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Lateral Pontine Syndrome Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Lateral pontine syndrome is defined as a condition in which lesion occurs in pons. Lateral pontine syndrome closely resembles lateral medullary syndrome the only difference is location of occurrence. It occurs in pons and cranial nerve nuclei of the pons. Lateral pontine syndrome is also known as Marie foix syndrome or Marie foix alajouanine syndrome. It is a type of brain stem stroke syndromes. Lateral pontine syndrome involves following structures.

  • Corticospinal tract
  • Spinothalamic tract
  • Vestibule cochlear nerve
  • Cerebellar tracts
  • Nucleus of facial nerve.

There are four scientists named theophile alajouanine, pierre marrie, french neurologists and charles foix who contributed in describing lateral pontine syndrome. Lateral pontine syndrome shows symptoms which are according to the site involved. When occlusion occurs in anterior inferior cerebellar artery. It leads to lesion or infarction in pons I.e. caudal pons. But if occlusion occurs in superior cerebellar artery then rostral pons is involved. In lateral pontine syndrome, lesions in spinothalamic tract causes fever and severe pain in contralateral limbs and body. If lesion occurs in descending hypothalamic fibers, it causes ipsilateral horner syndrome I.e. anhydrosis, ptosis and meiosis. If lesions occur in vestibular nuclei and it's pathway, then patient feels nausea and vomiting. Patient feels no pain and temperature sensations if lesion occurs in spinal tract.

Lateral Pontine Syndrome Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Lateral Pontine Syndrome Symptoms

The symptoms of lateral pontine syndrome is according to the site of brain involved. There are five to six main sites which are involved in causing lateral pontine syndrome. Lesions in trigeminal nerve I.e. rostral pons leads to strong numbness in one side of face, mastication muscles become weak and jaw turns towards lesional side of mouth. Lesions in facial nerves cause facial paralysis. Lesions in vestibular nuclei causes nausea, vomiting, nystagmus and vertigo. Lesions in spinal cord tract and nucleus lead to loss of sensations.

Lateral Pontine Syndrome Causes

Lateral pontine syndrome occurs due to lesions specifically in pons. Lesions cause interruption in blood supply. Anterior inferior cerebellar artery and circumferential arteries are mainly involved in causing lateral pontine syndrome. There are 5 to 6 main sites in which lesions leads to lateral pontine syndrome. These sites are spinal tract and nucleus, trigeminal nerve, lateral spino thalamic tract, facial nerve and nucleus, spinal trigeminal nucleus and tract, descending sympathetic tract, middle and inferior cerebellar peduncle, cochlear nuclei and intra axial nerve fibers. All these sites show different symptoms if occlusion occurs in any one of these.

Lateral Pontine Syndrome Treatment

Treatment of lateral pontine syndrome is dependant on its diagnosis. Treatment of lateral pontine syndrome involves symptoms relieving medications which only relief symptoms not the basic cause. Symptoms of lateral pontine syndrome varies according to the site involved, so there are different medications for symptoms of different sites.  Neuro surgery is performed to clear out lesion in arteries. Sometimes blood thinning agents are prescribed to remove blood flow hindrance. Other than these medications, physical therapy is also necessary. As physical therapy helps a lot in regulation of blood flow in whole body.
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Post Menstrual Syndrome Anxiety/Depression, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Post menstrual syndrome is not a well known thing because it occurs rarely in women. This syndrome is basically a series of symptoms which appear after menstruation every time. Not all women are well aware of this because these symptoms are common in most women. Post menstrual syndrome is very much similar to pre menstrual syndrome. Woman feels almost the same before and after menstruation. So post menstrual syndrome can be defined as hormonal induced irregularities which occurs after periods. Post menstrual dysphoric syndrome is another name of post menstrual syndrome. This syndrome only occurs during reproductive years.

Post Menstrual Syndrome Symptoms

Post menstrual syndrome shows same symptoms just like pre menstrual syndrome. Symptoms involve severe pain in back, severe abdominal cramps, vomiting, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, headache and sometimes migraine, soreness in breast on touch, women may become faint or feel dizziness. Fluid retention occurs and women may gain weight. Women feel pain during sexual intercourse. After periods either constipation or diarrhea may occur. Pain also occurs in upper body I.e. in shoulders, arms and upper back. In some cases, women may loss appetite or feel food cravings. Women experience severe mood swings in post menstrual syndrome.

Post Menstrual Syndrome Anxiety/Depression, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Post Menstrual Syndrome Causes

The exact cause behind post menstrual syndrome is still unknown. It can primarily occurs as a result of hormonal changes. During menstrual cycle, the levels of progesterone and estrogen fluctuate. This fluctuation causes post menstrual syndrome. Chemical changes in brain can also lead to post menstrual syndrome. Serotonin is the happy hormone which induces mood. But during menstrual cycle, the serotonin level becomes low and induces depression and anxiety. Long term Mental stress and depression can also lead to post menstrual syndrome.

Post Menstrual Syndrome Treatment

Post menstrual syndrome is not a fatal condition. Some home remedies can help to get rid of this syndrome. Herbs which can be used in treating post menstrual syndrome include evening prime rose oil, Maca, wild yarn, calcium, magnesium and black cohosh. OTC pain killers are used to relieve pain. Anti depressants and anti anxiety medications are also prescribed. Change in life style and healthy diet helps to reduce the chances of occurrence of post menstrual syndrome. Daily exercise and yoga helps to reduce stress and anxiety. It also reduces muscle cramping and pain during and after menstrual cycle.

Post Menstrual Syndrome Anxiety/Depression

Most of the women feel anxiety and depression during and after menstrual cycle. It occurs due to a specific hormone named serotonin. Serotonin is a happy hormone which induces good mood in normal days. But in period days, serotonin level falls down and induces anxiety and depression. This is the reason why women feel anxiety and depression during and after menstrual cycle. Serotonin takes almost one week to normalize after periods. Serotonin level falls few days before periods start and leads to severe mood swings. Long term stress and depression can cause periods.
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Posterior Cord Syndrome Mechanism of Injury, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Posterior Cord syndrome is defined as injury in posterior artery of spinal cord. Posterior Cord syndrome is one of the type of incomplete spinal cord syndrome. Posterior Cord syndrome is a rare syndrome with least chances of occurrence. Basically it is an infarction in posterior artery of spinal cord which occurs due to lesions in posterior part of spinal cord. X-RAYS, computed tomography CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging MRI are the diagnostic methods of posterior Cord syndrome. These diagnostic procedures clearly diagnose lesions in dorsal columns of spinal cord but sometimes just imaging is not enough for diagnosis.

Posterior Cord Syndrome Symptoms

Symptoms of posterior Cord syndrome start appearing during tertiary phase of syndrome. Tertiary phase starts after 20 to 30 years of disease incidence. Late occurrence of symptoms is due to initiation of damage of nerve roots. Due to damage, tabes dorsalis and locomotor ataxia occurs. These two conditions further lead to following complications like damage in optic nerve, patient may become blind, pains in head, urinary incontinence and joints may degenerate. Other symptoms include deep tendon areflexia, ipsilateral loss of proprioceptive sensation, patient feels vibration at the site of lesion, pressure and fine touch.

Posterior Cord Syndrome Mechanism of Injury, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Posterior Cord Syndrome Causes

Posterior Cord syndrome occurs due to trauma or injury in spinal cord. Neck hyper flexion injuries commonly cause posterior Cord syndrome. Neck hyper flexion occurs due to car accidents or sports accidents. Dislocation occurs in posterior region of spinal cord and sometimes extensions occur without injury. Some pathological conditions which leads to posterior Cord syndrome include autosomal recessive inherited diseases, schawannoma, astrocytoma, Friedrich ataxia, meningiomas, ependymoma, sarcoma and neurofibromas. When syphilis is not treated successfully, then it may also lead to posterior Cord syndrome. It's pathology shows deficiency of vitamin B12 can also leads to
posterior Cord syndrome.

Posterior Cord Syndrome Treatment

The treatment selection is based on its symptoms and causes. Treatment selection is also dependant on the source of infarction. Treatment of posterior Cord syndrome is designed with the aim of stabilizing spinal cord. Treatment options include airway adjuncts, injections of dopamine, spinal immobility and precautions and the use of ventilator. There is no definite cure for posterior Cord syndrome, but are designed on the basis of causes. There are three treatment plans according to severity of syndrome. In acute treatment, analgesia is achieved and medical care is provided. Corticosteroids are prescribed for swelling or inflammation. Braces are often used and surgical repair is sometimes recommended. These surgical procedures, helps in stabilizing fracture in spinal cord.

Posterior Cord Syndrome Mechanism of Injury

Vitamin B12 us the essential vitamin which is necessary for the the synthesis and maintenance of myelin. Myelin is present in neurons of spinal cord. Whenever deficiency of vitamin B12 occurs, demyelination start initiating in nerves. It also disturbs the connection of nerves in posterior part of spinal cord. As a result hinderence occurs in signal transformation towards brain. The location specificity is not known in this mechanism but spinal cord posterior part is commonly seen.
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One and a Half Syndrome Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

One and a half syndrome is an eye movement disorder. In this syndrome weakness occurs in both eyes. One eye, either left or right, cannot move laterally at all while other eye can move laterally in only 1 direction I.e. outward or inward. It is described as horizontal gaze palsy in one direction along with internuclear ophthalmoplegia in other eye. It is a rare and unusual syndrome. Usually eye ball of the eye, which can move laterally, moves away from mid point and other eye cannot move eye ball horizontally at all.

One and a half syndrome occurs due to a single small unilateral lesion in reticular formation of paramedian pontine or occurs as a result of nucleus abducence on one side. This abducence nucleus causes ipsilateral gaze palsy I.e. gaze palsy occurs on the side of lesion. Along with this, the internuclear fibers of ipsilateral medial longitudinal fasciculus are interrupted after crossing midline from its origin. It was all about its pathophysiology. Multiple sclerosis can cause one and a half syndrome. Other than multiple sclerosis, brain stem tumors, Brain stem stroke and malformation in arteries and veins can also cause one and a half syndrome.

One and a Half Syndrome Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

One and a Half Syndrome Symptoms

One and a half syndrome is related to eye movement disturbances. It is a conjugate of gaze palsy horizontally in one eye and internuclear ophthalmoplegia in other eye. In simple words, one eye can move it's eye ball laterally but in one direction only while other eye cannot move it's eye ball laterally. Some vertical oculomotor symptoms appear which involve vertical nystagmus, ocular bobbing and skew deviation. It does not affect vision I.e. patient can see every thing clearly like a normal person but movement of eye ball in both eyes is not under control.

One and a Half Syndrome Causes

It is an eye movement disorder which occurs as a result of small single lesion in paramedian pontine reticular formation. It is an ipsilateral gaze palsy I.e. it occurs on the same side of lesion. It may be secondary to various diseases I.e. ischemia, tuberculomas ( lesion occurs in tuberculosis infective mass ), hemorrhage in paramedian pontine can lead to one and a half syndrome. Multiple sclerosis is the common cause in which demyelination leads to this syndrome. Other than these, cancer tumors and accidental injuries can also cause one and a half syndrome.

One and a Half Syndrome Treatment

There are no of success stories of botulinum toxin injection in treating one and a  half syndrome and extra ocular movement disorder. Botulinum toxin or Botox is a toxin which is produced by clostridium botulinum. It is responsible for controlling acetylcholine release from axon endings. According to the cause of one and a half syndrome, its treatment is designed. Some helping medications are prescribed like anti platelets (to make blood thin and to make circulation easy), atorvastatin calcium (it resist atherosclerosis) and butylphthalide to improve collateral circulation Because both eyes are involved.
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Beals-Hecht Syndrome Images, Life Expectancy, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Beals hecht syndrome is a connective tissue disease. It is a rare syndrome and also known as congenital contractual arachodactyly. It is a congenital disease. People with beals hecht syndrome have long fingers, toes and arms as compared to their height. This syndrome was named after 2 scientists i.e. beals and hecht. Beals hecht syndrome closely resembles with marfan syndrome. The only difference is mutation in different genes. Mutation in FBN2 gene causes beals hecht syndrome. People with beals hecht syndrome may have permanently bent joints and cause problems in hip, elbow, ankle and elbow movement.

Beals Hecht Syndrome Symptoms

Beals hecht syndrome is easy to diagnose because it shows visible symptoms. Common symptoms of beals hecht syndrome are:

  • Patient have long and narrow body physique.
  • Chest may sink in or stick out.
  • Long and slender fingers and toes are the most common symptoms.
  • Patient have reduced bone mass.
  • Patient may have curved spine.
  • Patient's face show abnormalities.
  • Enlargement of aorta and regurgitation of mitral valve.
  • Patient may have lateral or backward curved spine which may develop either at birth or in early childhood stage.
  • Crumpled appearance on the top of the patient's ear.

All the above mentioned symptoms also resembles with symptoms of marfan syndrome.

Beals-Hecht Syndrome Images

Beals-Hecht Syndrome Images, Life Expectancy, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Beals Hecht Syndrome Causes

Beals hecht syndrome is a congenital disease and specific gene mutation is the cause. It is an autosomal dominantly inherited single gene disorder. FBN2 is the gene which is responsible for causing beals hecht syndrome. Specifically chromosome no. 5q23 on FBN2 gene mutation causes beals hecht syndrome. As it is a congenital disease, so it transfer from parents to their off springs during pregnancy. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. Autosomal dominant pattern means even a single pair of altered gene in a single cell can cause beals hecht syndrome.

Beals Hecht Syndrome Treatment

It is a congenital disease so it cannot be treated but can only be improved. Physical therapy is used to treat joint contractures. Physical therapy helps a lot to improve mobility and response activity of under developed muscles. Surgery is also preferred in the form of braces. Surgery corrects kyphoscoliosis (scoliosis is the curved  spine). Electrocardiogram is used to test enlargement of aorta in case of new Borns for up to 2 years. It helps in controlling risks of enlarged aorta. If infant already have enlarged aorta, then it is managed with standard treatment and care.

Beals Hecht Syndrome Life Expectancy

Beals hecht syndrome is a genetic disease and in most cases it is not fatal because it's treatment is affective. Life expectancy is totally dependant on the severity of disease and symptoms of disease. Life expectancy is not short because of successful treatment strategy design. Physical therapy helps a lot in resolving symptoms and reducing severity. Physical therapy have greater success rates as compare to surgery. Beals hecht syndrome occurs equally in men and women. Patient should have to go for yearly heart check up. Yearly check up helps to reduce cardio vascular complications.
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Supine Hypotensive Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Treatment

Supine hypotensive syndrome is defined as hypotension occurs when pregnant woman lies on her back. Patient feel dizziness, low blood pressure, nausea, sweating, increased heart beat and pallor when she lies on her back. All these symptoms disappear when pregnant woman changes her lying position. Supine hypotensive syndrome occurs due to compression of main artery and vein supplying blood to whole body. It is not common during pregnancy. But pregnant woman who do not develop supine hypotensive syndrome have a compensatory mechanism of blood supply like increased collateral venous flow. The venous blood passes through paravertebral system leads to increased cardiac output.

Supine Hypotensive Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Treatment

Supine Hypotensive Syndrome Symptoms

Supine hypotensive syndrome is associated with hypotension symptoms. Pregnant woman complains about back ache with increased heartbeat. When pregnant woman lies on her back I.e. supine position feels numbness or weakness in limbs due to decreased blood flow. She feels dizziness and nausea and vomiting. She also feels light headedness and pallor. These symptoms persist for about 3 to 10 minutes and then disappear. Usually these symptoms disappear when pregnant woman changes her lying position. In severe condition, woman may lose her consciousness even maternal or fetal death can occur due to nerve compression.

Supine Hypotensive Syndrome Causes

Supine hypotensive syndrome is defined as decrease in systolic blood pressure at least 15 to 30 mmHg. It occurs in pregnant woman and initiates during second trimester of pregnancy. Pathophysiology demonstrate that when pregnant woman lies on her back I.e. in supine position the main artery and vein supplying blood to whole body got compress due to weight of fetus. Due this Compression, arterial and venous blood supply got disturb. Blood no more circulates in arteries and veins I.e. blood circulation almost stops. It may persist for about 10 mins and Maternal or fetal death can occur.

Supine Hypotensive Syndrome Prevention

Supine hypotensive syndrome can prove fatal for both mother and fetus so preventive measures should be followed like pregnant woman should lie on her left lateral position. Other options include lying with left lateral tilt and displacement of gravid uterus with hand while lying straight. Displacement of fetus will not compress arteries and veins traveling down the body because fetus is moved by hand on either side of body to reduce weight on blood vessels. A wedge or cushion is placed under right sided hip so that 15° to 30° tilt is achieved.

Supine Hypotensive Syndrome Treatment

Supine hypotensive syndrome is temporary and resolve on its own. When pregnant woman changes her position i.e. from supine position to either left or right side these symptoms disappear. Due to changes in position the nerve compression decreases and blood supply does not stop. Radiographic studies shows less compression in left lateral position as compared to supine position. And there are less or no chances of maternal and fetal death in left lateral or left lateral tilt position. Other than these, woman can displace her gravid uterus manually as displacing uterus on either side reduces nerve compression.
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Scrotal Lymphedema Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Scrotal elephantiasis is the other name of scrotal lymphedema. It is defined as aplasia. Hypoplasia or obstruction of lymphatic vessels present in scrotum. The scrotum of patient becomes abnormally large due to tissue accumulation or lymph fluid. The outer boundary or outer skin of scrotum is thick and cause ulceration in some severe cases. It may be congenital i.e. occurs by birth in infants or acquired i.e. occurs laterally as a result of an infection. Some common infections which may lead to scrotal lymphedema involve lymphoma granuloma verenereum or filarial infestation with wuchereria bancrofti.

These infections are not common which makes the the scrotal lymphedema a rare disease. It can also occur as a result of hernia. Some common symptoms of scrotal lymphedema include chronic inflammation, lymph node dissection, irradiation and neoplasm. Penis may embed or sink in the abnormally enlarged scrotum. Treatment of scrotal lymphedema totally depends upon the underlying cause. Patient respond to the treatment for lymphatic rearrangement. If scrotal lymphedema occurs as a result of congestive heart failure or fluid overload i.e. hydrocele then diuretics are prescribed. There are many other treatment options which are selected in the basis of cause and severity of disease.

Scrotal Lymphedema Images

Scrotal Lymphedema Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Scrotal Lymphedema Symptoms

Scrotal lymphedema is the abnormal enlargement of scrotum. So enlargement of scrotum which is greater as compared to the size of penis shows presence of scrotal lymphedema. Penis get buried or sinks in the enlarged scrotum. Patient can't walk comfortably because shear size of scrotum makes patient uncomfortable. Inflammation occurs in scrotum because of activation of lymphatic system. Other symptoms include neoplasm, irradiation and lymph node dissection. Patient is advised to lose weight. Pain may occur sometimes but often there is no pain. Patient only feels pain during walking upon rubbing of scrotum walls with legs.

Scrotal Lymphedema Causes

Scrotal lymphedema can occur congenitally or acquired. If it is congenital, then neonate may already born with this disease but if it is acquired, then an infection will be the reason behind it. The infections which are responsible for causing scrotal lymphedema include lymphoma granuloma verenereum or filarial infestation with the wonchereria bancrofti. These infections are not common at all and ultimately makes scrotal lymphedema a rare disease. It commonly occurs in obese because of their over weight. In scrotal lymphedema, the swelling because of inflammation occurs in one side of scrotum. It can prove fatal for patient if left untreated.

Scrotal Lymphedema Treatment

Treatment is totally dependant on the cause and severity of disease. In case if scrotal lymphedema occurs as a result of fluid accumulation I.e. hydrocele and congestive heart failure, then diuretics are recommended. Mild or acute level of disease is treated with steroids. As it occurs secondary to an infection, so inflammation occurs and antibiotics are prescribed to treat infection. Surgery is another treatment option which is performed when medication therapy is no more affective. In some cases, the penile skin is chronically avulsed. The penile shaft should be split thickness skin grafted.
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Adynamic Ileus Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Adynamic ileus is a disease in which peristaltic movement of small intestine and large intestine cease or stop. As the name "ileus" indicates the part of small intestine i.e. ileum. It occurs due to failure of nerve stimulation of small intestine. In Adynamic ileus bowel movement stops and food do not passes on to colon or rectum. It is described as paralysis of motion of small intestine. Usually adynamic ileus is asymptomatic and does not show symptoms. But if it show symptoms then its symptoms resemble with the symptoms of mechanical bowel obstruction. Common symptoms involve abdominal pain, cramps, gas distension and vomiting. Constipation is the most common and visible symptom of adynamic ileus.

Adynamic ileus can occur as a result of metabolic disorder, secondary to drugs, abdominal surgery, abdominal trauma, head injury and sepsis. Imaging of adynamic ileus shows gaseous distension of small and large intestine. If adynamic ileus is localized, then imaging shows sentinel loop. Adynamic ileus is sometimes associated with colicky pains of gall bladder or kidney stones. Treatment involve intubation of intestine via long balloon tipped tube. Because of deficiency of body fluids, fluid supplements are provided to patient in the form of Intravenous fluid administration.

Adynamic Ileus Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Adynamic Ileus Symptoms

Adynamic ileus is the paralysis of peristaltic movement of intestine. It shows the following symptoms

  • Patient feels pain in abdomen.
  • Patient feels gaseous distension in his abdomen.
  • Constipation is the commonest symptom of adynamic ileus.
  • Due to cessation of peristaltic movement, the food is no more moving to colon and rectum. So due to storage of food passage, patient may vomit it out.
  • Vomiting sometimes become severe that it may contain fecal matter as well.
  • If the obstruction of intestine is not cured, then intestinal circulation may become impaired and as a result patient appear extremely ill.
  • In severe condition, patient show symptoms of shock and dehydration.

Adynamic Ileus Causes

There are number of conditions which are responsible for causing adynamic ileus. Some of them are
as follows:

  • It can occur secondary to drugs like opioids.
  • Sepsis specially due to gram negative bacteria can lead to adynamic ileus.
  • Metabolic disorders like hyponatremia may also cause adynamic ileus.
  • Retroperitoneal hematoma
  • Injury or trauma in head.
  • Neuro surgery is the rare cause.
  • Congestive heart failure.
  • Myocardial infarction.
  • Inflammation in the abdominal cavity and peritonitis may lead to adynamic ileus.
  • The causes of adynamic ileus are considered complex and multi factorial.

Adynamic Ileus Treatment

There are various treatment techniques which are used according to the symptoms of adynamic ileus. As gaseous distension of intestine is treated via intubation with a long tube balloon tipped tube. Due to disruption of body fluids, the fluid supplements containing glucose, fluids and electrolytes are given Intravenously. If gangerene develops at the site of obstruction then surgery is necessary. The selection of surgical procedure totally depends upon the cause of obstruction and condition of bowel. Commonly ileostomy and colostomy are performed according to the area involved. These surgical procedures may be either temporary or permanent.
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Long Face Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Mouth Breathing, Surgery

Skeletal open bite is referred to as long face syndrome. It is a common syndrome in which patient's face show facial development vertically. It may be genetic or acquired. It is a dento facial abnormality. The facial growth is usually associated with lower occlusal and mandibular plane angles. But sometimes it is associated with mandibular hypoplasia and vertical maxillary excess. In literature, The long face syndrome is'nt completely described yet. There are two varients of long face syndrome I.e. dental open and closed bite. The treatment of long face syndrome is necessary to avoid posterior teeth eruption.

Long Face Syndrome Symptoms

Long face syndrome is not a fatal or pathological condition. It's characteristics are as follows.

  • The head become incline
  • The curvature of mandibular canal is curved. 
  • The mandibular lower border is curved downwards. 
  • Inclination occurs in symphysis and slope face backwards. 
  • Vertical or obtuse interincisal angle.
  • Ventricle or obtuse inter molar or inter premolar angles. 
  • Anterior face height from lower side. 
  • All of the above are structural symptoms of long face syndrome. Other systems include difficulty in swallowing and eating food because of open lower jaw. The face of patient looks abnormally large and smart longitudinally.

Long Face Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Mouth Breathing, Surgery

Long Face Syndrome Causes

The long face syndrome may occur genetically or secondary to other diseases. Genetically it occurs by birth and develops during facial development of fetus within womb. There are many diseases which leads to long face syndrome as their main symptom. These diseases include WAGR syndrome, faciodigitogenital syndrome, velo facioskeletal syndrome, fragile X syndrome, velo cardio facial syndrome, marshal Smith syndrome, Snyder Robinson syndrome, myasthenic syndrome, wilmus tumor and renpenning syndrome. Other than these diseases, some medical conditions can increase chances of long face syndrome. These medical conditions are edema, asthma, malnutrition, long term stress and allergy in nasal pathway.

Long Face Syndrome Mouth Breathing

Whenever patient can't breathe from nose, then functions of nasal passage are bypassed. Air intake through nostrils make it hot and moist according to body requirements but air intake through mouth is dry and cold and cause problems. As it is an open bite syndrome, so patient may breathe through mouth and as a result disturbance occurs in muscle forces which are responsible for compression of upper jaw. During breathing, palate constrict and provide smaller space. Tongue may complicate breathing by protrusion from front side teeth and force them outward. Due to constriction in upper jaw, a high vault is created in palate. As a result, the face length increases and termed as long face syndrome.

Long Face Syndrome Surgery

The vertical length of face in patients can be reduced with the help of surgery. It is not sure that in adults, Orthopedic mechanics and orthopodic treatment alone will help to reduce maxillary facial length. Sometimes Orthodontic treatment helps a lot to control vertical facial growth of patients who have passed their growing age. Via surgery, the open bite is corrected. And it is completed via tipping anterior teeth lingually or teeth are elongated.
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Sperm Granuloma Pictures, Size, Pain, Ultrasound, Treatment

Sperm granuloma is described as a lump which is formed as a result of leaking sperm. It develops at the site where vas deferens is tied off. It is not a pathological condition and does not cause harm. The lump is an extravasated sperm which leaks out of vessel. Sperm granuloma is irregular in shape and sometimes it is round in shape. It's size ranges from one millimeter to one centimeter or even more. The lump in sperm granuloma contains degenerating sperms in the core which are surrounded by cells of immune system and blood vessels supplying blood.

Sperm Granuloma Pictures

Sperm Granuloma Pictures, Size, Pain, Ultrasound, Treatment

Sperm Granuloma Size

The lump produces at the site where vas deferens is tied off. It may be of varying sizes. It's usual size ranges from 1 millimeter to 1 centimeter. In some cases its size may even exceed 1 centimeter. It's size is totally dependent on the severity of disease. At initial stage, the lump size is small but with the passage of time (if left untreated) it will grow bigger in size. Sperm granuloma lumps which are smaller in size causes less problems and complications as compared to large sized sperm granuloma lumps. If lumps grow bigger in size, then immediate surgery is recommended.

Sperm Granuloma Pain

In most cases sperm granuloma is asymptomatic but if it show symptoms, then pain is the main common symptom. Patient may feel pain around testicles specifically in the groin area. Either left or right groin is involved. Pain may spread through out testicles and lower abdominal area. In some cases, patient feels no pain before vasectomy. But after vasectomy, patient may experience pain in groin and lower abdominal region. If pain is the primary symptom of sperm granuloma, then pain after vasectomy is called as congestive epididymitis. Pain severity is dependant on the size of sperm granuloma lumps.

Sperm Granuloma Ultrasound

Sperm granuloma occurs mostly in people with vasectomized history. Color and power Doppler ultrasound is used to diagnose sperm granuloma. Patient is allowed to lie down in supine position and a support is placed under legs to hold scrotum at a place. Penis is arranged superiorly and dropped with a towel. 8 MHZ to 15 MHZ transducer is used for scanning sperm granuloma. Transducers can exceed the given range to diagnose and view scrotal contents in bigger resolution. Transverse ages of both testes are obtained to have a clear view of disease.

Sperm Granuloma Treatment

When sperms start leaking from vas deferens as a result of cut, then in response to leakage, immune system of body get activated. The activated immune system leads to inflammation. So anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed. Drugs involved ibuprofen, acetaminophen and naproxen. Aspirin is not recommended for two days after vasectomy. Ice pack can be used as a home remedy to relief pain. After two to three days, patient may continue his routine activities. But heavy weight lifting should be avoided for at least 1 week. These are precautions helps a lot in reducing chances of complications and chances of symptoms re-occurrence.
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Conus Medullaris Syndrome Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Conus medullaris is the end part of nerves originating from spinal cord. It is present near the 1st two lumbar sections of vertebrae. It ends in another region named cauda equina. Cauda equina is full of spinal nerves and nerve roots. So according to the above anatomy, conus medullaris and cauda equina are inter related. Conus medullaris is considered a secondary form of damage in spinal cord which occurs as a result of  injury in lumbar vertebrae. So conus medullaris is defined as partial or incomplete injury in spinal cord. The chances of paralysis are less in conus medullaris syndrome as compare to other spinal cord injuries.

Patients with conus medullaris syndrome complain about severe back pain, sexual dysfunction, bladder dysfunction and bowel dysfunction. Patient feels weakness, numbness, and tingling in lower limbs. Conus medullaris syndrome is not a disease itself but occurs as a result of injury in spinal cord. Injury or trauma may occur due to any disease or accident. There are different possible causes behind spinal cord injury and treatment is designed according to these possible causes. Treatment selection also depends on extent of spinal injury.  Other than cause consideration, spinal surgery is recommended in most cases.

Conus Medullaris Syndrome Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Conus Medullaris Syndrome Symptoms

In rare cases of conus medullaris, paralysis occurs in half part of body. Other than this patient complains about severe back pain,  some strange sensations in back bone, dysfunctioning of bowel and bladder, patient faces difficulty while fecal discharge and abnormal sexual functioning. Other symptoms involve lower limbs of patient i.e. weakness and tingling occurs in lower limbs. Sometimes numbness occurs in lower part of legs. Patient can't move willingly. He feels itching on skin surface of legs. So, according to the above mentioned symptoms, lower limbs are mainly involved because of paralysis.

Conus Medullaris Syndrome Causes

Conus medullaris syndrome is a product of trauma or injury in spinal cord. A sudden blow or hit to spinal cord can cause conus medullaris syndrome. A car accident or gun shot are rare causes of conus medullaris syndrome. It can also occur as a result of infections in spinal cord. It may be secondary to spinal cord diseases. Spinal stenosis in which malformation of spinal structure occurs can also cause conus medullaris syndrome. Tumor in spinal cord is another leading cause of conus medullaris syndrome. Trauma in conus medullaris can also affect cauda equina because these two are inter related.

Conus Medullaris Syndrome Treatment

The selection of treatment strategy depends upon the cause and extent of syndrome. Surgery is usually recommended in conus medullaris syndrome. Spinal decompression surgery is performed in which the physical hinderence like tumor or bullet remnants are removed. By removing these physical hinderence, spinal functions can be regained. If cancer is the cause, then radiations will help a lot. If infection of spinal cord leads to conus medullaris syndrome then antibiotics are prescribed against infection. Antibiotics may be oral or intravenous according to the severity of syndrome. Physical therapy is also necessary along with medical treatment.
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Medial Medullary Syndrome Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Medial medullary syndrome have many other names like lower alternating hemiplegia, hypoglossal alternating hemiplegia, inferior alternating syndrome and dejerine syndrome. Joseph jules dejerine was the scientist who 1st described medial medullary syndrome so dejerine syndrome is the most common name used for medial medullary syndrome. It is a type of alternating hemiplegia in which thrombotic or embolic occlusion occurs in the anterior spinal artery. Anterior spinal artery initiates from vertebral basilar artery and ends in medial part of medulla oblongata. So, occlusion in anterior spinal artery leads to infarction in the medial part of medulla oblongata.

It is a rare syndrome and characterize as contralateral hemiplegia and ipsilateral hypoglossal palsy. In simple words, patient is half paralyzed with half sided sensory loss opposite to the affected side of medulla oblongata. Loss of tongue control and atrophy occurs on the same side of affected medulla oblongata. CN Xll nucleus is involved. The main symptoms of medial medullary syndrome are nausea, dizziness, vertigo and limb ataxia to the opposite side of affected medulla oblongata. Medial medullary syndrome is different from lateral medullary syndrome because of the area of medulla oblongata involved in infarction. The nerve supply is also different.

Medial Medullary Syndrome Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Medial Medullary Syndrome Symptoms

The symptoms of medial medullary syndrome are visible. One side which is opposite to the affected medulla oblongata is paralyzed except face. Motor function pathway is disturbed. Patient cannot touch, feel and change his position willingly from paralyzed side. The motor functioning of whole body is impaired contralateraly but facial nerves are impaired ipsilateraly I.e. eyes, nose and tongue movement is impaired on the same side of affected medulla oblongata. Mainly hypoglossal nerve is involved which supplies signals to tongue. Other symptoms involve dizziness, nausea, vomiting,  vertigo and limb ataxia on the opposite side of affected medulla oblongata.

Medial Medullary Syndrome Causes

Anterior spinal artery is the main artery responsible for this syndrome. It initiates from vertebral or proximal basilar artery and ends in medial part of medulla oblongata. When problem occurs in anterior spinal artery, it affects medullary pyramid, medial lemniscus and hypoglossal nerve fiber ipsilateraly. Basically thrombosis or embolism in anterior spinal artery leads to decreased blood and oxygen supply. And as a result infarction occurs in medial part of medulla oblongata. Patient's half body is affected mainly because it is a type of alternating hemiplegia in which one side of body is affected alternatively.

Medial Medullary Syndrome Treatment

It is a stroke syndrome for which there is no definite treatment designed yet. Because it is hard to reverse stroke syndromes. But according to its cause, the blood thinning agents may be prescribed to remove embolism and thrombosis. But medications used must have ability to pass blood brain barrier. Other than this, medications are also prescribed to combat signs and symptoms of medial medullary syndrome. Proper physical therapy is required to improve movement of paralyzed limbs. There are some specific exercises which helps a lot in continuation motor functioning of whole body including face.
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Miller Fisher Syndrome Recovery Time, After Effects, Complications, Pathology

Fisher's syndrome is the other name of Miller Fisher syndrome. It is named after Dr. C. Miller Fisher. It is a variant or subtype of guillain barre syndrome. It is a rare nerve disorder. Miller Fisher syndrome initiates in result of rapid development of 3 main problems e.g  1. Patient lose control over his body movement like clumsy or sloppy walking. Patient have poor coordination and body balance.
2. Tendon present deep down in muscles show less reflexes specially in knee and ankle. 3. Problem related to eyes I.e. dropping eyelids, weakness in facial muscles, weakness in eye muscles and blurry or double vision.

Miller Fisher Syndrome Recovery Time

Luckily Miller Fisher syndrome is a short term problem. It progress for some weeks and then it starts improving. The symptoms of Miller Fisher syndrome shows presence of guillain barre syndrome GBS. In case of pure Miller Fisher syndrome, patient usually takes 2 to 3 months to recover. The recovery time may delay if it causes further complications. Usually Miller Fisher syndrome does not require treatment because it start improving on its own but in case of complications, treatment is required which normalize activity of immune system. Treatment involves high dose of immune globulins and plasma exchange.

Miller Fisher Syndrome Recovery Time, After Effects, Complications, Pathology

Miller Fisher Syndrome Complications

Miller Fisher syndrome is a self limiting syndrome. After maintaining plateau it starts improving. Normal recovery time is 2 to 3 months but it may extend up to 6 months. But weakness may last long. Weakness in muscles is a major characteristic of Miller Fisher syndrome so it may affect muscles of heart and lungs too. Patient may feel difficulty in breathing along with problems in cardiac activity. Immediate treatment and Special care is required to manage these complications. If these complications left untreated, then these may prove fatal for patient health.

Miller Fisher Syndrome Pathology

The patient with Miller Fisher syndrome may show waddling duck like gait. And this is because of loss of fat rich material named myelin around nerves which acts as an insulator. The nerve involved is designated as 1A. It innervates in muscle spindle which is the main sensory organ of muscle. The fibers in muscle spindle is responsible for sending information to spinal cord. The information contains signals for the movement of muscles. Without this transmission if information, the muscles may not move properly. Other possible cause include auto immune mechanism. In this mechanism, antibodies are produced against antigen present around nerves causing demyelination.

Miller Fisher Syndrome After Effects

Luckily Miller Fisher syndrome is a self limiting disease which resolves on its own after a specific period of time. After achieving peak factor, it will start improving approximately after 2 to 3 months. But sometimes even after complete improvement, the symptoms still persist. Like most of the patient reported double or blurred vision which is getting worse day by day. The muscle remains weak even after complete recovery. The movement of muscles and bones completely recover on its own but weakness persist. And it is considered a main drawback or side effect of Miller Fisher syndrome.
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General Adaptation Syndrome Definition, Meaning, Stages, Examples

General adaptation syndrome is the response towards stress. It consist of three main stages through which patient passes every time when he is under stress. It is the collection of physiological changes which occurs in patient in response to stress. It was 1st discovered in rats when they were checked under stressful conditions. It is a typical response to stress not a specific case. Stress is basically a mental condition in which patient feels pressure on his mind but show physical response. General adaptation syndrome is considered a vital for calculating physical response towards stress. It is also helpful in checking stress level in patient.

There are two main causes reported I.e. Psychological stress and past life events. To treat general adaptation syndrome, the cause should be clear. Patient counseling helps a lot to find out the reason triggering stress. So physician design some life style changes to combat stress. There are some techniques which helps a lot in reducing stress. Meditation is the common management technique. Deep breathing in morning and evening and specially at the time of stress will help a lot in relaxing body and mind. Relaxing baths are also popular. Yoga and Tai chi are the best management options.

General Adaptation Syndrome Definition, Meaning, Stages, Examples

General Adaptation Syndrome Stages

General adaptation syndrome is the process which consists of three main stages i.e. alarm reaction, resistance and exhaustion stage.

Alarm Reaction Stage

In alarm reaction stage, the 1st disturbed signal is passed on to hypothalamus. Hypothalamus trigger release of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids inturn release cortisol and adrenaline. These are the stress hormones. Adrenaline is known for its energy. So it gives energy to body and heart start beating fast. Blood pressure may rise along with blood sugar level.

Resistance Stage

In resistance stage, the body itself tries to stop all physiological changes occurring in body in alarm reaction stage. Parasympathetic nervous system is the part of autonomic nervous system and govern resistance stage. Parasympathetic nervous system helps to lower the level of cortisol resulting in lower blood pressure and heart rate. If stress reduces or eliminates during resistance stage, the body will become normal. And if stressful conditions persist, the stress hormones will continue releasing.

Exhaustion Stage

It is the final stage of general adaptation syndrome. After long term stress, the patients body pass on to final stage. In this stage, there is no energy left in body due to continuous struggle against stress. Patients body is no more in fighting state so patient feels tiredness, anxiety and depression.

General Adaptation Syndrome Examples

General adaptation syndrome may occur in various forms like in jobless people, medically ill patients, any kind of trauma, financial problems and family breakdown. In all these conditions, the stress level is different. During alarm stage flight or fight response helps a lot in combating stress. General adaptation syndrome is adapted in athletes to make them aware about stress in games. Every athlete is trained according to his physiological response towards stress. It commonly occur in women as compare to men.
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Ehlers Danlos Syndrome Pictures, Type 1, Type 2, Type 3, Type 4

Ehlers danlos syndrome is not a specific syndrome but it is a group or collection of syndromes sharing same features. Common features include loose joints I.e. joints can move freely, weak tissues of skin, elastic skin I.e. Skin can stretch easily and easy bruising. It is a genetic syndrome which passes from parents to their off springs. The skin appears loose and fragile. An abnormal gene is responsible for producing abnormal protein and this protein is responsible for frailty of collagen (collagen works as a glue to join tissues). It is divided into different types on the basis of its genetic transmission.

Ehlers Danlos Syndrome Type 1

Ehlers danlos syndrome type 1 is termed as classical ehlers danlos syndrome. In this type the skin surface is extensible beyond upper limit. Due to hyper elasticity, the atrophic scarring occurs on surface. The joints are loose enough that they can move freely. Due to free moving or loose joints, the joints show hyper mobility. Accurate diagnosis is required to confirm its type. Molecular testing is performed and in more than 90 percent cases of classical ehlers danlos syndrome, heterogeneous gene mutation is the reason. Commonly Type 5 collagen is involved.

Ehlers Danlos Syndrome Pictures

Ehlers Danlos Syndrome Pictures, Type 1, Type 2, Type 3, Type 4

Ehlers Danlos Syndrome Type 2

Ehlers danlos syndrome type 2 is termed as classical like ehlers danlos syndrome. It is a lot like type 1 ehlers danlos syndrome. In this type,the skin is extensible beyond limit and have velvety texture. Atrophic scarring is not present. Like type 1, the joints are loose and show hyper mobility. Sometimes recurrent dislocation of joints can occur due to hyper mobility. The skin appears fragile and easily bruised. At some spots, ecchymoses may occur. Ecchymoses is the discoloration of skin due to bleeding under skin surface. TNXB is the gene associated with type 2 ehlers danlos syndrome.

Ehlers Danlos Syndrome Type 3

Type 3 ehlers danlos syndrome is known as hypermobile ehlers danlos syndrome. As the name indicates it's main characteristic I.e. hyper mobility of joints. Due to hyper mobility, joints dislocation is frequent. Other features involve connective tissue disorder, patient show a positive family history of ehlers danlos syndrome and complications in muscles and joints. This type is inherited as an autosomal dominant genetic trait. Some common symptoms associated with ehlers danlos syndrome are: tachycardia, fatigue, sleep disturbances, postural orthostatic, depression, gastrointestinal tract disorders, anxiety and dysautonomia. These symptoms may impair daily life, so immediate treatment is required.

Ehlers Danlos Syndrome Type 4

Vascular ehlers danlos syndrome is the type 4 of ehlers danlos syndrome. In this type the variation in specific gene named COL3A1 causes ehlers danlos syndrome. It occurs in patients with positive family history. At very young age, arterial rupture can occur. Perforation in sigmoid colon is seen with no pathological reason. In pregnant women, the walls of uterus may rupture with no history of C-section. Formation of carotid cavernous sinus fistula is seen with no traumatic cause. All of the above are the characteristics of type 4 ehlers danlos syndrome.
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Red Scrotum Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Contagious, Cure

Red scrotum syndrome is a rarely occurring syndrome in which scrotum (an organ of male genital system) persistently become red and sometimes also involve base of penis. It is a chronic disease which mostly occurs in males in the 2nd half of their lives i.e. after 25 years of age. Basically erythema occurs on the surface of scrotum with sharp borders. There is no scaling with erythema but patient feels pain and burning sensation. It is a dermatological disease and associated with skin only. Initially it involves specifically anterior half part of the scrotum and can laterally involves its posterior part.

Red Scrotum Syndrome Causes

The exact cause behind red scrotum syndrome is still unknown but some possible reasons are as follows:

  • Vascular endothelium synthesize nitric oxide, which have a vasodilatory effect and this vasodilation can cause redness.
  • Over usage of topical steroids is also seen as leading cause in some cases. But withdrawal of these topical steroids help in treatment of red scrotum syndrome. Dependence is a side effect of steroids which enable patient to stay on steroids for long term. So steroid addiction is considered a main cause behind red scrotum syndrome.
  • Neuropathic element also cause red scrotum syndrome.

Red Scrotum Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Contagious, Cure

Red Scrotum Syndrome Symptoms

Symptoms of red scrotum syndrome are limited and common and do not spread. Red scrotum syndrome as the name indicates redness of scrotum. Scrotum becomes red which is defined by term erythema. Along with redness, patient feels burning sensation, itching and pain in scrotum. It is initially limited to anterior part of scrotum and then gradually involves posterior end and sometimes base of penis is also involved. Skin become tender and patient feel intense pain on touch. Scaling do not occur in red scrotum syndrome. Telangiectases may also present.

Red Scrotum Syndrome Contagious

Many men with red scrotum syndrome are worried about having a sexual relationship with women. Because they think this syndrome can spread by contact. But some men dare to have a sexual relationship with women and proved that this syndrome do not spread on touch. Men use precautions while having sexual intercourse which prevent women from acquiring red scrotum syndrome. So, it is concluded that this syndrome do not spread but still men should avoid direct contact with women and try to use some precautions while having sexual relationship with women.

Red Scrotum Syndrome Cure

In red scrotum syndrome patient 1st try to follow preventive measures. Which involves wearing loose fitted underwear, stop usage of soap, stop using topical steroids i.e. corticosteroids, try to use emollient cream. Along with these tips, medicinal therapy should also be continued which involve use of doxycycline. Doxycycline 50 to 100 mg four times a day is recommended. Treatment should be continued for at least 6 to 12 weeks. If doxycycline is effective, then it can be continued for longer time period. Other treatment options involve use of gabapentin and amitriptyline for neuropathic pain. Primecrolimus cream is an anti-inflammatory cream used to treat redness.
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Grierson gopalan Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Grierson gopalan syndrome is also known as burning feet syndrome. In this syndrome, patient feels pain and burning sensation in their feet. This burning sensation may accompanied by excessive sweating due to vasomotor changes in feet. It may have effect on eyes and causes amblyopia and scotoma. Women are more common with Grierson gopalan syndrome as compared to men. Women of age range 20 to 40 years old can have this syndrome. Burning occurs mainly in the soles of feet but it may involve fingers and lower legs also after some time.

Some people said that they feel needle or pin hurting sensation in their feet. This burning sensation occur mostly at night and less during day time. Grierson gopalan syndrome is called as burning feet syndrome because it only occurs in the soles of feet and does not involve palms of hand and arm. There may be many risk factors which can make this syndrome severe, some of them are obesity (over weight), fungal infection of foot and people wearing more fitted shoes will develop Grierson gopalan syndrome. Over consumption of alcohol for a long term also contribute to the development of Grierson gopalan syndrome.

Grierson gopalan Syndrome Symptoms

As its name indicates it is about burning sensation in feet so its main symptom is pain and burning sensation in the soles of feet. Sometimes numbness and tingling can occur, when this syndrome also involve lower legs and ankle. Other symptoms include redness of feet. Temperature of feet may also increase due to vasomotor changes, and these changes will lead to excessive sweating. Mostly this burning sensation occur at night time and patient feel normal at day time. Feet may got swell and needle or pin hurting sensation occur. All the symptoms above need quick medical attention.

Grierson gopalan Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatmen

Grierson gopalan Syndrome Causes

Symptoms show the leading cause behind it. Like if burning sensation occur at night for short period of time and then recover itself then it may occur due to tiredness. But if severe symptoms are present, then it may be due to nerve damage. Some common causes may be deficiency of vitamin D, HIV, long term alcohol consumption, diabetes and exposure to toxins. Some other possible causes may be chemotherapy, radiation therapy, severe kidney disease, athlete foot, anemia due to vitamin deficiency, hypothyroidism, AIDS, nerve damage due to diabetes and last but not least tarsal tunnel syndrome.

Grierson gopalan Syndrome Treatment

At starting stage, patient should follow some preventive tips to treat it but if it got severe, following treatment should be followed but with consultation of doctor. Here are some medications for relieving burning sensation i.e. desipramine, topiramate, venlafaxine, duloxetine, pregabalin, carbamazepine, gabapentin, desipramine, amitriptyline etc. some other medications which are prescribed for reduction in pain can also be used. Some over the counter drugs are also available for Grierson gopalan syndrome like Motrin, Advil, Aleve, Tylenol and ibuprofen. All these medications reduce pain and burning sensation. Low dose narcotics are also used.
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Pusher Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Physiotherapy, Treatment

Pusher syndrome is an abnormal body posture or postural disorientation. It is a post stroke condition in which patient lies or push towards hemiplegic side of brain with no compensation for instability. Patient is not independent in doing routine activities and require long time for that. In simple words patient tries to push towards the weak side of body. Mostly left side of body is involved as a result of lesion in right hemisphere. Patient with pusher syndrome is at high risk of falling due to imbalance in body. Mostly this syndrome is seen with right hemisphere of brain and less with diseases like multiple sclerosis and brain tumors.

Pusher Syndrome Symptoms

Pusher syndrome is characterized as postural disorientation or abnormal body posture. Patient’s body weight is shifted to hemiplegic side and tries to compensate posture imbalance. Patient can fall on one side due to abnormal body posture. Lesion occurs on one side of brain and patient body is pushed to the other side e.g. if lesion is in right hemisphere of brain then patient tends to push towards left side of body. Other symptoms involve spacial neglect and somatic cells sensory impairment. Aphasia, tactile extinction and hypoesthesia is also seen in patients with pusher syndrome.

Pusher Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Physiotherapy, Treatment

Pusher Syndrome Causes

Pusher syndrome occur due to nerve damage. Truncal graviceptive system is responsible for body’s upright position and when nerves of this system got damaged or disturbed after stroke it leads to abnormal posture of body. It occurs due to excessive disruption in somesthetic information processing. Disruption in sensory nerves lead patient to push towards other side of body having no cerebral lesion. Body pushing can be a secondary response to accidental or unexpected experience of loss of body balance. Nerve damage can also occur due to inappropriate oxygen supply or an accidental head injury which leads to abnormal posture.

Pusher Syndrome Physiotherapy

Physiotherapy is a treatment option in which body exercises are involved. Main aim of physiotherapy is to increase base support and decrease anxiety as well as improving stability of body. Patient is asked to lay down and relax, then some exercises are performed. Some visual aids are used to make patient oriented towards exercise and learn new moves. Weight lifting exercises are also performed to improve sensory functioning. Weight is allowed to hold on side not working well and movement is observed with continuous exercise.

Pusher Syndrome Treatment

Physiotherapy is the treatment option in which some exercises are performed along with massage to improve sensory nerves. Weight bearing exercises are also performed to compensate abnormal posture. In addition to physiotherapy, there are some additional exercises which improve body posture. Sit stand is an easiest exercise to start with. Patient should try to stand in front of mirror and then start exercising. This will make patient energetic and also help patient as a visual aid. In sit stand, patient have to sit on affected side and then stand reaching in the center. Tactile cueing on hips and quads also help to maintain posture.
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Ejaculatory duct Cyst Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Diagnosis

Ejaculatory duct cyst is a type of prostatic cyst which rarely occur. In this condition obstruction in ejaculatory duct occurs due to any reason and then a cyst is formed leading to infertility and other problems. These ejaculatory duct obstructions can be congenital or secondary i.e. inflammation. Normally ejaculatory cyst are intra prostatic when small in size but can spread and extend when become large. Urinary tract infection may be the biggest risk factor. Cyst may occur in both ejaculatory ducts. As a result semen is not able to pass out most constituents and leads to infertility and pelvic region pain.

Ejaculatory duct Cyst Causes

There may be many causes behind ejaculatory duct obstruction which leads to cyst formation. Some of the main causes are discussed below:

Ejaculatory duct obstruction may occur as a result of total loss of semen i.e. aspermia or may also due to decrease in semen volume i.e. oligospermia. Oligospermia involve only the ejaculation of accessory prostate glands downwards to the penis orifice (outer end of ejaculatory duct). It may occur secondary to inflammation. Inflammation may occur as a result of chlamydia, prostatitis, and tuberculosis of prostate gland or other pathogens. Calculus is also reported in blocking of ejaculatory duct and cyst formation.

Ejaculatory duct Cyst Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Diagnosis

Ejaculatory duct Cyst Symptoms

Symptoms of ejaculatory duct cyst are all associated with pelvic region. Pain in pelvic region may occur. Men will face infertility if there is cyst in both ejaculatory ducts. This infertility may occur as a result of aspermia or azoospermia. Patients with ejaculatory duct cyst may not get sexual pleasure and enjoyment of orgasm because of lack of gel like fluid of seminal vesicles. Discomfort in scrotum and anus. Painful sexual intercourse and extreme pain after ejaculation. Patient will have some involuntary contractions of pelvic muscles.

Ejaculatory duct Cyst Diagnosis

Diagnosis of ejaculatory duct cyst or obstruction is easy. Low volume ejaculation from semen or no ejaculation these both conditions will show obstruction in ejaculatory duct. Patient itself can observe it during masturbation or orgasm. Seminal vesicles contain a fluid composed of fructose. So chemical analysis if show decreased concentration of fructose it means patient is suffering from ejaculatory duct cyst. Semen analysis is also performed under microscope to check its concentration and volume. Aspermia and azoospermia are also checked in semen microscopic analysis. Oligospermia and dry ejaculation these are considered main diagnostic features of ejaculatory duct cyst.

Ejaculatory duct Cyst Treatment

According to the underlying cause, there are many treatment options. Transurethral resection is performed to remove cyst from ejaculatory duct. It is an invasive method with some complications. After this men are able to led pregnancies in their sex partners. Main disadvantage is that urine may flow backwards and cause problems. Balloon catheters are also used in recanalization of ejaculatory ducts. Spermatozoa are harvested or produced directly from testes and then introduced into female ovary outside the body, this process is known as in vitro fertilization. After the process is completed, that ovary is again placed in women body for development.
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Stromme Syndrome Images, Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Stromme syndrome is an autosomal recessive congenital disorder. In this disorder, cornea of eye have an opacity like scar right in center which is responsible for problems in vision. Remaining eye is normal. Some people may have smaller eyes than usual and have iris maldevelopment. Pupil is also abnormal. Stromme syndrome was 1st discovered in 1993 when only a few members were reported with this syndrome. This syndrome have many synonyms like Apple peel syndrome, anomalies, CILD31, ciliary dyskinesia, jejunal atresia and ocular anomalies (include different amount of angle dysgenesis, corneal leukemia, hypoplasia, micro cornea, cataracts, anterior synechiae, sclera cornea and sometimes iris colobomas).

Stromme syndrome show some features of ciliopathy and lethality in childhood which can only be observed in severe condition. It is a genetic disorder and gene involved in this syndrome is CENPF gene). Stromme syndrome have some correlated clinical conditions like microcephaly (reduced skull size), vision impairment and bowel obstruction. This syndrome is considered a developmental disorder. It rarely occurs in people. Physicians have described this condition i.e. Hypertelorism and deep set eyes. Patient may suffer from many ocular diseases but glaucoma is not reported with stromme syndrome. This syndrome is highly complicated condition due to involvement of many systemic functions.

Stromme Syndrome Images

Stromme Syndrome Images, Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Stromme Syndrome Causes

It is a genetic disorder which is caused by mutation in a specific gene (CENPF) 1q41. This mutation occur in both partners and as a result it will transfer to their children. There are 25 % chances that stromme syndrome will pass on to children from parents only if each parent have single mutation. This syndrome will transfer to every child with 25 % possibility of occurrence of this disease. Mutation in this autosomal recessive disorder means complete change of selective gene. This is the only cause behind stromme syndrome.

Stromme Syndrome Symptoms

Stromme syndrome have many associated clinical characteristics so its symptoms are very vast. Main symptoms of stromme syndrome are as follows:

Low set ears, Hypertelorism, ear malformation, congenital anomaly of eye, hypo plastic mandible condyle, microcephaly, abnormality of skeleton system, abnormality of respiratory system, ciliary dyskinesia, hydrocephalus, cerebellar hypoplasia, corpus callosum agenesis, abnormality in nervous system, abnormality in digestive system due to involvement of intestine. Duodenal atresia, short columella, hypoplasic mandible condyle, cleft palate and last but not least abnormal head and neck i.e. head is smaller in size than usual and neck is longer than usual.

Stromme Syndrome Treatment

As stromme syndrome is a recessive congenital disorder which occur due to mutation in genes so it cannot be treated. Its associated conditions i.e. visual impairment, intestinal abnormalities and head abnormalities can be treated with medication therapy. In children, intestinal surgery is performed sometimes. Medications involved in treatment of stromme syndrome are as follows: Hormonal therapy involve letrozole, dopamine, estrogens, memantine and many more.

Hormone antagonists are also used. Analgesics, steroid synthesis inhibitors, anti HIV AIDS agent, protein kinase inhibitors etc. Other agents involved are anti-infective agents to avoid occurrence of infections which include anti-microbial and anti-viral.
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Dysnomia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Types, Treatment

Dysnomia is a neurological disease in which person is not able to remember words properly. It is a learning disability in which patient finds difficult to remember names or words. When patient is asked to recall anything, he can describe almost all things about that thing but cannot remember its specific name. Not only words and names, numbers are also difficult to remember. It is a disorder which occurs in childhood. It is considered a mild condition of anomia. It can be easily diagnosed when child feel difficulty in remembering names, dates, reading, speaking, writing and doing math.

Dysnomia Symptoms

Symptoms of Dysnomia are according to its underlying cause. People who suffer from accident or head injury, may have Dysnomia and its symptoms will be according this cause. With the passage of time, these symptoms disappear. Common symptoms of Dysnomia are as follows:

Patient with Dysnomia cannot recall and even spell properly.
They even find it difficult to use and remember common synonyms.
Patient even cannot remember names of family members and close friends.
All patients with Dysnomia do not have disability of recalling names.
All learning abilities are prominent when diagnostic tests are performed to diagnose Dysnomia.

Dysnomia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Test, Treatment

Dysnomia Causes

Dysnomia may have some specific type of causes behind this like delay in maturation of pre frontal cortex. This area is specifically associated with remembering things and words. Dysnomia occurs when there is problem faced by patient in regulating attention and regulating behavior. It is also seen in ADHD. Sometimes it develops on its own in children without any intervention. This is the only cause reported until now. Other causes may include head injury, accident or any other head hit. It may be secondary to some diseases like dyslexia. Dysnomia may be genetic and transfer from parents.

Dysnomia Types

Dysnomia have three main types i.e. word selection anomia, semantic anomia and disconnection anomia. In word selection anomia, patient is aware of using object and can select it from a group of objects but cannot name that specific object. It also have a subtype named color anomia. In color anomia patient can identify color but cannot name it. In semantic anomia, patient can forget meaning of specific word. It sometimes accompany recognition deficit. In disconnection anomia, patient may experience modality specific anomia. In this anomia is related to a specific sensory modality like hearing. It occurs when there is increased connections between language and sensory cortices.

Dysnomia Treatment

Dysnomia cannot be cured completely. There are some treatment options with which we can improve patient leaning and remembering skills. These treatment options involve visual aids. In visual aids patient is helped to remember things with the help of pictures. These rehabilitation activities should be continued for a time and then discontinue to check results. But after two weeks patient wills start getting Dysnomia again. Other treatment options include circumlocution induced naming therapy CIN. In this method patient use circumlocution along with visual aid. Other treatment option include computerized assisted therapy CAT. Some drugs are also used in treatment like levodopa.
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Idioventricular Rhythm Meaning, Rate, ECG, Causes, Treatment

Normally heartbeat is triggered by pace maker of heart but when these triggering signals stop receiving by heart from SA node or AV node then myocardium of heart itself works as pacemaker and this is known as idioventricular rhythm. SA node stands for Sino Atrial node and AV node stands for Atrioventricular node. Myocardium is a membrane which covers heart and protects it. Signals from ventricle are transmitted to every cell via cell to cell phenomenon. Cells involved are cardiomyocytes. Conduction system is not used for transforming signals to cells. It creates bizarre QRS complexes i.e. more than 0.12 seconds.

Idioventricular Rhythm Causes

There are many causes behind idioventricular rhythm some of them are as follows:

  • After cardiac arrest return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC).
  • An athletic heart is another cause of idioventricular rhythm.
  • Some drugs can also cause idioventricular rhythm like adrenaline or isoprenaline. These drugs are beta sympathomimetic.
  • Sometimes drug toxicity can also cause idioventricular rhythm like cocaine, digoxin and some anesthetics like desflurane.
  • The most common cause behind idioventricular rhythm is reperfusion phase of an acute myocardial infarction.
  • Some abnormalities in electrolyte balance lead to idioventricular rhythm.

Other causes are myocarditis, congenital heart disease and last but not least cardiomyopathy.

Idioventricular Rhythm ECG

ECG stands for electrocardiogram. Idioventricular rhythm mostly resembles ventricular tachycardia. But the difference is in ventricular rate which is below 60 beats per second in ventricular tachycardia. Idioventricular rhythm ECG shows atrioventricular dissociation and sometimes termed as slow ventricular tachycardia. When ventricular rate lies between 60 and 100 bpm it is then known as accelerated idioventricular rhythm. Here is an example of ECG of idioventricular rhythm in which there is a left bundle branch block pattern. AV dissociation is visible in this ECG report. Lead V1 rhythm in bottom shows AV node dissociation.

Idioventricular Rhythm Meaning, Rate, ECG, Causes, Treatment

Idioventricular Rhythm Rate

In idioventricular rhythm ventricular rate increases and normally lies between 20 to 40 beats per minute. But in case of accelerated idioventricular rhythm ventricular rate exceeds from 40 beats per minute. Ventricular rhythm rate of 20 to 40 beats per minute is also known as intrinsic automaticity of the ventricular myocardium. Ventricular rate more than 50 beats per minute have consistent ventricular rhythm escape and ventricular rates more than 110 beats per minute have consistent ventricular tachycardia. This is all about idioventricular rhythm rate which differentiate it from other cardiac conditions like tachycardia and other athletic heart diseases.

Idioventricular Rhythm Treatment

Idioventricular rhythm is a time based condition i.e. benign and no treatment is required to treat it. It manages by self-limiting capability. It can resolve itself when rate of sinus increases from ventricular foci. Anti-arrhythmic drugs can precipitate hemodynamic deterioration that’s why these drugs should be avoided. Treating underlying cause can also help to resolve idioventricular rhythm if it occurs due to myocardial perfusion then it should be restored. Sometimes idioventricular rhythm is of help in low cardiac output state and atropine is administered to increase sinus rate and AV conduction. Idioventricular rhythm self-resolving capability makes it harmless.
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First Bite Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

First bite syndrome is defined as pain in salivary gland named parotid gland or in the mandibular region i.e. lower jaw region. Parotid gland is located at the back side of mouth and near to the ears. This pain occurs at 1st bite and then gradually its intensity decreases with every bite. Pain may also become intense if patient take a break in eating meal. It is considered a side effect of a surgical treatment which is performed for cancer in head and neck region. Saliva production by parotid gland in mouth triggers pain sensation.

Pain is described as a sharp, intense pain resembling a muscle spasm. It mainly occurs due to nerve damage. Sometimes cancer/ tumor in head or neck region can also lead to first bite syndrome. This syndrome can occur again after treatment with a gap of days, months or years. It is a self-resolving syndrome which recovers on its own. But there are still some treatments which help in resolving its side effects. Sometimes first bite syndrome is accompanied by retrosternal chest pain and esophageal disease. There is no age restriction in first bite syndrome and can occur again and again even after treatment.

First Bite Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

First Bite Syndrome Symptoms

First bite syndrome have a main symptom of pain occurring at first bite. Pain can be described as intense, sharp, needle like pain resembling muscle spasm. Pain sensation starts decreasing with every bite but pain can occur again if patient takes a break during meal. Patient feels difficulty in eating and chewing food. Pain occurs in the back side of mouth near the ears in parotid gland due to production of saliva before or with every bite. Patient feels pain like toothache in lower jaw line i.e. mandibular region. Sometimes pain spread to ears and brain.

First Bite Syndrome Causes

The exact cause behind first bite syndrome is unknown but on going research revealed that it can occur due to nerve damage. Nerve damage which occurs during or after surgery. 1st it was considered a side effect which occurred after chemotherapy of head and neck region. Tumor in head and neck region can also lead to first bite syndrome. Pain is triggered by parotid gland upon saliva production. All these can be the possible causes behind first bite syndrome so care along with proper treatment is required.

First Bite Syndrome Treatment

There are many treatment options which are beneficial as well.

  • Behavioral changes: patient is asked to do some actions like quenching fists, and rubbing cheeks to distract attention from pain. If pain occurs on one side of mouth, then patient should try to take bite with other jaw. Patients are also asked to take healthy food.
  • Medications: pain relievers are of no use in reducing pain but an anticonvulsant drug named carbamazepine and amitriptyline help in reducing pain.
  • Radiations therapy: radiation therapy is not common but is considered beneficial.
  • Botulinum toxin injection: this injection blocks production of pain.
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Stiff Skin Syndrome Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Stiff skin syndrome, as the name indicates it is a skin disorder in which skin become hard, tough and thick. It is a rare disease and whole body of patient is involved. This syndrome further causes many complications in body like flexion contractures (joints become immoveable or stuck due to thickening of skin. Stiff skin syndrome is a genetic syndrome which occurs at the time of birth and stays through childhood. As it is genetic syndrome, so it is also known as congenital facial dystrophy.

The skin of patient become rock hard and there are no immunity abnormalities or hypersensitivity. At starting stage, skin got stiff in some areas and then slowly it spreads to surrounding areas. People say that it slowly covers limbs and patient is not able to move around freely. It hurts to walk around. Once skin becomes hard due to stiff skin syndrome, it cannot be reversed to its original healthy texture. It is also observed that chemotherapy helps to recover skin and stop spreading it over the whole body. It occurs due to mutation in a specific gene named FBN1. Its diagnosis is simple because of visible hard skin but genetic testing verify it.

Stiff Skin Syndrome Pictures

Stiff Skin Syndrome Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Stiff Skin Syndrome Symptoms

Stiff skin syndrome as its name shows hardening of skin. So its main symptom involves hard, tough and thick skin which feels rough on touch. Hard skin is associated with some other symptoms like excessive hair growth on skin i.e. hypertrichosis, body fat get reduced i.e. lipodystrophy, muscles get weak, growth become slow, scoliosis and short stature. Eye become weak and sometimes eye paralysis is also reported. Patient feel immobility in limbs and joints due to thickening of skin. Patient loss elasticity of skin. Rare patient with this syndrome got abnormality in lipid metabolism.

Stiff Skin Syndrome Causes

It is a genetic disease which occur due to gene mutation. Mutation occur in a specific gene named FBN1. This gene is responsible for instructing body to make a protein called fibrillin 1. This protein in turn is responsible for providing elasticity to cells by making elastic fibers. This protein named fibrillin 1 also provide strength and support to bones and tissues related to nerves, muscles and lenses of eye. When fibrillin 1 protein is disturbed, its association with another protein elastin is also disturbed. As a result both these proteins interact abnormally in extracellular matrix and features of stiff skin syndrome arise.

Stiff Skin Syndrome Treatment

Stiff skin syndrome once acquired, it cannot be reversed to a healthy skin. There are no specific therapies to treat this syndrome but its associated symptoms can be treated. Proper physical therapy and exercise are recommended to relax stiff joints and muscles. A lot of treatments are tried to improve this syndrome like steroids, light sensitive therapy i.e. psoralens, immunosuppressant drugs and light therapy but these all treatments are of no use in treating stiff skin syndrome. Antibiotic treatment is used to block some substances responsible for TGF beta antibodies and integrin binding.
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Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Osmotic demyelination syndrome is also known as central pontine myelionysis CPM. It is a neurological condition in which patient suffers from over correction and rapid correction of decreased or low sodium level in serum. Patient with osmotic demyelination syndrome may also have acute paralysis, dysphagia, dysarthria and some other neurological symptoms. Basically it occur due to damage in myelin sheath of nerve cells, located in the area of pons. Myelin sheath got lesion and as a result this syndrome occurs.

Patient with osmotic demyelination syndrome have sodium concentration 120 meq per liter or less in serum which can be corrected at a rate not more than 10 mmol/L/24 h. It is also said that, osmotic demyelination syndrome is a treatment complication of a condition named hyponatremia. The presentation of osmotic demyelination is heterogeneous it shows symptoms on the basis of brain region involved. It may occur due to many reasons like alcoholism, burns, dialysis and hypokalemia etc. computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging test are performed to diagnose osmotic demyelination syndrome. Its acute symptoms take about some days or even week to develop so its diagnosis may be late. Magnetic resonance imaging technique show changes more accurately as compare to computed tomography scan.

Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome Symptoms

Symptoms occurring in osmotic demyelination syndrome totally depend on the area of brain involved. Before occurrence of this syndrome patient may show symptoms of hyponatraemic encephalopathy like vomiting, nausea, headache, confusion and seizures. These symptoms can be recovered by making serum sodium level up to normal concentration. After few days, symptoms of osmotic demyelination start occurring i.e. seizures, changes in gait, ceased or decreased respiratory function and disturbed consciousness. There may be other symptoms but those will be associated with further damage in myelin sheath of brain stem.

Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome Causes

There may be many causes behind osmotic demyelination syndrome but the main reason is hyponatremia. Some causes other than hyponatremia are as follows:

  • It may be associated with hypokalemia, anorexia nervosa, severe burns, and dialysis.
  • Excessive alcohol consumption for long term is another main cause.
  • It may be secondary to some medications which can cross blood brain barrier. As these drugs pass brain barrier, it start causing abnormal thirst reception. In this case polydipsia is a leading cause behind occurrence of osmotic demyelination syndrome.
  • Psychogenic polydipsia in schizophrenic patients also cause osmotic demyelination syndrome by increasing thirst and decreasing sodium level.

Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome Treatment

Osmotic demyelination syndrome occurs due to decreased sodium concentration in blood so this sodium concentration need attention to treat osmotic demyelination syndrome. So sodium level in serum should be leveled at a rate not exceeding 10 mmol per liter per 24 hours. Or 0.5 meq per liter per hour or 18 meq per liter per 48 hours. Alcoholic patients are advised to not take vitamin supplements. Once this syndrome occur no treatment can cure it completely so preventive measures should be followed and care is required. Animal studies shows that inositol reduces osmotic demyelination syndrome severity.
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Pigeon Chest Images, Symptoms, Causes, Brace, Treatment

Pectus carinatum is another term used to describe pigeon chest. Pigeon chest is a condition in which chest bone is pushed outward. Pigeon chest is a chest wall deformity. Pigeon chest is also called keel chest. This chest wall deformity occurs during development of fetus or in childhood in case of puberty. During development, when chest wall is formed, chest cartilage connects to ribs abnormally leading to abnormal growth of ribs area connecting to sternum. Pigeon chest is visible in adolescence. One out of every 1500 children is suffering from pigeon chest. It is more common in males.

Pigeon Chest Symptoms

Pigeon chest is a visible condition due to its appearance. Some associated symptoms are as follows:

  • Patient may feel pain or tenderness in chest region.
  • Some respiratory infections may occur due to abnormal positioning of cartilage.
  • Patient may suffer from shortness of breath.
  • Heart rate may increase and tachycardia occurs.
  • Tiredness and asthma can also occur in some patients.

Pigeon chest can also lead to some worse conditions like cardiac diseases, abnormalities in musculoskeletal system.

  • Growth pattern may become abnormal.
  • Kyphosis (hunched back) may also occur, scoliosis (spine abnormal curvature) and some disorders of connective tissue like Marfan syndrome are also seen.

Pigeon Chest Images

Pigeon Chest Images, Symptoms, Causes, Brace, Treatment

Pigeon Chest Causes

Pigeon chest is developed by abnormal connecting of chest cartilage to ribs. The exact cause behind pigeon chest is still unknown. Some scientists said that it can transfer to generations so genetics may be a cause behind it. There are some genetic conditions in which there are greater chances of occurrence of pigeon chest. Some of them are as follows:

  • Some metabolic disorders like homocystinuria.
  • Brittle bone disease.
  • Abnormalities in chromosomes.
  • Coffin lowery syndrome.
  • Ehlers danlos syndrome.
  • Marfan syndrome (most common).
  • Morquio syndrome.
  • Noonan syndrome
  • Last but not least cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome.

Pigeon Chest Brace

Pigeon chest brace is a treatment option for mild to moderate pigeon chest. Orthotic bracing is considered a standard treatment in children to flatten pigeon chest. It is a customized fitted belt which is fixed on chest. Customized brace is fitted to chest region with a purpose to apply pressure on chest and make it flat. Effects are visible after several months. Children are instructed to wear brace for at least 8 hours a day. Children suffering from puberty are asked to wear brace until puberty ends. It will help to control pigeon chest and flatten it.

Pigeon Chest in Females

Some people have a misconception that pigeon chest do not occur in females but truth is that it may occur in females as well as in males. Reason behind this misconception is that, in puberty, breast development in women covers sternum and ribs and breast bone so pigeon chest is not clearly visible. Women come to know about their pigeon chest when pain and discomfort arises. Women can also wear customized brace to combat pigeon chest but unlike men, there are also some other options which can be used to treat it. Other options include some exercises related to chest and surgery.

Pigeon Chest Treatment

There are two main treatment options which can be used to treat pigeon chest 1st one is bracing and 2nd one is surgery. In bracing a belt type customized fitting is fixed on chest. This customized brace help to flatten chest bone by applying pressure on it. Other option is surgical process which is preferred when brace is ineffective to patient or puberty period has passed. Common surgical procedure used is ravitch procedure. In this procedure abnormal breastbone is removed and normal one is placed in chest. Sometimes surgeon break the abnormal breastbone and reposition it accurately.
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