Blog Archive

Red Scrotum Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Contagious, Cure

Red scrotum syndrome is a rarely occurring syndrome in which scrotum (an organ of male genital system) persistently become red and sometimes also involve base of penis. It is a chronic disease which mostly occurs in males in the 2nd half of their lives i.e. after 25 years of age. Basically erythema occurs on the surface of scrotum with sharp borders. There is no scaling with erythema but patient feels pain and burning sensation. It is a dermatological disease and associated with skin only. Initially it involves specifically anterior half part of the scrotum and can laterally involves its posterior part.

Red Scrotum Syndrome Causes

The exact cause behind red scrotum syndrome is still unknown but some possible reasons are as follows:

  • Vascular endothelium synthesize nitric oxide, which have a vasodilatory effect and this vasodilation can cause redness.
  • Over usage of topical steroids is also seen as leading cause in some cases. But withdrawal of these topical steroids help in treatment of red scrotum syndrome. Dependence is a side effect of steroids which enable patient to stay on steroids for long term. So steroid addiction is considered a main cause behind red scrotum syndrome.
  • Neuropathic element also cause red scrotum syndrome.

Red Scrotum Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Contagious, Cure

Red Scrotum Syndrome Symptoms

Symptoms of red scrotum syndrome are limited and common and do not spread. Red scrotum syndrome as the name indicates redness of scrotum. Scrotum becomes red which is defined by term erythema. Along with redness, patient feels burning sensation, itching and pain in scrotum. It is initially limited to anterior part of scrotum and then gradually involves posterior end and sometimes base of penis is also involved. Skin become tender and patient feel intense pain on touch. Scaling do not occur in red scrotum syndrome. Telangiectases may also present.

Red Scrotum Syndrome Contagious

Many men with red scrotum syndrome are worried about having a sexual relationship with women. Because they think this syndrome can spread by contact. But some men dare to have a sexual relationship with women and proved that this syndrome do not spread on touch. Men use precautions while having sexual intercourse which prevent women from acquiring red scrotum syndrome. So, it is concluded that this syndrome do not spread but still men should avoid direct contact with women and try to use some precautions while having sexual relationship with women.

Red Scrotum Syndrome Cure

In red scrotum syndrome patient 1st try to follow preventive measures. Which involves wearing loose fitted underwear, stop usage of soap, stop using topical steroids i.e. corticosteroids, try to use emollient cream. Along with these tips, medicinal therapy should also be continued which involve use of doxycycline. Doxycycline 50 to 100 mg four times a day is recommended. Treatment should be continued for at least 6 to 12 weeks. If doxycycline is effective, then it can be continued for longer time period. Other treatment options involve use of gabapentin and amitriptyline for neuropathic pain. Primecrolimus cream is an anti-inflammatory cream used to treat redness.
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Grierson gopalan Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Grierson gopalan syndrome is also known as burning feet syndrome. In this syndrome, patient feels pain and burning sensation in their feet. This burning sensation may accompanied by excessive sweating due to vasomotor changes in feet. It may have effect on eyes and causes amblyopia and scotoma. Women are more common with Grierson gopalan syndrome as compared to men. Women of age range 20 to 40 years old can have this syndrome. Burning occurs mainly in the soles of feet but it may involve fingers and lower legs also after some time.

Some people said that they feel needle or pin hurting sensation in their feet. This burning sensation occur mostly at night and less during day time. Grierson gopalan syndrome is called as burning feet syndrome because it only occurs in the soles of feet and does not involve palms of hand and arm. There may be many risk factors which can make this syndrome severe, some of them are obesity (over weight), fungal infection of foot and people wearing more fitted shoes will develop Grierson gopalan syndrome. Over consumption of alcohol for a long term also contribute to the development of Grierson gopalan syndrome.

Grierson gopalan Syndrome Symptoms

As its name indicates it is about burning sensation in feet so its main symptom is pain and burning sensation in the soles of feet. Sometimes numbness and tingling can occur, when this syndrome also involve lower legs and ankle. Other symptoms include redness of feet. Temperature of feet may also increase due to vasomotor changes, and these changes will lead to excessive sweating. Mostly this burning sensation occur at night time and patient feel normal at day time. Feet may got swell and needle or pin hurting sensation occur. All the symptoms above need quick medical attention.

Grierson gopalan Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatmen

Grierson gopalan Syndrome Causes

Symptoms show the leading cause behind it. Like if burning sensation occur at night for short period of time and then recover itself then it may occur due to tiredness. But if severe symptoms are present, then it may be due to nerve damage. Some common causes may be deficiency of vitamin D, HIV, long term alcohol consumption, diabetes and exposure to toxins. Some other possible causes may be chemotherapy, radiation therapy, severe kidney disease, athlete foot, anemia due to vitamin deficiency, hypothyroidism, AIDS, nerve damage due to diabetes and last but not least tarsal tunnel syndrome.

Grierson gopalan Syndrome Treatment

At starting stage, patient should follow some preventive tips to treat it but if it got severe, following treatment should be followed but with consultation of doctor. Here are some medications for relieving burning sensation i.e. desipramine, topiramate, venlafaxine, duloxetine, pregabalin, carbamazepine, gabapentin, desipramine, amitriptyline etc. some other medications which are prescribed for reduction in pain can also be used. Some over the counter drugs are also available for Grierson gopalan syndrome like Motrin, Advil, Aleve, Tylenol and ibuprofen. All these medications reduce pain and burning sensation. Low dose narcotics are also used.
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Pusher Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Physiotherapy, Treatment

Pusher syndrome is an abnormal body posture or postural disorientation. It is a post stroke condition in which patient lies or push towards hemiplegic side of brain with no compensation for instability. Patient is not independent in doing routine activities and require long time for that. In simple words patient tries to push towards the weak side of body. Mostly left side of body is involved as a result of lesion in right hemisphere. Patient with pusher syndrome is at high risk of falling due to imbalance in body. Mostly this syndrome is seen with right hemisphere of brain and less with diseases like multiple sclerosis and brain tumors.

Pusher Syndrome Symptoms

Pusher syndrome is characterized as postural disorientation or abnormal body posture. Patient’s body weight is shifted to hemiplegic side and tries to compensate posture imbalance. Patient can fall on one side due to abnormal body posture. Lesion occurs on one side of brain and patient body is pushed to the other side e.g. if lesion is in right hemisphere of brain then patient tends to push towards left side of body. Other symptoms involve spacial neglect and somatic cells sensory impairment. Aphasia, tactile extinction and hypoesthesia is also seen in patients with pusher syndrome.

Pusher Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Physiotherapy, Treatment

Pusher Syndrome Causes

Pusher syndrome occur due to nerve damage. Truncal graviceptive system is responsible for body’s upright position and when nerves of this system got damaged or disturbed after stroke it leads to abnormal posture of body. It occurs due to excessive disruption in somesthetic information processing. Disruption in sensory nerves lead patient to push towards other side of body having no cerebral lesion. Body pushing can be a secondary response to accidental or unexpected experience of loss of body balance. Nerve damage can also occur due to inappropriate oxygen supply or an accidental head injury which leads to abnormal posture.

Pusher Syndrome Physiotherapy

Physiotherapy is a treatment option in which body exercises are involved. Main aim of physiotherapy is to increase base support and decrease anxiety as well as improving stability of body. Patient is asked to lay down and relax, then some exercises are performed. Some visual aids are used to make patient oriented towards exercise and learn new moves. Weight lifting exercises are also performed to improve sensory functioning. Weight is allowed to hold on side not working well and movement is observed with continuous exercise.

Pusher Syndrome Treatment

Physiotherapy is the treatment option in which some exercises are performed along with massage to improve sensory nerves. Weight bearing exercises are also performed to compensate abnormal posture. In addition to physiotherapy, there are some additional exercises which improve body posture. Sit stand is an easiest exercise to start with. Patient should try to stand in front of mirror and then start exercising. This will make patient energetic and also help patient as a visual aid. In sit stand, patient have to sit on affected side and then stand reaching in the center. Tactile cueing on hips and quads also help to maintain posture.
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Ejaculatory duct Cyst Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Diagnosis

Ejaculatory duct cyst is a type of prostatic cyst which rarely occur. In this condition obstruction in ejaculatory duct occurs due to any reason and then a cyst is formed leading to infertility and other problems. These ejaculatory duct obstructions can be congenital or secondary i.e. inflammation. Normally ejaculatory cyst are intra prostatic when small in size but can spread and extend when become large. Urinary tract infection may be the biggest risk factor. Cyst may occur in both ejaculatory ducts. As a result semen is not able to pass out most constituents and leads to infertility and pelvic region pain.

Ejaculatory duct Cyst Causes

There may be many causes behind ejaculatory duct obstruction which leads to cyst formation. Some of the main causes are discussed below:

Ejaculatory duct obstruction may occur as a result of total loss of semen i.e. aspermia or may also due to decrease in semen volume i.e. oligospermia. Oligospermia involve only the ejaculation of accessory prostate glands downwards to the penis orifice (outer end of ejaculatory duct). It may occur secondary to inflammation. Inflammation may occur as a result of chlamydia, prostatitis, and tuberculosis of prostate gland or other pathogens. Calculus is also reported in blocking of ejaculatory duct and cyst formation.

Ejaculatory duct Cyst Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Diagnosis

Ejaculatory duct Cyst Symptoms

Symptoms of ejaculatory duct cyst are all associated with pelvic region. Pain in pelvic region may occur. Men will face infertility if there is cyst in both ejaculatory ducts. This infertility may occur as a result of aspermia or azoospermia. Patients with ejaculatory duct cyst may not get sexual pleasure and enjoyment of orgasm because of lack of gel like fluid of seminal vesicles. Discomfort in scrotum and anus. Painful sexual intercourse and extreme pain after ejaculation. Patient will have some involuntary contractions of pelvic muscles.

Ejaculatory duct Cyst Diagnosis

Diagnosis of ejaculatory duct cyst or obstruction is easy. Low volume ejaculation from semen or no ejaculation these both conditions will show obstruction in ejaculatory duct. Patient itself can observe it during masturbation or orgasm. Seminal vesicles contain a fluid composed of fructose. So chemical analysis if show decreased concentration of fructose it means patient is suffering from ejaculatory duct cyst. Semen analysis is also performed under microscope to check its concentration and volume. Aspermia and azoospermia are also checked in semen microscopic analysis. Oligospermia and dry ejaculation these are considered main diagnostic features of ejaculatory duct cyst.

Ejaculatory duct Cyst Treatment

According to the underlying cause, there are many treatment options. Transurethral resection is performed to remove cyst from ejaculatory duct. It is an invasive method with some complications. After this men are able to led pregnancies in their sex partners. Main disadvantage is that urine may flow backwards and cause problems. Balloon catheters are also used in recanalization of ejaculatory ducts. Spermatozoa are harvested or produced directly from testes and then introduced into female ovary outside the body, this process is known as in vitro fertilization. After the process is completed, that ovary is again placed in women body for development.
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Stromme Syndrome Images, Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Stromme syndrome is an autosomal recessive congenital disorder. In this disorder, cornea of eye have an opacity like scar right in center which is responsible for problems in vision. Remaining eye is normal. Some people may have smaller eyes than usual and have iris maldevelopment. Pupil is also abnormal. Stromme syndrome was 1st discovered in 1993 when only a few members were reported with this syndrome. This syndrome have many synonyms like Apple peel syndrome, anomalies, CILD31, ciliary dyskinesia, jejunal atresia and ocular anomalies (include different amount of angle dysgenesis, corneal leukemia, hypoplasia, micro cornea, cataracts, anterior synechiae, sclera cornea and sometimes iris colobomas).

Stromme syndrome show some features of ciliopathy and lethality in childhood which can only be observed in severe condition. It is a genetic disorder and gene involved in this syndrome is CENPF gene). Stromme syndrome have some correlated clinical conditions like microcephaly (reduced skull size), vision impairment and bowel obstruction. This syndrome is considered a developmental disorder. It rarely occurs in people. Physicians have described this condition i.e. Hypertelorism and deep set eyes. Patient may suffer from many ocular diseases but glaucoma is not reported with stromme syndrome. This syndrome is highly complicated condition due to involvement of many systemic functions.

Stromme Syndrome Images

Stromme Syndrome Images, Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Stromme Syndrome Causes

It is a genetic disorder which is caused by mutation in a specific gene (CENPF) 1q41. This mutation occur in both partners and as a result it will transfer to their children. There are 25 % chances that stromme syndrome will pass on to children from parents only if each parent have single mutation. This syndrome will transfer to every child with 25 % possibility of occurrence of this disease. Mutation in this autosomal recessive disorder means complete change of selective gene. This is the only cause behind stromme syndrome.

Stromme Syndrome Symptoms

Stromme syndrome have many associated clinical characteristics so its symptoms are very vast. Main symptoms of stromme syndrome are as follows:

Low set ears, Hypertelorism, ear malformation, congenital anomaly of eye, hypo plastic mandible condyle, microcephaly, abnormality of skeleton system, abnormality of respiratory system, ciliary dyskinesia, hydrocephalus, cerebellar hypoplasia, corpus callosum agenesis, abnormality in nervous system, abnormality in digestive system due to involvement of intestine. Duodenal atresia, short columella, hypoplasic mandible condyle, cleft palate and last but not least abnormal head and neck i.e. head is smaller in size than usual and neck is longer than usual.

Stromme Syndrome Treatment

As stromme syndrome is a recessive congenital disorder which occur due to mutation in genes so it cannot be treated. Its associated conditions i.e. visual impairment, intestinal abnormalities and head abnormalities can be treated with medication therapy. In children, intestinal surgery is performed sometimes. Medications involved in treatment of stromme syndrome are as follows: Hormonal therapy involve letrozole, dopamine, estrogens, memantine and many more.

Hormone antagonists are also used. Analgesics, steroid synthesis inhibitors, anti HIV AIDS agent, protein kinase inhibitors etc. Other agents involved are anti-infective agents to avoid occurrence of infections which include anti-microbial and anti-viral.
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Dysnomia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Types, Treatment

Dysnomia is a neurological disease in which person is not able to remember words properly. It is a learning disability in which patient finds difficult to remember names or words. When patient is asked to recall anything, he can describe almost all things about that thing but cannot remember its specific name. Not only words and names, numbers are also difficult to remember. It is a disorder which occurs in childhood. It is considered a mild condition of anomia. It can be easily diagnosed when child feel difficulty in remembering names, dates, reading, speaking, writing and doing math.

Dysnomia Symptoms

Symptoms of Dysnomia are according to its underlying cause. People who suffer from accident or head injury, may have Dysnomia and its symptoms will be according this cause. With the passage of time, these symptoms disappear. Common symptoms of Dysnomia are as follows:

Patient with Dysnomia cannot recall and even spell properly.
They even find it difficult to use and remember common synonyms.
Patient even cannot remember names of family members and close friends.
All patients with Dysnomia do not have disability of recalling names.
All learning abilities are prominent when diagnostic tests are performed to diagnose Dysnomia.

Dysnomia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Test, Treatment

Dysnomia Causes

Dysnomia may have some specific type of causes behind this like delay in maturation of pre frontal cortex. This area is specifically associated with remembering things and words. Dysnomia occurs when there is problem faced by patient in regulating attention and regulating behavior. It is also seen in ADHD. Sometimes it develops on its own in children without any intervention. This is the only cause reported until now. Other causes may include head injury, accident or any other head hit. It may be secondary to some diseases like dyslexia. Dysnomia may be genetic and transfer from parents.

Dysnomia Types

Dysnomia have three main types i.e. word selection anomia, semantic anomia and disconnection anomia. In word selection anomia, patient is aware of using object and can select it from a group of objects but cannot name that specific object. It also have a subtype named color anomia. In color anomia patient can identify color but cannot name it. In semantic anomia, patient can forget meaning of specific word. It sometimes accompany recognition deficit. In disconnection anomia, patient may experience modality specific anomia. In this anomia is related to a specific sensory modality like hearing. It occurs when there is increased connections between language and sensory cortices.

Dysnomia Treatment

Dysnomia cannot be cured completely. There are some treatment options with which we can improve patient leaning and remembering skills. These treatment options involve visual aids. In visual aids patient is helped to remember things with the help of pictures. These rehabilitation activities should be continued for a time and then discontinue to check results. But after two weeks patient wills start getting Dysnomia again. Other treatment options include circumlocution induced naming therapy CIN. In this method patient use circumlocution along with visual aid. Other treatment option include computerized assisted therapy CAT. Some drugs are also used in treatment like levodopa.
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Idioventricular Rhythm Meaning, Rate, ECG, Causes, Treatment

Normally heartbeat is triggered by pace maker of heart but when these triggering signals stop receiving by heart from SA node or AV node then myocardium of heart itself works as pacemaker and this is known as idioventricular rhythm. SA node stands for Sino Atrial node and AV node stands for Atrioventricular node. Myocardium is a membrane which covers heart and protects it. Signals from ventricle are transmitted to every cell via cell to cell phenomenon. Cells involved are cardiomyocytes. Conduction system is not used for transforming signals to cells. It creates bizarre QRS complexes i.e. more than 0.12 seconds.

Idioventricular Rhythm Causes

There are many causes behind idioventricular rhythm some of them are as follows:

  • After cardiac arrest return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC).
  • An athletic heart is another cause of idioventricular rhythm.
  • Some drugs can also cause idioventricular rhythm like adrenaline or isoprenaline. These drugs are beta sympathomimetic.
  • Sometimes drug toxicity can also cause idioventricular rhythm like cocaine, digoxin and some anesthetics like desflurane.
  • The most common cause behind idioventricular rhythm is reperfusion phase of an acute myocardial infarction.
  • Some abnormalities in electrolyte balance lead to idioventricular rhythm.

Other causes are myocarditis, congenital heart disease and last but not least cardiomyopathy.

Idioventricular Rhythm ECG

ECG stands for electrocardiogram. Idioventricular rhythm mostly resembles ventricular tachycardia. But the difference is in ventricular rate which is below 60 beats per second in ventricular tachycardia. Idioventricular rhythm ECG shows atrioventricular dissociation and sometimes termed as slow ventricular tachycardia. When ventricular rate lies between 60 and 100 bpm it is then known as accelerated idioventricular rhythm. Here is an example of ECG of idioventricular rhythm in which there is a left bundle branch block pattern. AV dissociation is visible in this ECG report. Lead V1 rhythm in bottom shows AV node dissociation.

Idioventricular Rhythm Meaning, Rate, ECG, Causes, Treatment

Idioventricular Rhythm Rate

In idioventricular rhythm ventricular rate increases and normally lies between 20 to 40 beats per minute. But in case of accelerated idioventricular rhythm ventricular rate exceeds from 40 beats per minute. Ventricular rhythm rate of 20 to 40 beats per minute is also known as intrinsic automaticity of the ventricular myocardium. Ventricular rate more than 50 beats per minute have consistent ventricular rhythm escape and ventricular rates more than 110 beats per minute have consistent ventricular tachycardia. This is all about idioventricular rhythm rate which differentiate it from other cardiac conditions like tachycardia and other athletic heart diseases.

Idioventricular Rhythm Treatment

Idioventricular rhythm is a time based condition i.e. benign and no treatment is required to treat it. It manages by self-limiting capability. It can resolve itself when rate of sinus increases from ventricular foci. Anti-arrhythmic drugs can precipitate hemodynamic deterioration that’s why these drugs should be avoided. Treating underlying cause can also help to resolve idioventricular rhythm if it occurs due to myocardial perfusion then it should be restored. Sometimes idioventricular rhythm is of help in low cardiac output state and atropine is administered to increase sinus rate and AV conduction. Idioventricular rhythm self-resolving capability makes it harmless.
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First Bite Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

First bite syndrome is defined as pain in salivary gland named parotid gland or in the mandibular region i.e. lower jaw region. Parotid gland is located at the back side of mouth and near to the ears. This pain occurs at 1st bite and then gradually its intensity decreases with every bite. Pain may also become intense if patient take a break in eating meal. It is considered a side effect of a surgical treatment which is performed for cancer in head and neck region. Saliva production by parotid gland in mouth triggers pain sensation.

Pain is described as a sharp, intense pain resembling a muscle spasm. It mainly occurs due to nerve damage. Sometimes cancer/ tumor in head or neck region can also lead to first bite syndrome. This syndrome can occur again after treatment with a gap of days, months or years. It is a self-resolving syndrome which recovers on its own. But there are still some treatments which help in resolving its side effects. Sometimes first bite syndrome is accompanied by retrosternal chest pain and esophageal disease. There is no age restriction in first bite syndrome and can occur again and again even after treatment.

First Bite Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

First Bite Syndrome Symptoms

First bite syndrome have a main symptom of pain occurring at first bite. Pain can be described as intense, sharp, needle like pain resembling muscle spasm. Pain sensation starts decreasing with every bite but pain can occur again if patient takes a break during meal. Patient feels difficulty in eating and chewing food. Pain occurs in the back side of mouth near the ears in parotid gland due to production of saliva before or with every bite. Patient feels pain like toothache in lower jaw line i.e. mandibular region. Sometimes pain spread to ears and brain.

First Bite Syndrome Causes

The exact cause behind first bite syndrome is unknown but on going research revealed that it can occur due to nerve damage. Nerve damage which occurs during or after surgery. 1st it was considered a side effect which occurred after chemotherapy of head and neck region. Tumor in head and neck region can also lead to first bite syndrome. Pain is triggered by parotid gland upon saliva production. All these can be the possible causes behind first bite syndrome so care along with proper treatment is required.

First Bite Syndrome Treatment

There are many treatment options which are beneficial as well.

  • Behavioral changes: patient is asked to do some actions like quenching fists, and rubbing cheeks to distract attention from pain. If pain occurs on one side of mouth, then patient should try to take bite with other jaw. Patients are also asked to take healthy food.
  • Medications: pain relievers are of no use in reducing pain but an anticonvulsant drug named carbamazepine and amitriptyline help in reducing pain.
  • Radiations therapy: radiation therapy is not common but is considered beneficial.
  • Botulinum toxin injection: this injection blocks production of pain.

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Stiff Skin Syndrome Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Stiff skin syndrome, as the name indicates it is a skin disorder in which skin become hard, tough and thick. It is a rare disease and whole body of patient is involved. This syndrome further causes many complications in body like flexion contractures (joints become immoveable or stuck due to thickening of skin. Stiff skin syndrome is a genetic syndrome which occurs at the time of birth and stays through childhood. As it is genetic syndrome, so it is also known as congenital facial dystrophy.

The skin of patient become rock hard and there are no immunity abnormalities or hypersensitivity. At starting stage, skin got stiff in some areas and then slowly it spreads to surrounding areas. People say that it slowly covers limbs and patient is not able to move around freely. It hurts to walk around. Once skin becomes hard due to stiff skin syndrome, it cannot be reversed to its original healthy texture. It is also observed that chemotherapy helps to recover skin and stop spreading it over the whole body. It occurs due to mutation in a specific gene named FBN1. Its diagnosis is simple because of visible hard skin but genetic testing verify it.

Stiff Skin Syndrome Pictures

Stiff Skin Syndrome Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Stiff Skin Syndrome Symptoms

Stiff skin syndrome as its name shows hardening of skin. So its main symptom involves hard, tough and thick skin which feels rough on touch. Hard skin is associated with some other symptoms like excessive hair growth on skin i.e. hypertrichosis, body fat get reduced i.e. lipodystrophy, muscles get weak, growth become slow, scoliosis and short stature. Eye become weak and sometimes eye paralysis is also reported. Patient feel immobility in limbs and joints due to thickening of skin. Patient loss elasticity of skin. Rare patient with this syndrome got abnormality in lipid metabolism.

Stiff Skin Syndrome Causes

It is a genetic disease which occur due to gene mutation. Mutation occur in a specific gene named FBN1. This gene is responsible for instructing body to make a protein called fibrillin 1. This protein in turn is responsible for providing elasticity to cells by making elastic fibers. This protein named fibrillin 1 also provide strength and support to bones and tissues related to nerves, muscles and lenses of eye. When fibrillin 1 protein is disturbed, its association with another protein elastin is also disturbed. As a result both these proteins interact abnormally in extracellular matrix and features of stiff skin syndrome arise.

Stiff Skin Syndrome Treatment

Stiff skin syndrome once acquired, it cannot be reversed to a healthy skin. There are no specific therapies to treat this syndrome but its associated symptoms can be treated. Proper physical therapy and exercise are recommended to relax stiff joints and muscles. A lot of treatments are tried to improve this syndrome like steroids, light sensitive therapy i.e. psoralens, immunosuppressant drugs and light therapy but these all treatments are of no use in treating stiff skin syndrome. Antibiotic treatment is used to block some substances responsible for TGF beta antibodies and integrin binding.
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Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Osmotic demyelination syndrome is also known as central pontine myelionysis CPM. It is a neurological condition in which patient suffers from over correction and rapid correction of decreased or low sodium level in serum. Patient with osmotic demyelination syndrome may also have acute paralysis, dysphagia, dysarthria and some other neurological symptoms. Basically it occur due to damage in myelin sheath of nerve cells, located in the area of pons. Myelin sheath got lesion and as a result this syndrome occurs.

Patient with osmotic demyelination syndrome have sodium concentration 120 meq per liter or less in serum which can be corrected at a rate not more than 10 mmol/L/24 h. It is also said that, osmotic demyelination syndrome is a treatment complication of a condition named hyponatremia. The presentation of osmotic demyelination is heterogeneous it shows symptoms on the basis of brain region involved. It may occur due to many reasons like alcoholism, burns, dialysis and hypokalemia etc. computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging test are performed to diagnose osmotic demyelination syndrome. Its acute symptoms take about some days or even week to develop so its diagnosis may be late. Magnetic resonance imaging technique show changes more accurately as compare to computed tomography scan.

Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome Symptoms

Symptoms occurring in osmotic demyelination syndrome totally depend on the area of brain involved. Before occurrence of this syndrome patient may show symptoms of hyponatraemic encephalopathy like vomiting, nausea, headache, confusion and seizures. These symptoms can be recovered by making serum sodium level up to normal concentration. After few days, symptoms of osmotic demyelination start occurring i.e. seizures, changes in gait, ceased or decreased respiratory function and disturbed consciousness. There may be other symptoms but those will be associated with further damage in myelin sheath of brain stem.

Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome Causes

There may be many causes behind osmotic demyelination syndrome but the main reason is hyponatremia. Some causes other than hyponatremia are as follows:

  • It may be associated with hypokalemia, anorexia nervosa, severe burns, and dialysis.
  • Excessive alcohol consumption for long term is another main cause.
  • It may be secondary to some medications which can cross blood brain barrier. As these drugs pass brain barrier, it start causing abnormal thirst reception. In this case polydipsia is a leading cause behind occurrence of osmotic demyelination syndrome.
  • Psychogenic polydipsia in schizophrenic patients also cause osmotic demyelination syndrome by increasing thirst and decreasing sodium level.

Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome Treatment

Osmotic demyelination syndrome occurs due to decreased sodium concentration in blood so this sodium concentration need attention to treat osmotic demyelination syndrome. So sodium level in serum should be leveled at a rate not exceeding 10 mmol per liter per 24 hours. Or 0.5 meq per liter per hour or 18 meq per liter per 48 hours. Alcoholic patients are advised to not take vitamin supplements. Once this syndrome occur no treatment can cure it completely so preventive measures should be followed and care is required. Animal studies shows that inositol reduces osmotic demyelination syndrome severity.
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Pigeon Chest Images, Symptoms, Causes, Brace, Treatment

Pectus carinatum is another term used to describe pigeon chest. Pigeon chest is a condition in which chest bone is pushed outward. Pigeon chest is a chest wall deformity. Pigeon chest is also called keel chest. This chest wall deformity occurs during development of fetus or in childhood in case of puberty. During development, when chest wall is formed, chest cartilage connects to ribs abnormally leading to abnormal growth of ribs area connecting to sternum. Pigeon chest is visible in adolescence. One out of every 1500 children is suffering from pigeon chest. It is more common in males.

Pigeon Chest Symptoms

Pigeon chest is a visible condition due to its appearance. Some associated symptoms are as follows:

  • Patient may feel pain or tenderness in chest region.
  • Some respiratory infections may occur due to abnormal positioning of cartilage.
  • Patient may suffer from shortness of breath.
  • Heart rate may increase and tachycardia occurs.
  • Tiredness and asthma can also occur in some patients.

Pigeon chest can also lead to some worse conditions like cardiac diseases, abnormalities in musculoskeletal system.

  • Growth pattern may become abnormal.
  • Kyphosis (hunched back) may also occur, scoliosis (spine abnormal curvature) and some disorders of connective tissue like Marfan syndrome are also seen.

Pigeon Chest Images

Pigeon Chest Images, Symptoms, Causes, Brace, Treatment

Pigeon Chest Causes

Pigeon chest is developed by abnormal connecting of chest cartilage to ribs. The exact cause behind pigeon chest is still unknown. Some scientists said that it can transfer to generations so genetics may be a cause behind it. There are some genetic conditions in which there are greater chances of occurrence of pigeon chest. Some of them are as follows:

  • Some metabolic disorders like homocystinuria.
  • Brittle bone disease.
  • Abnormalities in chromosomes.
  • Coffin lowery syndrome.
  • Ehlers danlos syndrome.
  • Marfan syndrome (most common).
  • Morquio syndrome.
  • Noonan syndrome
  • Last but not least cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome.

Pigeon Chest Brace

Pigeon chest brace is a treatment option for mild to moderate pigeon chest. Orthotic bracing is considered a standard treatment in children to flatten pigeon chest. It is a customized fitted belt which is fixed on chest. Customized brace is fitted to chest region with a purpose to apply pressure on chest and make it flat. Effects are visible after several months. Children are instructed to wear brace for at least 8 hours a day. Children suffering from puberty are asked to wear brace until puberty ends. It will help to control pigeon chest and flatten it.

Pigeon Chest in Females

Some people have a misconception that pigeon chest do not occur in females but truth is that it may occur in females as well as in males. Reason behind this misconception is that, in puberty, breast development in women covers sternum and ribs and breast bone so pigeon chest is not clearly visible. Women come to know about their pigeon chest when pain and discomfort arises. Women can also wear customized brace to combat pigeon chest but unlike men, there are also some other options which can be used to treat it. Other options include some exercises related to chest and surgery.

Pigeon Chest Treatment

There are two main treatment options which can be used to treat pigeon chest 1st one is bracing and 2nd one is surgery. In bracing a belt type customized fitting is fixed on chest. This customized brace help to flatten chest bone by applying pressure on it. Other option is surgical process which is preferred when brace is ineffective to patient or puberty period has passed. Common surgical procedure used is ravitch procedure. In this procedure abnormal breastbone is removed and normal one is placed in chest. Sometimes surgeon break the abnormal breastbone and reposition it accurately.
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Calculus bridge Images, Symptoms, Causes, Removal

To understand Calculus Bridge, we should have a clear concept of calculus. When a hard mass called plaque is deposited on teeth it is known as calculus or tartar. It is yellowish or white in color. When this plaque covers all teeth in a line and fill all space between teeth it is then called as Calculus Bridge.

Calculus is formed due to precipitation of minerals, which takes place in the presence of saliva and gingival crevicular fluid. This reaction of precipitation occurs within plaque. Due to precipitation, bacterial cells get killed and then hard surface of teeth provide a best place for further plaque formation. As a result calculus is built up on teeth.

Calculus Bridge either form on base line of teeth row i.e. along the gum line (supragingival) or in the center line on sulcus which lies between teeth and gingiva i.e. sub gingival. Sub gingival means “below the gum” and supra gingival means “above the gum”. Calculus is composed of both organic and inorganic components. Minerals are inorganic and cellular While extracellular are organic. There are 40 to 60 % minerals involved. Other components involved are:

  • Hydroxyapatite
  • Whitlockite
  • Octacalcium phosphate
  • Brushite.

Calculus bridge Images

Calculus bridge Images, Symptoms, Causes, Removal

Calculus bridge Symptoms

Calculus Bridge is a visible dental condition having clear signs and symptoms. Some main symptoms are as follows:

  • A hard mass deposit on teeth.
  • It most commonly occur on lower jaw line.
  • It is yellowish or white in color.
  • Bad breath is common
  • Gums start receding.
  • Gingiva get chronically inflamed.
  • It is not easy to remove calculus plaque once it is formed.
  • Tooth start decaying
  • Sometimes calculus or tartar start penetrating deep inside teeth and as a result teeth start falling.

All these signs and symptoms are associated with calculus or tartar formation on teeth. Patient or dentist can easily diagnose it.

Calculus bridge Causes

Calculus Bridge is a hard dental plaque which is formed by precipitation of minerals present in plaque. When saliva and gingival crevicular fluid get in touch with plaque, precipitation of inorganic minerals take place. As a result surface of teeth become hard and rough. This hard surface is suitable for formation of further plaque. When precipitation occurs, bacteria cells present inside plaque also get killed which helps in the formation of hard dental plaque known as calculus or tartar. This calculus start arranging itself on full jaw line forming a bridge.

Calculus bridge Treatment

Plaque can be removed easily via regular brushing and flossing. But when it get hard and do not easily removed via brushing then two main methods are used to remove calculus formation i.e. ultrasonic removal and via hand tools. Vibrations of high frequency are used in ultrasonic method of calculus removal. Emitting vibrations have high frequency. After ultrasonic removal of calculus, hand tools are used to scrap off remaining calculus deposits. As a result, tooth texture become soft. At the end a fluoride treatment or a polish is done to refresh mouth, make it clean and smooth.
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Anisometropia Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Glasses

Anisometropia is an ocular condition in which person have different or unequal refractive power of both eyes. Any one eye may have near sightedness i.e. myopia, far sightedness i.e. hyperopia or may have both conditions at a time which is termed as antimetropia. When difference in power touches up to 2 diopters or exceed, it is considered as a strong indication of Anisometropia. This difference will interfere in normal binocular vision. People with Anisometropia feel difference in vision i.e. things appear smaller in one eye and bigger in 2nd eye. People also said that they have a blurry vision.

Anisometropia Symptoms

Anisometropia have many signs and symptoms. Sometimes it leads to further conditions like

  • Amblyopia (in this condition low refractive power leads to lack of visual ability via blocking visual stimulation. Due to this blockage, messages are not transferred to brain and people are not able to see clear images.)
  • Strabismus (in this condition patient is not able to align both eyes and as a result patient cannot focus on a single point in space.
  • Diplopia which is also known as double vision. Diplopia results in light sensitivity, dizziness, tiredness, headache, eye strain and last but not least nausea.

Anisometropia Symptoms, Causes, Types, Treatment, Glasses

Anisometropia Causes

It is said that people with normal vision can also have almost 5% difference in refractive power of each eye. People who have difference in refractive power in the range of 5 to 10 % experience uneven vision which is known as Anisometropia. Some of the other causes include defect in the eye from childbirth. Unequal size of both eyes is another leading cause of Anisometropia. Children with 6 to 18 years old are more in number with Anisometropia. Having identical vision is a rare state which is not commonly present. Brain do not accept visual signals from weak eye and results in Anisometropia.

Anisometropia Treatment

Treatment of Anisometropia is required as early as it is diagnosed. if it is left untreated, then brain will completely depend on eye presenting clear image and as a result other eye will start getting weaker. Anisometropia can be treated in many ways. If there is a minute difference in refractive power, it can be managed easily via corrective lenses, contact lenses or corrective surgery. Selection of treatment option depends upon severity of condition. Each eye need a different prescription of contact lenses or corrective lenses. Those people with greater difference cannot be cured with glasses.

Anisometropia Glassess

Use of glasses is the 1st step in correcting Anisometropia. If proper treatment is required, then glasses or contact lenses should be worn all the time consistently. Brain activity is also required for complete treatment. Glasses used in Anisometropia should be of different lens with different refractive power according to eyes. Sometimes brain is forced to use the weaker eye for vision by covering stronger eye with a band this results in improvement of vision. Some physicians consider glasses a bad option for Anisometropia because of its magnification effect. As it can cause considerable difference in image size.
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Facial Plethora Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Facial plethora means redness of face due to increased level of blood volume or increased blood flow. Basically, the term plethora is used for redness due to increased blood volume, so when it occurs on face, it is known as facial plethora. Hypovolemia is the synonym of plethora. It is considered as a clinical sign for many diseases. Commonly facial plethora is a diagnostic factor for Cushing syndrome. Changes in the appearance of facial plethora shows treatment progress of Cushing syndrome or other diseases.

While treating diseases, facial plethora is cured as blood volume or blood flow is reduced. Face of patient appears red and resembles erythema. Facial plethora appearance is independent of age and gender. Facial plethora itself is the sign of increased blood flow and increased blood volume which indicates the presence of a disease. Cushing syndrome is not the only reason behind facial plethora.

Other causes may include e.g familial polycythemia, drug eruption, erysipelas and skin syndrome due to staphylococcal pathogen. Toxic epidermal necrolysis rosacea, carcinoid tumor and systemic lupus erythematous are also included in main causes of facial plethora. There is no special treatment strategy for facial plethora because it disappears after complete treatment of the leading disease behind it.

Facial Plethora Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Facial Plethora Symptoms

Facial plethora itself is a main symptom of many diseases. It is identified because of red skin color. The color of skin changes because of increased level of blood volume or blood flow. Facial plethora is a visible sign of Cushing syndrome. It may accompany hypertension, vasodilation and increased cardiac output. All these conditions lead towards increased blood flow and causing facial plethora. Flushing occurs on facial skin. It mostly resembles erythema. Patient feels tension on skin surface and facial veins are prominent like lines. The surface of skin becomes sensitive that a minor pressure leaves a mark on skin.

Facial Plethora Causes

Facial plethora is a clinical sign of many diseases. Cushing syndrome is the most common leading cause of facial plethora. Other than Cushing syndrome, polycythemia is a main cause. In polycythemia, excessive RBCs production causes plethora. Familial polycythemia (when there are not enough RBCs) is also responsible for facial plethora. It may be secondary to different drugs. Usually antimalarial therapy includes clofazimine, which causes redness of skin. Erysipelas is an infection around eyes and nose also causes facial plethora. Toxic epidermal necrolysis occurs just below eyes causing redness of skin.

Facial Plethora Treatment

Facial plethora itself is not a disease but is counted as a main sign of many diseases. It is considered a visual diagnostic factor of many diseases like Cushing syndrome. Facial plethora eliminates automatically when the root cause is treated. There is no specific treatment strategy for facial plethora. In case of Cushing syndrome, after surgery some changes are observed in the appearance of facial plethora. These changes show progress of treatment. As facial plethora fades, it means the root disease is treated and the surgery was successful. Facial plethora shows recovery of patient.
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Total peripheral vascular Resistance Definition, Increased, Decreased

Total peripheral vascular resistance which is also known as systemic vascular resistance or an ancient term i.e. total peripheral resistance. In case of resistance in pulmonary systemic circulation, it is known as pulmonary vascular resistance. This condition is described as resistance which is offered by systemic circulation. Vascular resistance is basically a force which opposes blood flow. Blood flow have to overcome this force to create proper flow. This resistance is generated by walls of blood vessels to hinder blood flow. If this systemic resistance increases than usual, then it can cause severe problems related to vital organs of body.

Total peripheral vascular Resistance Definition, Increased, Decreased

Total Peripheral Vascular Resistance Increased

Increased total peripheral vascular resistance causes problems in blood flow. If blood is thick or of increased viscosity, the resistance will also increase. In other cases, when vasoconstriction occurs, peripheral vascular resistance increases and let only a small amount of blood to pass at a time. Opposite to this, when vasodilation occurs, the peripheral vascular resistance decreases and blood flow increases. When this systemic vascular resistance increases, it opposes blood flow and as a result high blood pressure occurs which may lead to further complications like heart failure, angina attack or even death.

Total Peripheral Vascular Resistance Decreased

In case of vasodilation, systemic vascular resistance decreases. Likewise when blood is less concentrated i.e. low viscosity, the peripheral vascular resistance automatically decreases. But blood with low viscosity cause turbulence in vascular system. Low peripheral resistance means large amount of blood passes through blood vessels at a time. It may lowers blood pressure and cause complications. Patient may fall down and go faint. Blurred vision and sweating may occur. In that case blood thinning agents are strictly prohibited as these may cause death of patient.

Total Peripheral Vascular Resistance and Cardiac Output

When blood vessels dilate, the blood flow decreases and ultimately peripheral vascular resistance also decreases. Decreased resistance means larger blood flow. When blood flow increases, according to this cardiac output decreases. As a result blood pressure decreases and heart rate slows down. Contrary to it, when vasoconstriction occurs (narrowing of blood vessels), the peripheral vascular resistance increases and as a result blood flow decreases. Due to decreased blood flow through vessels, the cardiac output increases and as a result blood pressure increases and heart rate speed up. This is all about relationship of cardiac output with total peripheral vascular resistance.

Total Peripheral Vascular Resistance in Pregnancy

During pregnancy, the cardiac demand increases. Increased cardiac output is observed at initial stage of pregnancy and in third trimester, the cardiac output achieves peak level i.e. about 30 to 50 percent above from baseline. The release of progesterone leads to vasodilation and as a result total peripheral vascular resistance decreases almost 20 percent. This reduction in peripheral vascular resistance leads to increased blood flow. Cardiac output is increased due to estrogen secretion. As estrogen increases preload on heart and increases stroke volume leading to increased cardiac output.
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Follicular Conjunctivitis Acute, Chronic, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Follicular conjunctivitis is a condition in which pink colored tissues surround eyes or cover the upper and lower eyelid or third eyelid is involved. These red tissues contain numerous follicles. These follicles are responsible for regulating local immune system. It is basically a collection of lymphocytes which are round in shape. Follicular conjunctivitis occurs as a local host in response to an external agent or substance and start producing subconjunctival lymphoid follicles. Some viruses, bacteria and chlamydia are responsible for causing follicular conjunctivitis. It is most prominent in the inferior fornix. Concentration of blood vessels increases in these follicles but are not prominent.

Follicular Conjunctivitis Acute, Chronic, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Acute Follicular Conjunctivitis

Acute follicular conjunctivitis occurs due to a pathogen named adenovirus. It appears in two main medical conditions named pharyngoconjunctival fever and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Both of these conditions occur due to adenovirus but its serotypes vary. In pharyngoconjunctival fever, adenovirus serotype 3, 4 or 7 is involved and in case of keratoconjunctivitis, adenovirus serotype 3, 7, 9 or 19 is involved. Acute follicular conjunctivitis is symptomatic and non specific. Antibiotics used against this condition involve broad spectrum antibiotics in order to prevent secondary infections. Topical corticosteroids are also prescribed for membrane conjunctiva and photophobia.

Chronic Follicular Conjunctivitis

Chronic follicular conjunctivitis occurs as a result of pathogen invasion named chlamydiae trachomatis. It is mostly secondary to toxic conjunctivitis which appear as a result of topical medications and molluscum contagiosum. In chronic follicular conjunctivitis, follicles appear in inferior fornix large enough to see with naked eye. these follicles are then known as mature follicles. It transmit via conjunctival discharge. Cornea of eye is also affected along with conjunctiva. Fibrosis helps a lot in healing chronic follicular conjunctivitis. Secretions of follicles undergo hyaline degeneration and then calcification. Chronic follicular conjunctivitis is divided into four main stages of its development.

Follicular Conjunctivitis Symptoms

According to stage division of follicular conjunctivitis, signs and symptoms vary. In active stage of follicular conjunctivitis, mature or large sized follicles are present which can be seen with naked eye. These follicles are expressible. It involves upper palpebral conjunctiva and fornix. Pink colored, finger like large papillae are present which give conjunctiva a velvety appearance. Contrary to it, in healing stage of follicular conjunctivitis, white colored, irregular fibrous patches are present. These fibers may be star shaped or linear. A white colored line of fibrosis is also observed in sulcus subtarsalis. Along with these, numerous white spots are also present.

Follicular Conjunctivitis Causes

Follicular conjunctivitis occurs due to an exogenous pathogen. When this pathogen invades inside body, follicular conjunctivitis occurs as a local host. The follicles are responsible for regulating local immune system, that's why they appear in response to any foreign pathogen. According to its two main types i.e. acute and chronic follicular conjunctivitis, causative agent vary. Adenovirus is responsible for causing acute follicular conjunctivitis and chlamydiae trachomatis is responsible for causing chronic follicular conjunctiva. Some chlamydial infections also lead to follicular conjunctivitis. These chlamydial infections involve trachoma and inclusion conjunctivitis.

Follicular Conjunctivitis Treatment

Follicular conjunctivitis occurs due to a pathogen invasion, so its treatment involves antibiotics. Ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ofloxacin and azithromycin are most effective against follicular conjunctivitis trachoma. Instillation of Ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin 0.3 percent q.i.d is prescribed. And erythromycin or tetracycline in topical dosage form is prescribed to apply once a day especially at bed time. This treatment should be continued for at least 6 weeks. It will help in controlling infections. This is the treatment outline used for follicular conjunctivitis.
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Blueberry Muffin Rash Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Blueberry muffin rash is a dermatological disease. In this disease, newborn babies are born with blueberry shaped round nodules or marks on skin. These marks are multiple in number. Because of resemblance of this rash with blueberries, it is termed as blueberry muffin rash. Blueberry muffin rash appears because of accumulation of blood producing cells. Bleeding within the skin and cancer spreading may also appear via blueberry muffin rash. The accumulation of blood producing cells in skin is known as extramedullary hematopoiesis.

It has generalized appearance but usually if affects trunk, head and neck region. Blueberry muffin rash appears round in shape but often it appears oval in shape. It has bluish purple color. This rash appears in various congenital infections like rubella, congenital syphilis, rhesus incompatibility, parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis and B2 infection. It is a disease that can be observed with naked eye and no diagnostic tool is required.

Blueberry muffin rash appears as a sign or symptom of many diseases. So it itself counted as a diagnostic tool for above mentioned congenital diseases. Likewise treatment of blueberry muffin rash involve management of root cause behind it as this will make its treatment easier.

Blueberry Muffin Rash Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Blueberry Muffin Rash Symptoms

Blueberry muffin rash is a skin disease. It appears as bluish purple color nodules or marks. These may be round or oval in shape. Anemia is a main symptom with associated liver and spleen enlargement i.e. hepatosplenomegaly. Babies with blueberry muffin rash show some symptoms which involve jaundice, retarded growth of baby during intrauterine development and abnormal central nervous system development. Abnormal development of central nervous system may involve seizures, microcephaly, Deafness, chorioretinitis and cerebral calcifications. All the above mentioned conditions are the visible symptoms of blueberry muffin rash and their presence confirms this rash.

Blueberry Muffin Rash Causes

Blueberry muffin rash itself is a sign of many congenital diseases and these congenital diseases involve neuroblastoma, congenital leukemia cutis, langerhans cell histiocytosis and rhabdomyosarcoma. It may also occur due to blood disorders. These blood disorders involve hereditary spherocytosis, hemolytic diseases like ABO compatibility or rhesus and twin twin transfusion syndrome. Some congenital infections are also responsible for blueberry muffin rash and these infections include parvovirus, syphilis, rubella, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, epstein barr virus, cytomegalovirus and coxsackie B2 virus. For these congenital infections, an acronym is used i.e. TORCH. It is abbreviated as Toxoplasmosis, Other infections, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes simplex virus.

Blueberry Muffin Rash Treatment

Blueberry muffin rash involves various causes so, treatment is selected according to them. Physicians recommend to manage the leading cause 1st and ultimately blueberry muffin rash heals itself. In case of congenital diseases, there is no permanent treatment but temporary treatment can remove blueberry muffin rash. Diagnosis should be proper for treatment. Skin biopsy is performed to check leukemia and cancer. Bone marrow biopsy is also performed. If congenital infections are the underlying cause, then antibiotics are prescribed. In case of blood disorders, proper blood therapy is recommended.
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Double Teeth Problem Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

When a row of teeth starts arranging itself just behind the teeth of jaw line, this condition is termed as double teeth. It most commonly occurs in children. It looks scary but it is completely harmless. They do not cause serious problems and treatment is also very easy. Normally baby teeth fall off at the age of 5 to 7 years and replaced by permanent strong teeth. Permanent teeth start growing just behind baby teeth. These permanent teeth loses the roots of baby teeth and they fall off. Then permanent teeth replace baby teeth.

In case of double teeth problem, the permanent teeth do not grow just underneath baby teeth and find their way just above or behind baby teeth causing double teeth problem. In double teeth problem, baby teeth do not fall off and remain on their position. Usually double teeth appear behind lower and upper front teeth. Children with double teeth problem may face problem in chewing and biting food. Biting with double teeth may cause gums injury. It is a visual problem and can be observed with naked eye. No diagnostic tools are required. Treatment is also very easy as no major surgery is required.

Double Teeth Problem Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Double Teeth Symptoms

Double teeth problem is a visible condition and can be observed with naked eye. In this condition, children have two rows of teeth one behind the other. The front row have baby teeth and 2nd row consists of permanent teeth. Common symptoms related to double teeth problem include drooling, irritability during growth of permanent teeth and after complete growth. Biting may cause excessive touching of double teeth with opposite gums and it can cause redness of gums and soreness of gums. Children find comfort in chewing clothes or plastic stuff and other objects they get.

Double Teeth Causes

Double teeth is not a pathological condition and is completely harmless. It may occur in almost 30 percent of children. It occurs at two points in childhood 1st at 6 years old, when incisors start growing just behind baby incisors and appear in the form of double teeth. Secondly it can occur at the age of 11 years. At this age, like permanent incisors grown behind baby incisors, molar teeth start growing just behind baby molars instead of growing underneath baby molars. It may happen due to late falling of baby teeth, as a result permanent teeth start growing side by side causing double teeth problem.

Double Teeth Problem Treatment

As it is completely harmless condition, some patients do not prefer treatment because they feel completely okay with this. But usually its treatment involve removal of baby teeth with dental instruments so that permanent teeth can take their place. Children should try to make their baby teeth fall for easy growth of permanent teeth. If double teeth problem develops, dentist will make a cut and remove baby teeth. Then permanent teeth will be visible on front. A metal wire is fixed on to these permanent teeth for alignment.
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Bronchogenic Cyst Complications, Removal, Surgery, Recovery

Bronchogenic cyst are the type of bronchopulmonary foregut malformation. It is a congenital condition in which malformation of bronchial tree occurs. Bronchogenic cyst involves mediastinum and present in the form of mediastinal mass which in turn causes local compression. It is considered the most common type of foregut duplication cyst. Bronchogenic cyst may involve lobar location or extralobar location. In new born babies compression of vital organs due to bronchogenic cyst present in the form of respiratory distress. In adults, it is presented in the form of recurrent infection with associated symptoms. In most of the cases, bronchogenic cyst are asymptomatic.

Bronchogenic Cyst Complications, Removal, Surgery, Recovery

Bronchogenic Cyst Complications

Bronchogenic cyst if left untreated, will show complications and these complications may become severe if neglected. These complications involve ulceration of the walls of cyst, infection which is superimposed, hemorrhage, fistula may occur on bronchial tree. Bronchial atresia (secondary). Bronchogenic cyst may develop into malignant tumor but it is very rare. If it happens, then it is reported with some primary features i.e. anaplastic sarcoma, adenocarcinoma, pleuropulmonary blastoma, leiomyosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. Bronchogenic cyst if diagnosed, should be treated as soon as possible, otherwise it will transform into more severe form and may complicate the case.

Bronchogenic Cyst Surgery

Bronchogenic cyst if show symptoms, then surgical removal is recommended. In newborn babies, surgery is recommended at the age of 3 to 6 months. Thoracoscopic surgery is performed because it is safe and patient feels less pain. In thoracoscopic resection, there are less or no chances of rib fusion. Normally thoracoscopy is performed but in some special cases, in which patient show symptoms of bronchogenic cyst, other types of surgeries are performed. These surgical procedures involve temporizing or palliative procedures like transbronchial, transparietal, aspiration and puncture in mediastinum. All these surgeries are performed when complete removal of cyst is not possible.

Bronchogenic Cyst Removal

Bronchogenic cyst is removed completely via thoracoscopy resection. In thoracoscopy resection, a cut is made right between the ribs of affected side. It is an open surgery. Bronchogenic cyst is removed directly from lungs via surgery. It is performed only when bronchogenic cyst are showing symptoms. In severe cases, cyst cannot be removed completely due to attachment of cyst with the walls of lungs. In that case, bronchogenic cyst is not completely removed via thoracoscopy i.e. the attached part is left as it is in lungs and other part is removed.

Bronchogenic Cyst Recovery

After Bronchogenic cyst removal, patient may take months to recover completely. Patient have to follow some instructions regarding diet and daily routine for fast and infection free recovery. Patient is allowed to take normal diet but heavy work and exercise is prohibited for about 6 weeks after surgery. Wound of open surgery requires special care. Patient have to clean wound daily to avoid infections. Stitches used are biodegradable which makes healing easier. Some medications are prescribed for pain i.e. tylenol (acetaminophen) and advil (iboprufen). Patient have to call doctor if he experience fever, problem in breathing and worse pain. Follow ups are recommended.
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Granulosa Cell Tumor Symptoms, Causes, Prognosis, Treatment

Granulosa Theca cell tumor is another name of granulosa cell tumor. It is a condition in which tumor occurs in granulosa cells of ovary and testicles. It involves stromal surface of sex cord present in both males and females. Granulosa cell tumor occurs in 2 percent of cases with ovarian tumor. It is actively divided into two main types on the basis of histological findings i.e. adult and juvenile granulosa cell tumor. Both of these subtypes release estrogen and this release helps in diagnosis of granulosa cell tumor. Adult GCT occurs mainly in women having menopause and juvenile GCT occurs in adults usually less than 30 years of age.

Granulosa Cell Tumor Symptoms, Causes, Prognosis, Treatment

Granulosa Cell Tumor Symptoms

Excess mass in pelvic region is observed in patients with granulosa cell tumor. The mass is palpable in texture and is present in about 85 to 97 percent of patients. Rectovaginal and bimanual examination is preferred for mass evaluation. Pain in abdominal region is another symptom. If pain persist for longer time period, then further examinations are performed to check presence of any infection. Women feel excessive vaginal secretions and breast tenderness. Abnormal uterine bleeding in postmenopausal women. Increased production of estrogen also shows presence of granulosa cell tumor because estrogen stimulates breast and vaginal tissues.

Granulosa Cell Tumor Causes

There is not any definite etiology reported yet for granulosa cell tumor. But it may occur due to any kind of infection in ovary. Pathogens involved may be neisseria gonorrhoeae and chlamydia trachomatis. If pelvic inflammatory disease is suspected, then gram stain is used to confirm gram negative diplococci presence. It may occur due to chromosomal anomalies. Autocrine and endocrine abnormalities are also responsible for granulosa cell tumor. There may be various factors involved in etiology of granulosa cell tumor. Other than all these causes, cervicitis is also reported for GCT.

Granulosa Cell Tumor Prognosis

The prognosis of granulosa cell tumor is very good. It is so because of its early diagnosis. It can be easily diagnosed at early stage because of excessive secretion of estrogen hormone in both male and female. Over excretion of estrogen stimulates tissues of vagina and breast in women. Surgical removal is considered a safe treatment option with good success rate. But now a days a more advanced therapy is introduced named chemotherapy. Via chemotherapy the mortality rate as well as morbidity rate is decreased. Medications are also of great help in controlling excessive levels of estrogen hormone.

Granulosa Cell Tumor Treatment

Treatment of granulosa cell tumor involves three main treatment options i.e. surgical removal of tumor, chemotherapy and medication therapy. Surgery is considered safe and in postmenopausal women the ovaries as well as womb is also removed along with tumor. Radiotherapy is another option but the treatment is selected on the basis of severity and stage of tumor. Surgery is recommended at initial stage and radiology is recommended at the stage where surgery is not possible. Medications are used side by side along with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. As medicines help in controlling and managing secretions of estrogen hormone.
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Scimitar Syndrome Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Hypogenetic lung syndrome is another name of scimitar syndrome. In this syndrome, the lung is hypoplastic which drains via an anomalous vein into systemic system. The anomalous venous return appears as a scimitar in chest X-ray that is why this syndrome is named as scimitar syndrome. It is the clinical finding of congenital disease named pulmonary venolobar syndrome. Scimitar syndrome is a type of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return.

Basically scimitar syndrome is the combination of two main conditions i.e. partial anomalous pulmonary venous return and pulmonary hypoplasia. This syndrome usually involves left sided lung. Blood shows movement from left to right side of lung. The vein involved in scimitar syndrome drains into portal vein, right atrium and most commonly inferior vena cava. Scimitar syndrome has various associations like localized bronchiectasis, vertebral anomalies, horseshoe lung, congenital heart diseases, tetralogy of fallot, diaphragmatic abnormalities i.e. diaphragmatic hernia, abnormalities of genitourinary tract, anomalies of vertebral column and last but not least pulmonary sequestration.

Scimitar syndrome can be easily diagnosed because of these associative problems. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography are used to diagnose this syndrome. Two types of angiography are also used i.e. CT angiography and MR angiography.

Scimitar Syndrome Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Scimitar Syndrome Symptoms

Scimitar syndrome occurs in lungs associated with a specific vein named anomalous vein. So symptoms of scimitar syndrome are all related to lungs. At initial stage scimitar syndrome is asymptomatic and patient remains unaware of its presence. But in severe cases it show symptoms. These symptoms are cyanosis, shortness of breath, fast breathing, respiratory distress and retraction of rib cage muscles. These symptoms show the presence of scimitar syndrome without diagnosis. There are some minor symptoms which do not clearly show presence of this syndrome. These symptoms involve simple cough, bloody cough, fever and infection in lungs. Hypertension in pulmonary artery and hemoptysis are also included in symptoms.

Scimitar Syndrome Causes

Scimitar syndrome is a congenital disease which occurs during fetal development within womb of mother. The exact cause behind this syndrome is still unknown. It may transfer from generation to generation. So it is concluded that occurrence of scimitar syndrome is totally related to family history. If one of the parent is suffering from this syndrome then there are fifty percent chances that it will occur in their baby. Its occurrence is also associated with some hereditary factors. There is no external cause reported behind scimitar syndrome.

Scimitar Syndrome Treatment

In case of blood flow from left to right side and pulmonary hypertension, surgical correction is selected as treatment option. Other treatment options of scimitar syndrome involve Inter-atrial buffer which is created to make the flow towards left atrium instead of pulmonary venous return. There is also an option of implanting anomalous vein directly into the left atrium. The selection of treatment option is totally dependent on the condition of patient and the amount of blood flowing through anomalous vein. The level of shunting from left to right side is another factor affecting selection of treatment.
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Pseudohermaphroditism in Female and Male Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Pseudohermaphroditism is a term used to describe a condition in which person born with primary sex characteristics of one sex and develop secondary sex characteristics different from what expected. In simple words, person develop a different sex characteristics from one which is expected on the basis of gonadal tissue. This term is different from true hermaphroditism because in true hermaphroditism, person have both male and female sex characteristics i.e. testes and ovaries respectively. It is divided into two main terms on the basis of sexual characteristics. If ovaries are present then it is termed as female pseudohermaphrodite and if testes are present then the term male pseudohermaphrodite is used.

Pseudohermaphroditism in Female and Male Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Pseudohermaphroditism in Males

Male pseudohermaphrodite involves male gonads in combination with 46 XY karyotype. The male genitalia appear different from usual one because of a hormone named dihydrotestosterone. It is synthesized via testosterone which in turn synthesize with the help of an enzyme i.e. 5 a reductase. When mutation occurs, this enzyme is blocked and there will be no more synthesis of testosterone. As a result structure deformity occurs leading to male pseudohermaphrodite. Men with pseudohermaphroditism develop feminine external sex organs and behaviour which is a clear symptom of male pseudohermaphrodite.

Pseudohermaphroditism in Females

When pseudohermaphroditism occurs in females, it appears with ambiguous external genitalia along with 46 XX karyotype and ovaries. It occurs due to exposure of androgens to developing fetus during 1st trimester of pregnancy. And this exposure have a reason of congenital suprarenal hyperplasia, tumor in suprarenal gland or ongoing androgen therapy in pregnancy. The external appearance of female genitalia involves large clitotis, and scrotum is missing. Sometimes an obliterated vagina is formed in female pseudohermaphroditism. The internal organs of female genitalia i.e. ovaries, vaginal internal structure and fallopian tubes are normal and there are chances of pregnancy.

Pseudohermaphroditism Symptoms

Pseudohermaphroditism is a congenital problem in which person have secondary sex characteristics. People with this condition may have sexual structural deformity and develops an abnormal external genitalia. Patient with pseudohermaphroditism may either have deformed testes or deformed vagina. In rare cases, person may develop a new external genitalia which is the combination of both penis and vagina. In female pseudohermaphrodite vagina may develop with enlarged clitoris and an empty scrotum. Obliterated vagina may form. While in case of male pseudohermaphrodite, penis is not much enlarged and testes are smaller in size than usual. Male patient may suffer feminine behavior and external sex structure.

Pseudohermaphroditism Causes

As it is divided into two main types on the basis of gender. So both the types have different leading causes behind them. In male pseudohermaphrodite, mutation occurs and 5 a reductase is missing. So there is no more testosterone synthesis. Due to this dihydrotestosterone do not synthesize and leads to sexual structure deformity. Well in case of female pseudohermaphrodite, it occurs due to androgen exposure to developing fetus during 1st trimester of pregnancy. Other causes may include congenital suprarenal hyperplasia, androgen therapy during pregnancy or tumor in suprarenal gland.

Pseudohermaphroditism Treatment

The symptoms of pseudohermaphroditism appear at the age of puberty. And when external sexual organs fully grown or mature than a surgery may be performed for the correction of structure deformity of external genitalia. Surgeries in number are performed on intersex people. In female pseudohermaphrodite, only the external structure is deformed but the internal sex organs are proper so mostly women do not prefer surgery because of normal feminine functioning. The intra abdominal testes should be removed via surgery because there is increased risk of tumor formation in abdomen. Hormonal therapy is also effective if treated on time.
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