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Follicular Conjunctivitis Acute, Chronic, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

   

Follicular conjunctivitis is a condition in which pink colored tissues surround eyes or cover the upper and lower eyelid or third eyelid is involved. These red tissues contain numerous follicles. These follicles are responsible for regulating local immune system. It is basically a collection of lymphocytes which are round in shape. Follicular conjunctivitis occurs as a local host in response to an external agent or substance and start producing subconjunctival lymphoid follicles. Some viruses, bacteria and chlamydia are responsible for causing follicular conjunctivitis. It is most prominent in the inferior fornix. Concentration of blood vessels increases in these follicles but are not prominent.

Follicular Conjunctivitis Acute, Chronic, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment


Acute Follicular Conjunctivitis


Acute follicular conjunctivitis occurs due to a pathogen named adenovirus. It appears in two main medical conditions named pharyngoconjunctival fever and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Both of these conditions occur due to adenovirus but its serotypes vary. In pharyngoconjunctival fever, adenovirus serotype 3, 4 or 7 is involved and in case of keratoconjunctivitis, adenovirus serotype 3, 7, 9 or 19 is involved. Acute follicular conjunctivitis is symptomatic and non specific. Antibiotics used against this condition involve broad spectrum antibiotics in order to prevent secondary infections. Topical corticosteroids are also prescribed for membrane conjunctiva and photophobia.


Chronic Follicular Conjunctivitis


Chronic follicular conjunctivitis occurs as a result of pathogen invasion named chlamydiae trachomatis. It is mostly secondary to toxic conjunctivitis which appear as a result of topical medications and molluscum contagiosum. In chronic follicular conjunctivitis, follicles appear in inferior fornix large enough to see with naked eye. these follicles are then known as mature follicles. It transmit via conjunctival discharge. Cornea of eye is also affected along with conjunctiva. Fibrosis helps a lot in healing chronic follicular conjunctivitis. Secretions of follicles undergo hyaline degeneration and then calcification. Chronic follicular conjunctivitis is divided into four main stages of its development.

Follicular Conjunctivitis Symptoms


According to stage division of follicular conjunctivitis, signs and symptoms vary. In active stage of follicular conjunctivitis, mature or large sized follicles are present which can be seen with naked eye. These follicles are expressible. It involves upper palpebral conjunctiva and fornix. Pink colored, finger like large papillae are present which give conjunctiva a velvety appearance. Contrary to it, in healing stage of follicular conjunctivitis, white colored, irregular fibrous patches are present. These fibers may be star shaped or linear. A white colored line of fibrosis is also observed in sulcus subtarsalis. Along with these, numerous white spots are also present.

Follicular Conjunctivitis Causes


Follicular conjunctivitis occurs due to an exogenous pathogen. When this pathogen invades inside body, follicular conjunctivitis occurs as a local host. The follicles are responsible for regulating local immune system, that's why they appear in response to any foreign pathogen. According to its two main types i.e. acute and chronic follicular conjunctivitis, causative agent vary. Adenovirus is responsible for causing acute follicular conjunctivitis and chlamydiae trachomatis is responsible for causing chronic follicular conjunctiva. Some chlamydial infections also lead to follicular conjunctivitis. These chlamydial infections involve trachoma and inclusion conjunctivitis.

Follicular Conjunctivitis Treatment


Follicular conjunctivitis occurs due to a pathogen invasion, so its treatment involves antibiotics. Ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ofloxacin and azithromycin are most effective against follicular conjunctivitis trachoma. Instillation of Ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin 0.3 percent q.i.d is prescribed. And erythromycin or tetracycline in topical dosage form is prescribed to apply once a day especially at bed time. This treatment should be continued for at least 6 weeks. It will help in controlling infections. This is the treatment outline used for follicular conjunctivitis.

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