morgan Lines Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

The skin below lower eyelid in humans show lines which occur in response to atopic edema. These lines are known as Dannie Morgan lines. These lines apparently resemble wrinkle lines. But wrinkles appear on whole face and Dannie Morgan lines appear just below the lower eyelid. Basic reason behind it is edema in atopic dermatitis. It is also considered a diagnostic feature of allergy. It has 78% sensitivity and 76% specificity. Some people confuse it with allergic shiners and dark circles under the eye. Basic pathophysiology is unknown.


The only reported mechanism behind this condition is continuous spasm of Muller eyelid muscle. Usually skin edema leads to Dannie Morgan lines because of hypoxia from poor circulation. Accumulation of fluid is known as edema and in case of Dannie Morgan lines, it appears in the infra orbital groove. And the leading cause is nasal congestion. One line below the lower eyelid is normal but extra folds below lower eyelid indicates Dannie Morgan lines. Apparently these folds look dry.  There is no age limitation in Dannie Morgan line. Treating the underlying cause will cure Dannie Morgan Lines. There is no specific treatment designed for these Dannie Morgan folds.

Dennie Morgan Lines Pictures


Dennie Morgan Lines Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Dannie Morgan Lines Symptoms


Dannie Morgan Lines  is a visible condition which do not occur on its own but a sign of edema. Edema in the infra orbital groove occurs which leads to lines or wrinkles below the lower eyelid. Eyes look dry in Dannie Morgan Lines. It has no affect on vision. As it is a main sign of edema in atopic dermatitis and allergy, so other symptoms may related to underlying cause. Other symptoms may involve redness around eyes, swelling or inflammation, scaling, cracking and crusting. Dannie Morgan lines may turn to extremely itchy and inflamed skin folds.

Dannie Morgan Lines Causes


Dannie Morgan lines may occur as a result of edema in atopic dermatitis and allergy. In case of allergy, inflammation and nasal congestion it may occur. Nasal congestion leads to poor blood circulation in facial area due to which blood start backing up to eye region. Poor blood circulation will cause oxygen deficient condition of tissues named hypoxia. When there is less supply of oxygen, a particular muscle in eyelid i.e. Muller muscle will shoe spasm. Continuous spasms of this particular muscle will cause Dannie Morgan lines. Same phenomenon occurs in case of atopic dermatitis because inflammation is also a sign of atopic dermatitis.

Dannie Morgan Lines Treatment


There is no specific systemic treatment for Dannie Morgan lines but treating the underlying cause can resolve these extra skin folds. As in allergy, the poor circulation can be improved by treating nasal congestion and as a result Dannie Morgan lines will disappear. Other than treating underlying cause, topical medications are also used to reduce Dannie Morgan lines appearance. These topical medications contains alpha hydroxy acids. These AHAs have tendency to regenerate cells and improve skin texture. Alpha hydroxy acids help to remove top most layer of cells and generate new cells.
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Morrison's Pouch Fluid Symptoms, Causes, Location, Treatment

Morison pouch is also known as pouch of Morison, sub hepatic recess and hepatorenal recess. It is a separation which separates right kidney from liver. And fluid filled in that space leads to a condition named Morison pouch fluid. Usually there is no fluid in Morison pouch but it can be filled with fluid if stomach get filled with fluid (In case of hemoperitoneum). Intraperitoneal fluid,ascites, blood itself and dialysate may accumulate in Morison’s pouch. CT scan and ultrasound showss fluid in Morison pouch. But there is a limitation i.e. only 30 to 40 ml of fluid in abdomen can be seen with CT scan and ultrasound.


Morison’s Pouch Fluid Symptoms


When intraperitoneal fluid, blood, ascites or dialysate fills abdomen, it start moving towards space between right kidney and liver. This space is Morrison’s pouch. When fluid fillthis space, patient’s comfort level decreases. Patient may have feeling of fullness. Pain in the right side of body specially lower abdomen region. Patient cannot lie down easily. This fluid may further leads to formation of cancerous cells. These cancerous cells may make the condition worse and as a result ovarian cancer may occur. Ovarian cancer is also a diagnostic parameter of Morrison’s pouch fluid.

Morrison's Pouch Fluid Symptoms, Causes, Location, Treatment

Morrison’s Pouch Fluid Causes


Morison’s pouch fluid may occur due to accumulation of fluid in abdomen. And fluid starts accumulating in abdomen in various conditions including any kind of trauma and bleeding may result in abdominal filling with blood. Ascites is the fluid other than bleeding and it can accumulate in abdomen and Morison’s pouch as a result of heart, liver and kidney problem. As in heart failure, fluid starts accumulating in the abdomen, legs and liver leading to Morison’s pouch fluid. Portal hypertension, cirrhosis and liver failure also results in fluid filling in Morison’s pouch.

Morrison’s Pouch Fluid Location


Morrison’s pouch is present near lower abdomen. It is a potential space which is present in every person. It separates right kidney from liver. It is present inside the peritoneum and usually it do not have fluid in it. But in case of some diseases, fluid start filling in abdominal cavity and then this fluid starts shifting to Morrison’s pouch. The Morrison’s pouch when filled with fluid can easily be seen in computed tomography scan and ultrasound. But only 30 to 40 ml of abdominal fluid can be seen with these diagnostic techniques.

Morrison Pouch Fluid Treatment


Morrison’s pouch usually do not have fluid in it. But if fluid accumulates in Morison pouch, laparotomy is performed. In laparotomy, an incision is made right through abdominal wall for easy abdominal access. After accessing abdomen, abdominal fluid is extracted from it. After complete removal of abdominal fluid, wound is closed with stitches. The incision is made right in the mid of abdomen for easy access and is known as mid line incision.
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Curling's Ulcer Signs and Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment

Curling’s ulcer or curling ulcer is a type of ulcer which occurs in duodenum of gastro intestinal tract. Duodenum is the part of small intestine. Skin lesions and surface wounds are known as ulcers. In curling’s ulcer, small sized lesions or wounds occur on the surface of walls of small intestine. Epidermal tissues are involved in this disease. Curling’s ulcer is a dangerous condition which may occur as a result of severe burns to the body. MassiveTrauma and injuries may also lead to curling ulcer. Stress ulcers is another name of curling ulcer because it occurs as a result of severe stress on the body.


Curling’s Ulcer Symptoms


Curling’s ulcer occurs in small intestine specifically in duodenum. Its symptoms resemble symptoms of other type of stomach ulcers.Wounds or lesions occur on the surface of duodenal walls. These are surface lesions and tissues are involved. These lesions results in stomach pain. Patient feels lack of appetite and persistent vomiting. Blood in stool is another sign of curling ulcer. On the basis of above mentioned symptoms no one can diagnose curling ulcer. These symptoms appear as a result of burns on body so it makes difficult to diagnose curling ulcer specifically.

Curling's Ulcer Signs and Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment

Curling Ulcer Causes


There are limited number of causes behind it.Curling ulcer is a severe complication of burns on body. Other causes involve accidental injuries and massive trauma. In case of burns involving larger area of body, blood supply to small intestine with oxygen and other nutrients is reduced. As a result, intestine receive less oxygen and nutrients from blood. And due to lack of oxygen, cells and tissues of intestine will start dying. These dead cells are responsible for causing curling ulcer in small intestine. Same phenomenon occurs in case of injury and massive trauma.

Curling Ulcer Diagnosis


Curling syndrome diagnosis is really important because all the symptoms of curling ulcer, resemble symptoms of burns which makes it difficult to diagnose. Whenever these symptoms appear, endoscopy is performed to diagnose the cause. In endoscopy, a camera is inserted inside small intestine via mouth or anus. This camera take pictures or record inside condition of intestine. It is the only diagnostic process used for curling ulcer. Sometimes biopsy is performed to take sample of tissues and then further tests are performed on that sample. Assessment of results tells about the right cause behind it and treatment strategy is selected according to it.

Curling Ulcer Treatment


Curling ulcer occurs as a severe complication of burns in the body. So underlying cause is treated to cure curling’s ulcer. Curling ulcer was anciently cured by surgery only. Surgery  was performed to remove epidermal wounds of burns which ultimately cure curling ulcer.But now a days medicinal therapy have reduced the occurrence of curling ulcer. Medicinal therapy involves following medications. Antacids and H2 receptor antagonists. Proton pump inhibitors like omeprazole also helps in minimizing chances of occurrence of curling ulcer. All these medications are administered via enteral feeding which is a combination therapy with surgery.
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Mulberry Molars Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Mulberry molars is a dental condition in which permanent molars have various rudimentary cups on enamel. These rudimentary cups are round in shape. Mulberry molars occur as a main sign of congenital syphilis. It is a physical defect of permanent molars. In this condition, permanent molars are dwarfed with cusps and whole enamel is covered with globular growths. These abnormal molars will function properly and are fixed with implants, bridges and crowns.


The globular growths are present just on the top of molars and teeth looks normal just above the gum line. Congenital syphilis is the most common cause reported behind mulberry molars. Other causes include enamel hypoplasia and deficiency in composition of enamel. The dentin and pulp of molars look normal only the outer covering i.e. enamel and outer sheath is deformed and thin. It creates a smaller version of typical tooth.

Usually the grinding surface of molars containss a pit which is surrounded by circular ridge. But in case of mulberry molars, this pit is not present and if present, then it is extremely shallow. Actually pit is not absent instead it is filled with globular growths which are joined together and covers all along the surface.

Mulberry Molars Images

Mulberry Molars Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Mulberry Molars Symptoms


Mulberry molars symptoms are visible. It is a dental condition in which permanent molars are involved. Basically it is the deformity of permanent molars. Pit is absent or shallow. Actually pit is not really absent but it is filled with globular growths. The globular growths are connected to each other and cover the whole top surface of molars. Rudimentary cups are present on surface of defective molars. The grinding surface is also corrupted. Mulberry molars look normal just above the gum line but deformity is apparent all along the cusp or grinding surface of Mulberry molars.

Mulberry Molars Causes


Mulberry molars have most common cause i.e. congenital syphilis. And mulberry molars is considered a main sign of congenital syphilis. It passes from mother to her fetus during pregnancy and may run into family. It is present by birth but appears after falling of baby teeth and during growth of permanent molars. So it is considered a late stage sign of congenital syphilis. Hutchinson disease is another leading cause of deformed teeth. In this disease, teeth are placed far apart from one another. Sometimes congenital syphilis and Hutchinson disease occur simultaneously. Other causes include common cold, urinary tract disease, late congenital syphilis and hypoglycemia.

Mulberry Molars Treatment


Mulberry molars are smaller in size than normal molars. Basically enamel is defective in mulberry molars and the internal structure including roots are normal. It is a physiological disease. So cosmetic dental surgery is the only treatment. There are many ways to cover defective enamel of molars 1st one of them is dental crown. Veneers and bonds both are used as dental crown to cover front side of mulberry molars. 2nd one is dental bridge, in this two dental crowns are applied which are linked via bridge. 3rd one is dental implant. In dental implant, the whole tooth is changed.
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Tracheal Deviation Images, Examination, Assessment, Hemothorax, Treatment

Trachea is a wind pipe which runs downwards from neck to chest cavity. It allows air to pass in and out from body. Due to abnormal pressure within chest cavity, trachea shifts towards opposite side of affective lung and this phenomena is termed as tracheal deviation. Tracheal deviation is also known as tracheal shift. Pneumothorax is the best example, as in pneumothorax intrathorasic pressure increases in one side of chest cavity so as a result trachea shifts towards other side of chest cavity and neck due to low pressure. Other examples involve fibro thorax, pleural effusion, atelectasis and in case of some cancers including bronchial and lung cancer.


Tracheal Deviation Examination


Tracheal deviation is visually inspected on the basis of use of accessory muscles, chest structure and respiratory pattern. Shape of the chest helps to identify tracheal deviation. Shape of chest is observed on the basis of structure of the ribs and spine. Breathing pattern is also a diagnostic tool. After inspection, palpation is the 2nd step. In palpation, 2 fingers are placed at the back side of chest right below diaphragm and palpations are recorded. After palpation, auscultation is performed for tracheal deviation.

Tracheal Deviation Images

Tracheal Deviation Images, Examination, Assessment, Hemothorax, Treatment

Tracheal Deviation Assessment


After examination, results are assessed to confirm the leading cause.Every respiratory disorder show different clinical finding. As in case of pleural effusion, tracheal deviation is contralateral. And no tracheal deviation is observed in emphysema and consolidation. Pneumothorax is the most common cause of tracheal deviation and it appears as contralateral tracheal deviation. In case of mucous plug with lung collapse, tracheal deviation is ipsilateral. In both contralateral and ipsilateral tracheal deviation, breathing sounds are decreased. So on the basis of these examination & assessment, leading respiratory disorder can be easily diagnosed and treated.

Tracheal Deviation Hemothorax


Hemothorax is a clinical condition in which blood accumulates in either side of chest cavity. Due to this blood accumulation, intra thoracic pressure increases leading to tracheal deviation. If blood accumulates in right side of chest cavity, then trachea will shift towards left side of chest cavity because of pressure difference in both sides. Preferably trachea deviates towards low intra thoracic pressure side. Blood in hemothorax contains only a little amount of pleural fluid. Dyspnea, abnormal oxygenation and poor ventilation are observed as sign of hemothorax. Trachealdeviation also counted as a clinical sign of hemothorax.

Tracheal Deviation Treatment


Treatment strategy totally depends upon leading cause of tracheal deviation. There is no specific treatment for tracheal deviation. When causative diseases are treated, tracheal deviation resolve on its own. In case of multinodular goiter, goiter is removed surgically. Mediastinal lymphoma is treated via chemotherapy. Biopsy is performed in pleural effusion and thoracentesis is performed in case of pneumonectomy. Pleural fibrosis is treated via surgery. Pulmonary fibrosis can be treated with medications. All these treatments mentioned above will lead to correction of tracheal deviation.
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Lumbosacral Spondylosis without Myelopathy Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

To understand the term lumbosacral spondylosis without myelopathy, we have to learn individual term first. Spondylosis is a condition in which the vertebrae show degenerative changes due to old age. The word spondyl was anciently used for vertebrae. Lumbosacral is the part of vertebrae involving both lumber and sacral region. Myelopathy is a condition which describes injury in spinal cord due to compression. So degenerative changes in lumbosacral region of vertebrae due to aging is known as lumbosacral spondylosis.


Myelopathy is not the reason behind spinal changes. The triads of joints present in spinal column are affected due to osteoarthritic changes. The joints mainly involved are paired zygapophysial joints posteriorly and the disks present in between vertebrae anteriorly. With the passage of age, these degenerative changes are ubiquitous but sometimes lower back pain is associated with it. Patients with old age are at more risk of lumbosacral spondylosis.

It can occur around the age 65. Patients with lower back pain are have 7 to 75 percent chances of spondylosis. Age is the biggest risk factor other factors affecting lumbosacral spondylosis involve genetic predisposition, joint overload, previous trauma or injury and being a women is another risk factor.

Lumbosacral Spondylosis without Myelopathy Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Lumbosacral Spondylosis Without Myelopathy Symptoms


The main symptom related to lumbosacral spondylosis is lower back pain. If zygapophysial joint is affected, then patient may feel tenderness in paraspinal region. Patient may continuously suffer moderate pain in lower back region but sometimes it becomes severe and unbearable. The hips and sacroiliac joint function properly. It is considered asymptomatic because it does not show any other symptoms than pain. If nerve compression occurs, then pain may radiate to neck and shoulder. Nerve compression can also cause headache. Muscle spasm and trigger points with severe or chronic pain are also reported symptoms.

Lumbosacral Spondylosis Without Myelopathy Causes


Aging is the biggest cause and risk factor of lumbosacral spondylosis. Ligament and bone spurs occur as a result of osteoarthritis. The discs present in between the vertebrae start to degenerate and weaken. Weaken discs may lead to bulging and herniation. The increased rate of occurrence of lumbosacral spondylosis is partially dependant on genetic predisposition and previous injury. Genetics is another leading cause. If anyone in guardians suffered from spondylosis, then most probably it can occur in their siblings. Osteoarthritis and previous injury are also included in risk factors and these can make the previously present condition worse.

Lumbosacral Spondylosis Without Myelopathy Treatment


The changes in lumbosacral region once occur, it cannot be reversed. So treatment strategies are designed to relief symptoms. Patient have to adopt some life style changes. Improving life style will help a lot in eliminating symptoms. Patient is asked to do exercise specially yoga. As yoga is beneficial for health. NSAIDS are prescribed to relief pain. Along with medication therapy, patient should go for physical therapy. If medications do not work, then pain relieving injections are the 2nd option. Surgery is not commonly recommended but it can only be performed to stabilize the vertebrae.
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Vulvar Dystrophy Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Vulvar dystrophy or dermatoses, are the changes in the skin of vulva. It is anatomical reproductive disease and relatively commonly occurring gynecologic problem in postmenopausal woman. It is a condition caused by abnormal growth of skin on vulva. It is considered as chronic disorder. Most commonly It may be due to squamous cell hyperplasia or due to lichen sclerosis. Most dystrophies are diagnosed by Vulvar biopsy.


There are four different types of dystrophy effecting the vulva are explained as:

Squamous cell hyperplasia, also known as hypertrophic vulvar dystrophy, is the most common form, among 40% and 45% of diagnosed cases. In this type, the skin becomes abnormaly thick with white or gray patches

Lichen sclerosis causes the skin to become thin, pale in colour and wrinkled.

Lichen planus, is a chronic inflammatory skin disease which can cause red areas or sores.This is more severe type, and can involve not only the vulva, but also the vagina.

Lichen simplex chronicus involves thickened white patches on one side of the vulva. The itching seems to increase in the evening mostly when the vulva is dry.

Woman may be diagnosed with mixed dystrophics, and it is completely common. A combination of squamous hyperplasia and lichen forms of vulvar dystrophy.

Vulvar Dystrophy Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Vulvar Dystrophy Symptoms


Patients experience as a first sign is continuous itiching, pain, burning, stinging of the vulva, sensitivity, wart like growths, lumps and ulceration. Vulvar disorders also lead to increase in the desire to scratch. White or grey patches of thickened or thin skin appears on the vulva, sometimes with scaling, cracking, surface bleeding, or wrinkling and swollen vagina are seen. Redness or sores on the vaginal area is also seen. Patients also feels pelvic pain. Patients suffered from painful sexual intercourse. Heat, sweat and friction also worsen the condition. In some cases there may be asymptomatic. It may lead to skin cancer.

Vulvar Dystophy Causes


The exact cause of this disorder is still not known. It is thought to be immune mediated disorder. Initially it occurs due to yeast infections. It may also be due to skin irritation, skin infections or the Human Papilloma virus (HPV). Patients once established natural itch scratch cycle can increase the problem. Itch-scratch cycle is provoked by skin irritation which leads to pruritus and scratching. Scratching results in skin thickening and additional irritation which contributes to the vulvar disorder. It occurs where there is a loss of epidermis.

Vulvar Dystrophy Treatment


Long term treatment requires to reduce discomfort. Patient should take bath with unscented soaps and rinse the genital area thoroughly, and dry without rubbing the vulva. Patient should wear cotton fabric, scented products should be avoided like perfumes, sanitizers etc.

Topical progesterone, hydrocortisone creams are used, high potency topical corticosteroid cream that is applied into the vulvar area for several weeks. Sitz baths helpful in removing all irritants and allergens to reduce itching and irritation. Cream should be rubbed in to the genital area approximately 2 minutes. Vulvar soothing creams are used to sooth and restore the vulvar tissues.
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