Blog Archive


3rd Molar Extraction Procedure, Technique, Complications, Recovery

3rd Molar is a teeth present on both sides of mouth. It is one of the three molars, present on the most posterior side of three molars. 3rd molar is also known as wisdom tooth. Wisdom teeth grows at the age of 17 till 25. One wisdom tooth is present per quadrant of the human dentition. Most of the people have all four wisdom teeth. In rare cases, people do not have even a single wisdom tooth. During development of wisdom teeth, it can effect other teeth as well becoming impacted. So it is extracted before it occurs.



3rd Molar Extraction Procedure


Wisdom tooth extraction procedure is performed as an outpatient. Patient does not have any need to stay in hospital and can return home the same day. Before starting procedure, patient is asked for his comfort level in case of anesthesia used. Three types of anesthesia are offered I.e. general anesthesia, local anesthesia and sedation anesthesia. During surgery, dentist make a small incision on the gum to expose the bone and teeth. 1st step is the removal of bone which blocks the tooth. If dentist find it easy to extract it in pieces, then it is divided into halves for extraction. Tooth is removed and then the debris is removed. Stitches the wound and a guaze is applied.

3rd Molar Extraction Procedure, Technique, Complications, Recovery

3rd Molar Extraction Technique


The surgical technique of 3rd molar extraction is divided in to several phases. These phases are,

  • Anesthesia.
  • Access flap.
  • Bone resection.
  • Odontotomy.
  • Suture.

All the above mentioned phases are designed to avoid some complications like ,

  • Anesthesia helps to avoid damage of facial nerve and parotid gland. 
  • Access flap and bone resection and odontotomy helps to avoid damage of periodontium of 2nd molar and lingual nerve. 
  • Suture helps to avoid infections in the periodontal 2nd molars after surgery. 


3rd Molar Extraction Complications


3rd molar extraction shows complications but these complications are for not longer term but are for short time period. Some of the main complications associated with 3rd molar or wisdom tooth extraction are, Nearby teeth, jaw bone, nerves or sinuses may get damage due to incision.
After surgery, infection may occur in wound due to the bacteria or the food particles trapped in teeth. Dry socket may be painful and bone may be exposed in case if the blood clot is lost from the site of surgical wound which is also called socket.

3rd Molar Extraction Recovery


3rd molar or wisdom tooth extraction is the procedure with less complications. And the complications which occur, persist for very short time. So the recovery is fast. The gum tissues usually take 3 to 4 weeks for full recovery. And the inner wound which occurs due to bone extraction, will take about 6 weeks to recover fully. Recovery time varies from person to person and depends upon care plan. If any kind of infection occur in the surgical wound i.e socket, then the recovery time extends. In case of infection, antibiotics are prescribed to make it heal soon.
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How to use CBD Oil For Tinnitus

To understand the use of CBD oil in tinnitus, we should be well aware of the disease i.e. tinnitus. Tinnitus is a medical condition in which person experience hearing problems. The functions of ear are impaired. The problem is in the nerves and vessels responsible for auditory service. This is not a life threatening condition and can be treated with CBD oil. CBD oil is abbreviated as cannabidiol. Cannabidiol or CBD oil is listed as an oil having endless potential benefits. CBD oil is one of the cannabinoid in 113. It is found in marijuana plant. It itself is not a psycho active compound, in other words it will not activate mind after consumption. CBD also have many medicinal properties. In tinnitus, patient feel raging in the affected ear. A single dose of CBD oil can bring a change in this raging.


As a patient said, she took three drops of CBD oil via sublingual route and the effect was not immediate. After some time, CBD oil started working and she started feeling relaxed. The next morning, raging sound was not there and ear was almost silent. Cannabis contains marijuana in it which helps a lot in treating tinnitus. It is also used for other diseases like epilepsy. Basically tinnitus is also called epilepsy of the ear that's why cannabis is recommended for its treatment. Cannabinoids are the drugs which have anti epileptic effects. But it shows its action in some cases and in rare parts of brain. A single CBD product containing oil have 0.3 percent of THC in it. CBD is legal in United States.

How to use CBD Oil For Tinnitus


CBD oil is available in various dosage forms i.e. from CBD powders to vape ready concentrate. It is also available in the form of plant tincture oil. There are various ways by which CBD can be administered. It is either taken orally, or Vaped or smoked. When it is smoked, CBD is absorbed in the lining of lungs. Another route of administration is sublingual route. By sublingual route, the CBD is absorbed directly in to the capillaries and show it's affect. As CBD oil is used for the treatment of tinnitus but it does not have direct affect on the disease. It has indirect affect by reducing stress and anxiety.

When the stress level is down, patient feels relaxed and feels quiter tinnitus. CBD oil contains marijuana which is a muscle relaxant. So when patient administer CBD, he feels relaxed both mentally and physically. This is how tinnitus is treated. When we talk about it's Dosage, the effects of CBD are different at different doses. Like it has calming effect with muscle relaxation at lower doses. But at higher doses, patient feels slight pressure on head. It causes sedation. CBD also induces sleep in patient at higher doses. CBD oil does not show immediate effects in patient. Its action also depends upon the patient and dose. It has commutative effect and requires daily consumption of CBD.
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Spatulate Fingers Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Palmistry, Treatment

Spatulate fingers as the name indicate is a condition in which the fingers are of spatula shaped. Spatula shaped means the fingers and toes are square shaped from the tips. The thumbs are short in size and toes are also shortened. The finger next to the toe is unusually longer than toe. The shape of fingers can be defined as wide from the tips and become elongated moving down to the fingers. These type of fingers predict many things about the personality of person. Spatulate fingers are considered of great importance in palmistry. Palmistry is the study of hands.



Spatulate Fingers Symptoms


Spatulate fingers itself are the symptoms of disease named otopalatodigital syndrome. In this syndrome the fingers are of spatula shaped i.e. wide from the tips and moving down to the base, fingers become elongated. The toes and thumb of hands are shorter in size than usual. Due to shorter thumbs and toes, the fingers right next to them look abnormally large. The fingers have square shape from the tips. As it is the main symptom of otopalatodigital syndrome, so some other symptoms also occur along with it which are deformity of chest and hearing loss.

Spatulate Fingers Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Palmistry, Treatment

Spatulate Fingers Causes


There are many reasons behind the deformity of fingers i.e. spatulate fingers. But the most common cause reported behind the spatulate fingers is otopalatodigital syndrome. In this syndrome, the fingers become spatula shaped i.e. wide from the tips and elongated while moving downward to the base. Other than otopalatodigital syndrome, following are the minor causes behind spatulate fingers. Frontometaphyseal dysplasia, cenani syndactylism, ehlers danlos syndrome type progeroid, acroosteolysis dominant type, Costello syndrome, osteopathia striata, stevenson Carey syndrome, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia type irapa, acroosteolysis keloid like lesions premature aging syndrome, spondylo occular syndrome and many other causes like that.

Spatulate Fingers Treatment


Spatulate fingers are the main symptoms of otopalatodigital syndrome. The treatment of otopalatodigital syndrome will not treat spatulate fingers because it is the deformity of the bones. Surgical procedure is the only treatment for spatulate fingers. With the help of surgery, the deformity can be removed and fingers are aligned. After surgery, the pain killers are prescribed to relief pain. After surgery, regular exercise of fingers is recommended for faster recovery. Patient is advised to take rest for some weeks and then try to grip something with fingers for the regulation of movement of fingers and thumb.

Spatulate Fingers In Palmistry


The shape of fingers tell a lot of things about the personality of a person. The spatula shaped fingers tell a lot of things like the flattened or spatula shaped wide end tips tell that the person have higher mind and it also reflects higher feelings. People with this type of fingers have good imagination power. These people take interest in finding something that can keep them up and occupied. They have boundless energy and their personality is not boring at all. Mostly these people crave for finding new knowledge and be up to date with time.
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Glutathione Nebulizer Treament Benefits, Solution, Side Effects

Glutathione nebulizer is a specially designed device used to inhale glutathione in the form of vapours. It is a type of breathing treatment for the deficiency of glutathione in body. The nebulizer is used to administer medications like glutathione or acetyl cysteine in to the lungs via nasal route. Sometimes an essential oil is blended along with the medication which helps to soothe the lungs and tissues of nasal cavity. Glutathione is administered in the form of two combos i.e. glutathione alone with essential oil or glutathione along with cysteine mixed with essential oil. This breathing treatment is so relaxing that patient may easily sleep.



Glutathione Nebulizer Treatment


Nebulizer is used for the breathing treatment. And glutathione is administered with the help of nebulizer. Glutathione nebulizer is used in case of glutathione deficiency. Glutathione synthase when become deficient, it leads to the inhibition of formation of glutathione molecule. Glutathione is essential for cells, as it is responsible for neutralizing the harmful molecules produced during energy production. There are many reasons behind the deficiency of glutathione. There may be some disease like cystic fibrosis, which will decrease the glutathione level . In such situation, glutathione nebulizer is recommended to fulfil the deficiency of glutathione.

Glutathione Nebulizer Treament Benefits, Solution, Side Effects

Glutathione Nebulizer Benefits


As glutathione is administered with the help of nebulizer so it is the vapours dosage form which is inhaled through nasal cavity. The inhaler have many benefits over other dosage forms. It is specially designed to relief the lungs and nasal tissues. There are many respiratory or lung diseases, for which inhaled glutathione is recommended. Some of the main diseases include, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, emphysema, cancer in lungs, asthma and build up of fluids in the body. Via nebulizer, the drug is successfully inhaled. All the dose is delivered successfully to the target site.

Glutathione Nebulizer Solution


Glutathione nebulizer is recommended for the condition in which there is deficiency of glutathione in body. Glutathione is administered in the three types of combos. It is administered alone without any mixture of essential oil or any other drug solution, or it is administered along with the drug solution of acetyl cysteine, or it is administered by mixing with any essential oil and make a solution. The solution form turns it in the form of vapours and with the help of aerosol principle, these moist vapours are delivered to the nasal cavity and reach to the lung cavity.

Glutathione Nebulizer Side Effects


There are various major and minor side effects associated with glutathione nebulizer and also with glutathione administration. The minor side effects associated with glutathione nebulizer are unpleasant odour and transient coughing. And these are common side effects. Patient is recommended to check his sulfite level in urine before starting treatment of glutathione nebulizer. The major side effect associated with glutathione nebulizer is the bronchoconstriction. Bronchoconstriction with glutathione nebulizer is only reported in asthma patients because patient may be sensitive to sulfite. Side effects of glutathione administration include lower zinc levels in body. It may initiate asthma attack and as a result wheezing may occur.
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Percutaneous Tenotomy in Plantar Fascia, Tennis Elbow, Achilles Tendon, CPT Code

Percutaneous tenotomy is a procedure in which a needle is used to inject inside skin under the supervision of ultrasound. The needle is used to make slices or small holes in the tendon. Percutaneous tenotomy is also known as percutaneous needle tenotomy PNT. This procedure is performed to treat tendinopathy. It is also performed to treat pain in a tendon via making breaks in the scar tissue and microtrauma. Breaks in a scar tissue or microtrauma leads to the local inflammation of the site and as a result blood circulation increases. Due to increased circulation, the healing process becomes fast.



Percutaneous Tenotomy In Plantar Fascia


Plantar fascia is a calcaneous thick tendon attached to the heel bone. Percutaneous needle tenotomy PNT is used to treat the scarring in the plantar fascia. The needle is injected inside the foot from the lower side. It is done under the supervision of ultrasound. Needle will treat the scar tissue and osteophyte. It will also help in treating the pain. Percutaneous tenotomy is helpful for that purpose instead of any other procedure. After percutaneous tenotomy, patient will take about 6 to 10 weeks for recovery. After 10 weeks, patient can walk properly without any support.


Percutaneous Tenotomy In Tennis Elbow


Tennis elbow is a condition in which the degenerative tear of tendon occurs at the origin of extensor muscles. To treat that tear of a tendon, percutaneous needle tenotomy PNT is performed. In this procedure, an 18 guaze needle is used to inject inside the skin. Ultrasound supervision is necessary to check the exact location. The needle is hypodermic and it is safe, effective, simple and patient friendly. Percutaneous tenotomy is an easy reproducible method for the treatment of tennis elbow. The recovery is fast in case of percutaneous needle tenotomy PNT procedure which makes it preferable.

Percutaneous Tenotomy in Plantar Fascia, Tennis Elbow, Achilles Tendon, CPT Code

Percutaneous Tenotomy In Achilles Tendon


Achilles tendon is present in foot of a person. The foot is rigid due to this specific tendon i.e. Achilles tendon. With the help of percutaneous needle tenotomy PNT a small incision is made in the tendon. This incision is done with the help of a fine needle. This fine needle is injected inside the skin under the supervision of ultrasound. The incision on this tendon makes it flexible and relieves rigidity. Flexible Achilles tendon after incision will help a lot in movement of foot during walking and performing other activities.

Percutaneous Tenotomy In CPT Code


Only one CPT code is used for the all types of percutaneous needle tenotomy PNT. Whether it is performed for tennis elbow, lateral or medial, epicondylitis and golfers elbow. The code used is 24357. There are no separate codes for  percutaneous needle tenotomy PNT according  to the location. This latest specific code is in use right now. This is the only billable or specific cpt code used for the percutaneous needle tenotomy PNT. CPT codes are used for the purpose of diagnosis. Physicians usually use CPT codes for the regular discussion of problem or disease.
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Severe Left & Right Lateral Recess Stenosis Treatment

As the name indicates, stenosis means narrowing of the tubular pathways. Recess stenosis is the narrowing of lateral part of spinal cord. We can also call it spinal stenosis. In lateral recess stenosis, the foramen of spinal cord which is known as exit doorway of spinal canal narrows and the available space is decreased. This narrowing may occur due to the following reasons. Due to over growth of the facet joints along with bulging of discs. Discs lose their height and tension which leads to sloppy movement of one vertebrae on another.



Severe Lateral Recess Stenosis Treatment


Treatment of recess stenosis depends upon the severity of symptoms and cause behind it. Medications are always preferred for the treatment but if medications are of no use, then surgical treatment is preferred. Usually some medications are used to relief the symptoms like pain. So pain relievers are used like over the counter analgesics and NSAIDS.  Anti inflammatory drugs are also used. Some anti convulsants and anti depressants are prescribed for recess stenosis. Corticosteroids and anesthetics are also prescribed in the form of injections. Some pain killers are used which are prescribed by doctor like opioids.

Severe Left & Right Lateral Recess Stenosis Treatment

Severe Left Lateral Recess Stenosis


When recess stenosis occurs at extreme level i.e. narrowing of tubular vessels occur beyond limit the space at drainage system of spinal cord is disturbed. Many functions of body are disturbed due to recess stenosis. There are two major sites i.e. left sided recess stenosis and right sided recess stenosis. When the narrowing of tubular vessels of foramen occurs on the left side of the spinal cord, then functions of the same side of body is disturbed or affected. The problem in body parts is depend upon the region involved in recess stenosis.

Severe Right Lateral Recess Stenosis


The narrowing in the tubular vessels of the foramen occurs due to many reasons. Of the joint is swelled on the right side if the running spinal cord, then symptoms may appear on the same side of body. The opposite side of recess stenosis is not affected. The pain may radiate through right sided shoulder to the arm and hand and in the lower limb i.e. right sided hip, knee and then foot. The symptoms on either side of body helps a lot in diagnosing the site of occurrence of recess stenosis in spinal cord.

Cervical Lateral Recess Stenosis


Lateral cervical recess stenosis is not much different from lateral recess stenosis. As cervical part is involved in cervical lateral recess stenosis. Cervical lateral recess stenosis may occur due to the encroachment of the lateral recess. It may also occur due to neuroforamina of the specific cervical region. Neuroforamina primarily may occur due to the uncovertebral joints. As hypertrophy of uncovertebral joints is responsible for this. Annulus bulging of the lateral discs. Hypertrophy of the facet is another reason. As cervical part of spinal cord is mainly involved in recess stenosis, so it may vary 12 to 14 mm in diameter from thoracic spinal canal.
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Biochemical Pregnancy in IVF, Symptoms, Causes, Success Rate, Loss

The pregnancy loss right after implantation of fetus is known as biochemical pregnancy. Biochemical pregnancy is considered a main reason behind 50 to 75 percent of miscarriages. Biochemical pregnancy occurs at very early stage that ultrasound cannot detect it. But a blood test or urine test can show positive pregnancy test because hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)  hormone level increases at initial stage.  hCG hormone (human chorionic gonadotropin) is created right after implantation and before biochemical pregnancy. Some women are not aware of their biochemical pregnancy because it is asymptomatic.



Biochemical Pregnancy Symptoms


Some women undergo biochemical pregnancy without knowing about pregnancy. This is so because biochemical pregnancy is asymptomatic. In some cases, women experience some symptoms like muscle cramps in the lower abdominal region, mentrual like pain, bleeding from vagina in starting days (days in which pregnancy is confirmed). Bleeding is not always considered a symptom of biochemical pregnancy because bleeding is normal while implantation of fetus. Implantation means fusion of a sperm with egg. Biochemical pregnancy does not give enough time for the nausea and fatigue because it occurs after short time of implantation.

Biochemical Pregnancy in IVF, Symptoms, Causes, Success Rate, Loss

Biochemical Pregnancy in-vitro Fertilization


Biochemical pregnancy can also occur after fusion of egg and sperm in in-vitro fertilization IVF. After fusion of egg and sperm in in-vitro fertilization, the zygote is transferred to the womb of mother. But after placing of zygote, biochemical pregnancy occurs. In-vitro fertilization is carried out if the fallopian tubes are damaged, endometriosis occurs, ovulation problems and uterine fibroids. There may be any other problem regarding fertilization. A pregnancy test is performed to check pregnancy within 9 to 14 days after in-vitro fertilization. If there will be a problem or abnormality in embryo, then unfortunately biochemical pregnancy can occur.

Biochemical Pregnancy Causes


Biochemical pregnancy is a miscarriage which does not have any specific cause but can occur due to abnormality in embryo. Embryonic abnormality include low quality of sperms and egg. Causes other than this may include abnormalities in uterus, abnormality in hormonal level, some infections like chlamydia and syphilis also cause biochemical pregnancy and In vitro fertilization i.e. implantation of embryo outside uterus. Other than these, age also affects biochemical pregnancy. Women after 35 years of age can undergo biochemical pregnancy. Other medical problems include thyroid disorder and clotting.

Biochemical Pregnancy Success Rate


Biochemical pregnancy varies from person to person. Patient may have consecutive miscarriages one after the other due to biochemical pregnancy. But in some cases, women may have a successful pregnancy after biochemical pregnancy. It depends on condition of patient and care. The success rate is 48 percent.

Biochemical Pregnancy Loss Rate


After studying various cases of biochemical pregnancy, the chances of pregnancy after IVF are 54 percent, chances of pregnancy after biochemical pregnancy are 61 percent and chances of pregnancy after previous spontaneous abortion are 46 percent. The loss of pregnancy chances are high as compare to successful pregnancy after biochemical pregnancy.
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Mtrr A66g Mutation Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Diet

MTrr is the abbreviation of 5 methyltetrahydrofolate Homocysteine Methyltransferase Reductase. It is an enzyme which is responsible for the production of an important amino acid named methionine. MTrr directly interacts with the methionine synthase for the continuous production of methionine. Methionine Amino acid in turn encoded for the Gene named MTrr. Methionine is the most important amino acid which helps to carry out major functions of body. Vitamin B12 is essential for the coordination with methionine synthase. MTrr basically breaks the bond between methionine synthase and side by side inactivate vitamin B12. When mutation occurs at G allele of A66g in MTrr Gene occurs, this whole chain of methionine formation is disturbed.



Mtrr A66g Mutation Symptoms


When there is mutation in the G allele of A66g in MTrr two main problems occur i.e. deficiency of methionine and imbalance in the level of Homocysteine. Regarding these two problems, following symptoms appear.

Due to deficiency of methionine, there may be fat accumulation, production level of glutathione is reduced, problems regarding cardiovascular system, fatty liver, toxins may build up in body, raised level of inflammatory histamine, less production of SAMe, UTI problems and low immunity and many more.

Mtrr A66g Mutation Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Diet

Mtrr A66g Mutation Cause


Mutation at the 66 position of Gene named MTrr leads to two main problems i.e. Imbalance in the level of Homocysteine in blood and deficiency of an important amino acid named methionine. Mutation in MTrr A66g occurs due to the problem in methionine synthase Reductase Gene. Any kind of defect in the methionine synthase Reductase Gene is the main cause behind MTrr A66g mutation. MTrr A66g is responsible for the balancing of Homocysteine and methionine Amino acid in body.

Mtrr A66g Mutation Treatment


Treatment of MTrr A66g mutation include supplements. As MTrr A66g is responsible for the breakup of methionine synthase and also it helps in bonding of vitamin B12 to form a proper molecule leaving methionine alone. Vitamin B12 is necessary for the whole process so taking supplements of vitamin B12 helps a lot. Vitamin B12 helps to convert homocysteine into methionine by combining actively to methionine synthase. It happens due to an active ingredient of vitamin B12 i.e. methylcobalamine. Another active ingredient named L methionine helps a lot in recovering the low level of methionine in body.

Mtrr A66g Mutation Diet


As treatment of MTrr A66g mutation includes supplements of active vitamin B12. So dietary products containing high level of vitamin B12 are recommended in diet. Diet of such patients should consist of eggs, fish, meat, shell fish and milk etc. Some plants are also recommended to take in diet like mashrooms and dried lavers because they contain high amount of vitamin B12 in them. Other than this, some vitamin supplements are also recommended. Along with this healthy diet, consumption of alcohol is strictly banned. As alcohol contains acetaldehyde in it which can produce toxicity in body.
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Overgrown Toe Skin Pictures, Removal, Surgery, Pain, Home Remedies

Overgrown toe skin as the name indicates is a condition in which the skin around nail of toe is over grown and covers the nail. Nail does not cause problem with the over grown toe skin. It is just piling up of skin around nail of toe and nail has nothing to do with this. Overgrown toe skin and ingrown toenail are almost the same conditions. As in ingrown toenail, the nail is abnormally grown from sides and stuck in between over grown skin around toe. The nail appears to be curled in from sides which makes it abnormal.



Overgrown Toe Skin Surgery


A surgical procedure named vandenbos procedure is used widely to remove overgrown toe skin. It is a minor surgical procedure which can be easily performed in the surgeons office. Surgeon will freeze the toe and then will remove the excessive skin around the nail of toe. He will not touch nail during surgery because it has nothing to do with the nail but will just remove the skin. This minor surgery will take almost 20 to 30 minutes to complete. If one toe is to be treated then it will take only 20 minutes but in case of 2 toes it will take 30 minutes.

Overgrown Toe Skin Pictures

Overgrown Toe Skin Pictures, Removal, Surgery, Pain, Home Remedies

Overgrown Toe Skin Removal


To remove the skin around the nail of toe vandenbos procedure is considered the most effective procedure. It is recommended upon all other removal procedures because it does not touch nail and only remove the excessive piled up skin around the nail of toe. In other overgrown toe skin removal processes, the nail is also effected and complication increases. In vandenbos surgical procedure, the toe is freezed so that patient does not feel pain and then extra piled up skin is removed from the toe.

Overgrown Toe Skin Pain


The skin overgrown around the nail is not normal and is painless most of the time. Unless an infection occurs due to ingrown toenail along with overgrown toe skin. Pain may get worse with the condition. As any injury on the toe can lead to infection and as a result redness and inflammation occurs. Sometimes pus is also formed on the site and make it worse. Due to pus, the pain become unbearable and patient need emergency treatment. Normally without injury or infection, patient feels no pain on the over grown skin around nail of toe.

Overgrown Toe Skin Home Remedies


Patients with ingrown toenail and overgrown toe skin have to follow almost same home remedies to prevent infections. These home remedies include:

  • Patient should soak his foot in like warm water and soapy water.
  • Other than water, patient is asked to soak foot in apple cider vinegar.
  • Pack the toe with cotton and dental floss.
  • Patient should apply antibiotics in the form of ointment.
  • Patient should wear open and comfortable shoes to avoid pressure on toe.
  • Over the counter pain killers are recommended to relief pain and inflammation.
  • A toe protector should be used to avoid direct hit of toe with anything.
  • All these remedies helps to prevent over grown toe skin.

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Scrotal Pearl Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Removal

Scrotal pearl is also known as scrotolith. These are benign in nature.  The occurrence of scrotal pearl is incidental and appears on extra testicular surface. These are like macro calcifications inside the scrotum. Scrotal pearls covers the space of tunica vaginalis (serosal covering of testes) or sinus of the epididymis. Epididymis is present adjacent to the testes inside the sac of scrotum. Scrotal pearls have no clinical significance. Scrotal pearls are symptomatic and do not show any symptoms. The basic cause behind occurrence of scrotal pearls is mountain riding. As trauma may occur on the scrotum leading to scrotal pearls.



Scrotal Pearl Symptoms


Scrotal pearls on scrotum of the testes is asymptomatic and do not show any specific symptoms. These are macro calcifications which appear on the sinus of epididymis or covers the maximum space of tunica vaginalis. Patient experience no problems regarding scrotal pearls. Sometimes patient experience scrotal pain some month before with regular episodes. Scrotal pearls are loose in nature and disappear after some time on it's own. Pain episodes may occur with some interval of time but does not remain for longer term. These scrotal pearls are soft masses and can't be feel without touch.

Scrotal Pearl Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Removal

Scrotal Pearl Causes


There are not any defined causes behind the occurrence of scrotal pearl. These are benign in nature and does not require treatment. Some of the main reasons include mountain riding. When mountain bikers ride on mountain, due to ups and downs there may be small sized trauma on the scrotum. These trauma may lead to formation of scrotal pearl. Another main cause is the torsion of the appendix testis. Scrotal pearls are formed prior to the torsion of appendix testis. And after some time disappear on it's own. No specific treatment is required for the scrotal pearls.

Scrotal Pearl Treatment


Scrotal pearls are benign in nature and can disappear on it's own after specified time. So no treatment is required. If there are pain episodes with scrotal pearls, then some of pain medications are prescribed with proper care. Physicians ask patient to lie down mostly and do not sit for longer time as it can increase pressure on scrotal pearls and this may cause problem. Patients do not have to worry about scrotal pearls because they are of no clinical importance. These scrotal pearl can easily move within the epididymis so it can't be a cancerous lump because it is soft and movable.

Scrotal Pearl Removal


Scrotal pearls are if no clinical importance so patients do not have to worry about it. Pain may occur in the form of acute episodes so it should be managed with the help of over the counter pain medications. In some cases, the symptoms become worse and patient can't bear the pain also the scrotal pearl grow bigger in size. In this situation, surgical removal of scrotal pearl is recommended. In the surgical procedure, a small incision is made on the surface of epididymis and then this macro calcification is removed safely.
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Aldh2 Deficiency Symptoms, Causes, Test, Treatment

Aldh2 is an enzyme which is present at two main sites of liver in human. Aldh is of 2 types depending upon its location. Aldh1 is cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme and aldh2 is mitochondrial dehydrogenase enzyme. About 30 to 40 percent of Asians living in East side are deficient in aldh2 enzyme and have only one enzyme i.e. aldh1. Aldh2 is an active enzyme against any foreign particle entered in body. But people deficient in aldh2 are less active against foreign toxins. The common example explains about acetaldehyde which enters the body due to alcohol consumption. Aldh2 detoxify acetaldehyde but people deficient in aldh2 cannot detoxify it and causes alcohol flush reaction.



Aldh2 Deficiency Symptoms


When we talk about a specific toxin named acetaldehyde which enters the body due to alcohol consumption, aldh2 is not available to break it down. So when acetaldehyde enters to the body, it stimulates the release of histamine, which causes following symptoms:

  • Patient feels headache for longer term. The pain is throbbing and pulsing. 
  • Patient feels tachycardia which means increased heart beat of patient than normal. 
  • Nausea occurs. Patient feels like vomiting but doesn't vomit. 
  • Due to increased level of histamine, the blood flow to the upper level capillaries increases and causes redness of skin. This condition is termed as erythema. 

Aldh2 Deficiency Symptoms, Causes, Test, Treatment

Aldh2 Deficiency Causes


The deficiency of aldh2 is a genetic problem in which the aldh2 Gene is responsible for aldh2 deficiency. Aldh2 Gene is responsible for creating a type of aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme which is not good at detoxifying acetaldehyde (enters in body due to alcohol consumption). There is a geographical correlation between different regions in case of aldh2 deficiency. The aldh2 deficiency is most commonly reported in East Asia but it is also found in some specific regions of South Asia. It is studied that it commonly found in the region where rice are cultivated.

Aldh2 Deficiency Test


The symptoms appearing in the body are the easiest way of diagnosing aldh2 deficiency. People reported that they do not drink alcohol at all or are not at drinking age yet but still want to know about aldh2 deficiency. For that purpose there are some tests to diagnose the Gene mutation of aldh2. A simple DNA test is performed by taking blood samples. Via blood sample, the Gene deficiency can be easily seen. DNA test can also be performed by taking samples of saliva.

Aldh2 Deficiency Treatment


Some researchers in a well known University found out that a specific molecule named alda 89 is responsible for increasing the activity of aldh2 enzyme. But it is also reported that alda 89 is not safe to consume for human beings because of its toxicity. So there is another molecule named ALDA which helps in increasing the activity of aldh2 enzyme. Finally the treatment stretagies is based on the goal to diminish the toxicity of acetaldehyde by taking supplements. The supplements will help in lowering the toxicity of acetaldehyde and side by side help aldh2 enzyme to work properly.
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Amnisure ROM Test Procedure, Resutls, Accuracy, Cost

Amnisure ROM test is a diagnostic device which is approved by FDA. It is widely used in the obstetric practice and have resolved a long standing problem. It is used for the diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes PROM. It is a less invasive and accurate test which is used for diagnosis of rupturing of membranes. Amnisure ROM test is always preferred on other battery methods used for that purpose. Amnisure ROM test is performed in about one in every 10 preganant women for the surety of pre natal and post natal complications. Up to 30 percent women in USA are diagnosed with this PROM test.


Amnisure ROM Test Procedure


Amnisure ROM test is the rapid and non invasive test which is easy to perform. It is used to diagnose rupturing of membranes in preganant women who are showing signs and symptoms of any specific disease or condition. It provides an accurate, timely and easy to interpret diagnosis if the condition. Amnisure ROM test is performed to check placental alpha microglobulin 1 (PAMG 1) protein in the amniotic fluid sac. A sample is collected from the vagina with the help of a sterile swab. The sterile swab is inserted inside vagina up to 2 to 3 inches deep and a clear yes or no result can be seen.

Amnisure ROM Test Procedure, Resutls, Accuracy, Cost

Amnisure ROM Test Results


Amnisure ROM test is an accurate test which can be performed easily and the results are trustable. The results can be seen on the spot within 2 to 3 minutes which helps in timely treatment and proper care. The results received from amnisure ROM test are approximately 99 percent accurate. This test is helpful in detection of PAMG 1 protein marker. The result is on the spot i.e. can be seen within minutes. Speculum examination is not required and this makes it an easy test. No gestational age limit is required for this test.

Amnisure ROM Test Accuracy


Amnisure ROM test is always preferred on other battery procedures which are used to diagnose rupturing of membranes in preganant women. The results received from amnisure ROM test are considered approximately 99 percent accurate. The main reason behind it's accuracy is that it is not a speculum examination. An aseptic swab is used to insert inside vagina and results can be seen within minutes. The aseptic swab is inserted up to 2 to 3 inches inside vagina for accurate results.

Amnisure ROM Test Cost


The cost affects the amnisure ROM test in two ways i.e. indirect cost and direct cost. In direct cost, there are two factors affecting cost i.e. are materials and labor. Tests performed to check the condition of rupturing of membranes cost really high like even a single ultrasound costs 200 dollars. Methods used other than amnisure ROM test, require time of at least 4 hours to get the results and for accurate diagnosis and it also cost high because patient have to pay labor too. Contrary to it, amnisure ROM test hardly take 15 minutes to give accurate result and no labor fee is required. When we talk about indirect cost, the false positive results of other tests lead to further testing and treatment, which affects cost.
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Best Natural Pde5 Inhibitors List of Foods, Supplements & OTC's

Pde is the abbreviation of phosphodiesterase enzyme. The pde5 inhibitors are the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. These are the agents which act on the phosphodiesterase enzyme and block the degradative action of cGMP specific pde5 enzyme. Phosphodiesterase type 5 enzyme is present in the cyclic GMP of smooth muscle lining. This smooth muscle lining covers the blood vessels supplying blood to the corpus cavernosum of penis. The pde5 inhibitors are the drugs which are used to treat erectile dysfunction. These drugs are considered the most effective oral treatment of erectile dysfunction.


As phosphodiesterase type 5 enzyme is also present in the smooth muscle lining of arteries, so these drugs are also used to treat pulmonary hypertension. Whenever there is sexual stimulation, the nitric oxide is produced in the corpus cavernosum. Nitric oxide activates another enzyme named guanylate cyclase. This enzyme in turn increases the level of cyclic GMP. Cyclic GMP relaxes the smooth muscles of blood vessels, increased blood flow and erection of penis. Pde5 inhibitors inhibit the degradation of cyclic GMP by the enzyme pde5 itself. And as a result the blood circulation increases and leads to the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

Best Natural Pde5 Inhibitors List of Foods, Supplements & OTC's

Best natural pde5 inhibitors list of supplements


There are many natural supplements which are used as pde5 inhibitors to treat erectile dysfunction. The five main supplements include arginine, pycnogenol, icariin extract, forskolin and tongkat Ali. These supplements are used instead of pde5 inhibitors. Icariin extract is the main ingredient of the horny goat weed. It has effects like testosterone and helps in stimulation of sexual effects. Pycnogenol is extracted from bark of French maritime pine. Forskolin is a fat burner and affects glucoma. It naturally inhibits pde5 enzyme of smooth muscles.  Arginine is also a natural strengthening agent.

Best natural pde5 inhibitors list of foods


There are no foods which can treat erectile dysfunction but some foods are known to help in treatment of erectile dysfunction. These foods are as follows:


  • Leafy greens and beets contains nitrates in them and these nitrates are responsible for nitric oxide production. 
  • Flavanoids present in dark chocolate also helps in the secual stimulation of penis. 
  • Pistachio helps a lot in strengthening of penis because pistachios contain proteins. 
  • Fishes are good for penis working. As fishes contain zinc in them which helps in working of penis. 
  • Watermelon is also useful. 
  • Pomegranate juice is used a lot to combat erectile dysfunction. 


Best natural pde5 inhibitors list of foods OTCs


OTC drugs available for treatment of erectile dysfunction include viagra. But in case viagra is not available, there are many alternatives which may be used for instead of viagra. These alternatives include verdenafil (levitra and staxyn are the brand names), tadalafil (adcirca and Cialis are the brand names of tadalafil) and avanafil (stendra is the brand name). Other than these oral drugs use for erectile dysfunction, other dosage forms include penile injections of alprostadil, phentolamine and papaverine. Urethral suppositories are also available. Testosterone replacement is another treatment Option.
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Global Hypokinesis of Left Ventricle Mild, Moderate & Severe

Global hypokinesis is a condition which describes the weakness of heart and improper functioning of heart. It also describes obstruction in the coronary blood vessels and this obstruction may range between mild to severe. Global hypokinesis gives information about improper functioning of each and every part of heart i.e. all the Chambers, membranes, walls of heart, ventricles and arteries etc.


Due to improper functioning there is irregularities in the tasks of heart and as a result the heart becomes weak and lose it's strength. Global hypokinesis is a different condition from regional weakness of heart. As the name indicates regional weakness defines weakness in some of the regions of heart and a few parts are involved. But in global hypokinesis ( as the name indicates global) involves the improper functioning of whole heart including all parts. There my be many causes behind global hypokinesis and some of them are heart attack, cardiomyopathy and ischemic heart diseases etc. The common symptoms if global hypokinesis are

Rapid or irregularities in the heart beat. As heart tends to beat fast in order to supply appropriate amount of blood to the body and this may count as abnormal or irregular heart beat.
Water or other body fluids retention. Due to global hypokinesis, there will be decreased blood output and as a result less blood is supplied to body. It may cause retention of fluids in body.

Global Hypokinesis of Left Ventricle Mild, Moderate & Severe

Mild Global Hypokinesis In Left Ventricle


Left ventricle is the chamber of heart and a hard working part of heart which receives blood from lungs and passes it to the body. Electrocardiogram is performed to check the activity of heart. In ECG, the activity of left ventricle of heart is recorded which is irregular. The muscles of heart specially of left ventricle are not contracting properly which is the main reason behind improper functioning of heart (global hypokinesis). The improper contraction of muscles does not affect the ejection fraction of heart.

Moderate Global Hypokinesis In Left Ventricle


Left ventricle is the most important part of heart as it is responsible for supplying blood to the whole body. If there is a problem in the heart specially left ventricle, the functioning of whole heart is disturbed. Global hypokinesis in left ventricle means the whole ventricle is not working properly. The contraction of heart muscles is improper at moderate level which is neither mild nor severe. The activity of heart can be checked on ECG. The electrocardiogram shows the exact location of problem in heart.

Severe Global Hypokinesis In Left Ventricle


Severe global hypokinesis in left ventricle means the whole left ventricle is weak and is not working properly. The muscles of left ventricle of heart are not contracting properly that's why the functioning is impaired. ECG shows the abnormality in function of heart in the left ventricle. The heart is not pumping blood to the body in proper way. In severe global hypokinesis, the ejection fraction of blood is also disturbed. It is a life threatening condition and urgently requires treatment.
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Occlusal Adjustment Definition, Procedure, Side Effects, TMJ, Cost

Occlusal adjustment is the grinding of the surface of teeth. The surface is grinded and made fine for the perfect connection of teeth of both jaws. The contact pattern of teeth is improved with occlusal adjustment. Occlusal adjustment can be used as an endodontic treatment, prosthetic treatment, restorative or orthodontic treatment. In occlusal adjustment, more than one teeth may be involved. Teeth may be natural or prosthetic. It is indicated in the following conditions:


  • For the elimination of isolated occlusal adjustment in case it becomes symptomatic. It usually becomes symptomatic after orthodontic treatment. 
  • Increased mobility of tooth because of traumatic occlusion.

Occlusal Adjustment Procedure


In occlusal adjustment procedure, the patient is reclined and ask him to join both jaws. After joining, the contact point of teeth is marked. The 1st contact point is identified with an accufilm which is a double sided articulating paper. The contacting inclines are reshaped either as a flat surface or a cusp tip. The teeth are adjusted in a line so that occlusion may occur in maximum teeth. The contacts at the posterior side are not altered. And should be a light contact in anterior teeth. Usually the canine and incisors contact are observed. When the occlusal adjustment is completed in reclined position, then it is checked by observing the point of contact.

Occlusal Adjustment Definition, Procedure, Side Effects, TMJ, Cost

Occlusal Adjustment Side effects


When we talk about the side effects of occlusal adjustment, the problems in biting are usually seen. Like patient may face bite off. In bite off, the closing of jaw is uneven on both sides. Patient whenever open or closes his mouth, popping or clicking sounds are produced. The point from where the enamel is ground away or the point from where the teeth is fractured facets are used to wear. Headache and neckache may occur. Pain occurs in the jaw due to uneven closing of both jaws.

Occlusal Adjustment TMJ


TMJ is abbreviated as temporomandibular joint. Person undergoing occlusal adjustment have problem in TMJ. So a guard is used to treat problem in temporomandibular joint. This guard is used at night time. This TMJ guard is frequently used by people at night time because it clenches and grind teeth. It helps a lot in making both jaws aligned and decreases the chances of occlusal adjustment. It also helps smooth muscles to work properly. TMJ guard allows jaws to find their desired place for connection but should prevent from looking.

Occlusal Adjustment Cost


Occlusal adjustment is a sensitive process because teeth are the most important part of life. All the dental surgeries are expensive. There is only a bit variation in the cost of occlusal adjustment. Usually TMJ guard is used to align teeth and grinding of teeth for better connection of both jaws. But if occlusal adjustment is necessary, then the cost ranges from 600.00 dollars to 1855.00 dollars. This cost includes a complete package. This package involves diagnosis, guards, analysis, information, measurements and subsequent appointments. In case braces are used for alignment of teeth, then these may cost approximately 3,050 dollars.
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Radial Traction Definition, Emphysema, COPD, Asthma, Pulmonary Fibrosis

The airway of lungs is composed of parenchyma. Parenchyma are the connective tissues which surrounds the lung airways. A scaffold is formed around airway due to parenchyma and this scaffold apply force on airways to make them open so that person may breathe easily. This force is known as radial traction. Whenever person inspires, the fibers of parenchyma connective tissues get stretched and make the airways wide open with the help of increased traction force. In case of expiration, the opposite phenomenon occurs in which fibers of parenchyma connective tissue contracts with the help of decreased traction force.



Radial Traction Emphysema


Emphysema is a condition in which person face shortness of breath and the elasticity of the cells of airways of lungs increases. As the elasticity increases, the cells stretch more and as a result the radial traction force of the airways increases leading to increased inhalation of air. But due to problem in the cells of air sacs present inside the lungs, person exhales immediately and less oxygen is absorbed leading to shortness of breath. Radial traction force increases during inspiration in emphysema but it is followed by sudden and increased contraction of parenchyma tissues during exhalation with decreased radial traction force.

Radial Traction Definition, Emphysema, COPD, Asthma, Pulmonary Fibrosis

Radial Traction In COPD


COPD is abbreviated as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this disease, there is an obstruction in the flow of air during breathing. Basically COPD is the group of diseases in which is an obstruction in the way of air during breathing. There are four main mechanisms occur during COPD. 1st one include the contraction of walls of airway which in other words is known as bronchoconstriction, Excess mucous production leading to obstruction, Inflammation of walls of airways leading to narrowing of airways and any other tissue destruction may lead to contraction of airways. All these mechanisms show narrowing of airways and loss of radial traction.

Radial Traction In Asthma


Asthma is a chronic lung disease, in which the walls of airways are inflamed and due to inflammation, the walls of airways become thick which leads to the narrowing of airways. Due to these structural changes, the radial traction force is also disturbed. Due to narrowing of airways, the radial traction force is also lost which is not good for person. Because due to lack of radial traction force, the airways may collapse during expiration phase and as a result patient may die.

Radial Traction In Pulmonary Fibrosis


Pulmonary fibrosis is a lot like emphysema, as in this disease, the tissues of lungs are damaged and scarred. These damaged and scarred tissues become thick more than a limit and causes problem during breathing. Due to thickening of cells of lungs, the airways become narrow and radial traction force is lost. When there is decreased radial traction force, the chances are high that the whole respiratory system may collapse. It is a life threatening condition. Patient try hard to inhale oxygen more during breathing but the airways does not support and all this leads to shortness of breath.
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Deep Pressure Therapy for Anxiety, Autism, ADHD, Dogs

Deep pressure therapy is an input of pressure applied equally across the body. The pressure is applied in a tactical way. Deep pressure therapy can be administered in many ways and the commonest examples are hugs, swaddling, squeezing and stroking. In actual, deep pressure therapy DPT works on our senses. As senses are responsible for taking messages to the brain and then brain filters them. In case of deep pressure therapy all the senses are under deep external pressure and brain is receiving messages continuously. As a result it is not easy for nervous system to calm down but deep pressure therapy is considered a source of relaxation of nervous system.



Deep Pressure Therapy DPT For Anxiety


Anxiety is the most common disease growing now a days. And deep pressure therapy is in Trend to treat anxiety of patients. It can be easily explained with an example of a baby. When we roll a baby in a blanket from all sides firmly to make him relax like wise a mature person go through deep pressure therapy to get mentally relax. Reserchers gave information about deep pressure therapy that it increases the level of happy hormones. Happy hormones are serotonin and dopamine which increases 28 percent and 31 percent respectively.

Deep Pressure Therapy for Anxiety, Autism, ADHD, Dogs

Deep Pressure Therapy DPT For Autism


Autism is a condition in which person face difficulty in speech, repetitive speech, social skills challenges and in non verbal communication. Deep pressure therapy is not considered a treatment plan for autism. But it is only used to make patient relax. Deep pressure therapy helps to depress nervous system for a time so that the person suffering from autism get relaxed and does not take much stress while talking. Deep pressure therapy relax patient for some time not for a longer time duration.

Deep Pressure Therapy DPT For ADHD


ADHD is the abbreviation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this disease, children are hyper active and are not able to focus on one thing properly for a defined time. Their impulses are uncontrollable and they face difficulty in paying attention. So deep pressure therapy is administered to make these patient mentally relax because it is a sensory processing issue. For the purpose of administration of deep pressure therapy in ADHD children, a weighted blanket is used for applying pressure. The blanket is 10 percent of child's body weight helps in compression of body sensory receptors.

Deep Pressure Therapy DPT For Dogs


Service dogs are trained for deep pressure therapy. Service dogs have enough weight to apply pressure on the person and they are well trained. Dogs not only apply weight but sometimes provide warmth to the person. They are trained to lie on the lap of person and wrap around him. If person is lying on floor or bed, dogs will lie on their back or on their chest and provide deep pressure therapy with their weight and warmth. It is the favourite strategy of people to calm down and minimize the disengagement from the world.
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Cyclops Lesion Surgery, Recovery, Recurrence, ACL

A Cyclops lesion which is also known as localized anterior arthrofibrosis is defined as a painful lesion in the inner mass present at the anterior side of knee. It occurs as a result of  anterior cruciate ligament ACL reconstruction. It is considered a main complication of anterior cruciate ligament ACL reconstruction. But in rare cases, it also occurs without reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament ACL. Cyclops lesion occurs in approximately 5 percent of patients who had anterior cruciate ligament ACL reconstruction. With a Cyclops lesion, patient can't move his knee without pain specially while extension of affected knee.



Cyclops Lesion Surgery


To treat Cyclops lesion, arthroscopic surgery is recommended. In arthroscopic surgery, a small incision is made near knee joint, And then surgeon inserts a small pencil like instrument inside the joint to lighten up the inner view. A small lens is also fixed with it to visualize the proper problem in the joint. That pencil shaped instrument which is inserted inside joint, is known as arthroscope. According to the injury, the appropriate instruments are also inserted inside via accessory incisions. After surgery, the small incision are covered with dressing and large ones are stitched. Some pain medications are prescribed in case of need.

Cyclops Lesion Surgery, Recovery, Recurrence, ACL

Cyclops Lesion Recovery


Small incision is made in arthroscopy to treat Cyclops lesion. These small wounds will take several days to heal completely. Dressing is preferably removed the very next morning and then adhesive tapes are used. Although there is not much pain associated with arthroscopy and not a big incision or wound is associated but still it takes week to recover the functioning of joint completely. A proper rehabilitation program helps a lot in making the recovery process fast. There is not a defined recovery time because the severity of injury and care of wounds along with proper rehabilitation program affects recovery speed.

Cyclops Lesion Recurrence


After arthroscopic surgery of Cyclops lesion, there are higher chances of recurrence of Cyclops lesion. People treated with arthroscopic surgery, even after great care and physical therapy 2nd Cyclops lesion may occur. Every time Cyclops lesion i.e reoccurred, the pain is worse than before. On every re-occurrence of Cyclops lesion, surgery is necessary. But repetitive surgeries, increase the scarring of tissues. If scarring get worse, then more surgeries may be required which will cause more pain. Surgery after surgery may lead to disappointment of patient and increased expenditure of money.

Cyclops Lesion ACL


ACL is the abbreviation of anterior cruciate ligament which is present in the knee joint of a person. Cyclops lesion occurs after anterior cruciate ligament ACL reconstruction. It is the replacement of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with a surgical tissue graft. It is performed after an injury,  to restore it's function. After successful surgery i.e. reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament ACL , if still patient feels problem in moving his knee ( painful knee extension) then it is the sign of Cyclops lesion. Cyclops lesion is the arthrofibrosis of the mass present in the anterior side of knee joint.
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Kidner Procedure Definition, Recovery, Rehabilitation, Cost

Kidner procedure is a surgery which is performed to remove an extra bone from foot. The bone to be removed in patients is named as accessory navicular bone. This bone is not present in all people but only a few are born with this extra bone. It is only removed if there is any injury or pain in this abnormal bone. Accessory navicular is considered a prominent abnormal bone which is present in the inner side of foot.


Accessory navicular bone is attached to a tendon , so during surgery, the damaged or inflammed bone is removed by making an incision, and then the tendon attached to accessory navicular bone is directly attached to the normal navicular bone. It is considered a minor surgical operation and not difficult at all. The tendon attached to it is posterior tibial tendon. If accessory navicular bone do not cause any pain or disturbance, then kidner procedure is not necessary. It is only recommended in case of pain and damaged or inflammed accessory navicular bone. As any kind of problem with this abnormal accessory navicular bone can be resolved only with kidner procedure so it is the only treatment Option.

Kidner Procedure Definition, Recovery, Rehabilitation, Cost

Kidner Procedure Recovery


Talking about recovery after kidner procedure, it depends upon the patient and the severity of condition of accessory navicular bone. It also depends upon the care of foot. Usually the recovery time recorded is 9 weeks to 2 months. In initial 0 to 6 months, in case of cast boot patient is advised to remain immobilized and must not put weight on foot. Then in next 6 to 10 weeks, the patient is asked to try to increase activity. Physical therapy should accompany for fast recovery. And full recovery is achieved after 9 weeks or 2 months when patient is back to his routine activities.

Kidner Procedure Rehabilitation


There is a designed rehabilitation protocol for accessory navicular bone. It includes 2 main goals in 1st 28 days i.e. pain management and prevent swelling. Tasks include straight leg raise, elevation, short arc quad SAQ, crutches use which is non weight bearing. In next 4 to 8 weeks, the main goal is full DF /PF. The tasks involved is, use of crutches, cam walker, mini squats, wall squats and full gym. In next 8 to 12 weeks, main goal is to achieve normal gait and symmetrical range of motion ROM. Like wise after 6 months , goal is to get back to work.

Kidner Procedure Cost


Cost is a variable factor which varies from place to place. At some places, the cost for kidner procedure is very much high that an average person can't afford. As it is a rare surgery, so it also affects it's cost. When the bone is inflammed or damaged, then it is a very sensitive process to remove it safely from foot without spreading of infection. Cost also varies according to the surgeon and hospitals. Some high standard hospitals charge more and offer a costly kidner procedure as compared to a local hospital as they offer a bit cheaper kidner process.
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Uvulectomy Definition, Procedure, Recovery, Pain, Cost

Uvulectomy is a surgical procedure which is performed to remove uvula from mouth. Uvula may be completely removed or partially removed. Uvula is a hanging soft mass present in the initial position of throat. It hangs downward from the throat. Uvula is a beneficial part of mouth but sometimes some complications require the removal of uvula I.e. uvulectomy. Uvula is an organ having bell shape. Uvula is Rich in moisture because it contains salivary glands which helps to make mouth moist. Uvula is of great help in making person how he articulate. Having a uvula will never make mouth dry.



Uvulectomy Procedure


Uvulectomy may be performed alone but it is mostly performed as a main part of  another procedure named uvulopalatopharyngoplasty UPPP. Both the above mentioned procedure have same purpose i.e. removal of the tissues blocking the airway. A local anesthesia is used to remove uvula. Basically it is performed for sleep apnea. Patient is asked to pull out his tongue and relax with an open jaw. Then sterilized surgical instruments are used to cut out either partial tissues of uvula which we're blocking the airways or complete tissue removal of uvula causing sleep apnea by blocking airways.

Uvulectomy Definition, Procedure, Recovery, Pain, Cost

Uvulectomy Recovery


Uvulectomy is a minor surgery if performed alone. Patients after removal of uvula may feel weird but after 2 to 3 days he'll be used to it. After surgery, the patient is prescribed with some pain killers. These pain killers help in relaxation and narrowing of muscles of throat and patient feels relaxed. Patient can go back to his routine activities within 1 to 2 weeks after surgery. After 2 to 3 weeks patient is allowed to take his meal he wants to. But complete recovery of uvulectomy requires 3 to 6 weeks. After 6 weeks patient is completely good.

Uvulectomy Pain


Uvula is a sensitive part of throat as a good source of moisture in mouth. As it contains glands responsible for causing moisture. So after uvulectomy patient may feel pain in throat. For that purpose, surgeon prescribe some pain killers so that patient feels less pain and pain killers also helps to relax muscles of throat along with narrowing of throat muscles. Liquid dosage form of pain killers is recommended first, with administration after every 3 to 4 hours. After 1 to 2 weeks, the frequency of dosage is decreased even it is recommended to take pain medication right before taking meal for easy swallowing.

Uvulectomy Cost


There isn't any proper intervention related to the cost of uvulectomy. It depends upon the region or location and country. The cost of uvulectomy also depends upon the hospital and surgeon. As an example, on a famous website named MD save, the cost for uvulectomy is 650 dollars. But there are also some cheap hospitals which offer uvulectomy in lower cost. About policy makers of determining uvulectomy a cost effective intervention, there isn't enough data available. Patient should survey in more than one hospital and then should select on the basis of hygienic conditions and cost.
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Ambien Overdose Amount, Side Effects, Antidote, Treatment

Ambien is a medicine which has an active ingredient named zolpidem. Ambien is a sleep inducer or we can say zolpidem is a CNS depressant. But it should be used with the prescription of an authorized physician. It's over usage may cause harm to patient even it may prove fatal for health. Ambien induces sleep and is mainly prescribed for patients facing severe sleep problems. But patient have to administer it according to the physician instructions. It's over use is intentional but sometimes it's dose may exceed due to less education about medication. It's continuous overdose may induce tolerance.



Ambien Amount


Ambien should be initially administered with it's lowest dose recommended i.e. 5 mg for women and 5 to 10 mg for men. It should be administered once in a day i.e. o.i.d. it is recommended to take a tablet right before going to bed for an intentional 7 to 8 hours sleep. If patient does not find 5 mg dose enough for the purpose of sleep, then it may increase up to 10 mg but in some cases, this 10 mg does show impairment in very next morning while driving and performing other activities.

Ambien Overdose Amount, Side Effects, Antidote, Treatment

Ambient Side Effects


Ambient is designed to relief severe insomnia but this drug also cause some serious side effects like nausea, rapid heart beat i.e. tachycardia, muscle cramps, slow rate of breathing, diarrhea, vomiting, impaired near and far vision, patient may no longer feel hunger. Other than these, some rare side effects include, memory loss, anxiety, emotional blunting, allergic reactions, disorientation, depression, insomnia and inability of patient to concentrate on a single thing. With continuous use of ambient, patient may have nightmares, he may remain confused about things all the time, dizziness, sedation, addiction and aggression. It's withdrawal may be life threatening.

Ambient Antidote


Flumazenil is the antidote to ambient (zolpidem). In case of over dose or tolerance, flumazenil administration is considered as a primary treatment or supportive care. Flumazenil is considered an effective drug which can reverse the effects of ambient in central nervous system. Flumazenil recommended dose for ambient over dose is 0.1 to 1 mg via intravenous route of administration. It will reach to it's peak within 10 minutes giving rapid results along with improvement of patient. Other than this antidote administration, some supportive treatments are also recommended to combat the over dose effects of ambient (zolpidem).

Ambient Treatment


Ambient over dose is intentional mostly but it can also be mistaken if patient is not well educated about the medication. It's over dose treatment include 2 strategies i.e. primary and secondary. In primary treatment, an antidote of ambient named flumazenil is administered intravenously for Instant relief. It will give results within 10 minutes of administration. The secondary strategy include some supportive treatment for ambient over dose effects. Supportive care include intubation, Intravenous fluids, mechanical ventilation and gastric lavage. Intubation and mechanical ventilation helps a lot in recovering the level of oxygen in body. Like wise intravenous fluids also helps to make organs work properly.
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Gerdy's Tubercle Pain, Swelling, Palpation, Treatment

Gerdy's tubercle is defined as Tubercle on the tibia which is present laterally. Tubercle itself is defined as an outgrowth which is round in shape and tubia is the one of the main bones present in the lower part of leg i.e. below knee. It is present at the point of insertion of iliotibial tract. Gerdy's tubercle is a smooth facet which is present  laterally in the upper part of tibia. It's exact location is just below the knee joint. Gerdy's tubercle is rightly adjacent to the proximal tibio fibular joint and this is the point for iliotibial tract to run downwards and forms the outside part of the thigh.



Gerdy's Tubercle Pain


Iliotibial band syndrome is the cause of pain in gerdy's tubercle. This syndrome occurs due to over usage of connective tissue in the iliotibial region i.e. outside of knee or lower leg. Iliotibial band syndrome causes severe pain at the point where gerdy's tubercle is located. Person with iliotibial band syndrome cannot run or walk properly because of pain. Along with pain, the outer part of knee may also show inflammation. If this syndrome left untreated, then it may lead to significant morbidity and even cessation of exercise for a longer time.

Gerdy's Tubercle Pain, Swelling, Palpation, Treatment

Gerdy's Tubercle Swelling


Swelling at the gerdy's tubercle may occur due to the iliotibial band friction syndrome. In this syndrome, due to over usage of connective tissue (which forms iliotibial band) may cause severe pain to the gerdy's tubercle and may result in swelling of the outer part of knee. Swelling in the gerdy's tubercle may also occur due to excessive accumulation of fluid in the space of knee around gerdy's tubercle. This accumulated fluid in the knee, may cause friction while working with knee and as a result swelling occurs.

Gerdy's Tubercle Palpation



Palpation is a technique to find out the exact location and severity of pain and swelling via patient's feedback. In this technique, physician touch the area of pain originating and ask patient side by side if he is feeling pain on touching and how much pain he is feeling. Usually the index finger and middle finger are used for touching and examination. The region if originating pain is slightly pressed with the fingers and check of there is any inflammation and swelling and pain. Palpation helps a lot in understanding the cause of pain and swelling in defined region.

Gerdy's Tubercle Treatment


Iliotibial band syndrome is the main cause behind any pain and inflammation and swelling in gerdy's tubercle so the initial treatment stretagy include rest, elevation, compression and ice pack application. Other than this, some anti inflammatory medications to relieve inflammation and swelling are also prescribed like naproxen and Ibuprofen. Patient should avoid using over the counter medications along with the prescribed ones as it may cause drug interaction. Other than these treatment stretagies, physical therapy also helps a lot as exercise may increase mobility if the gerdy's tubercle and helps in recovering fast from iliotibial band syndrome.
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Metacarpophalangeal Joint Pain, Injury, Dislocation, Lump, Thumb Pain

Metacarpophalangeal joint is present in hand which joins the bones of hand with the bones of fingers. In scientific way, metacarpophalangeal joint joins the phalanges of the digits of fingers with the metacarpal bones of fist. Metacarpophalangeal joint is an ovoid articular type of bone which joins the rounded heads of metacarpal bones with the shallow proximal endings of phalanges of the digits of fingers. As metacarpophalangeal joint is condyloid in nature so it would allow various movements of hand like abduction, flexion, adduction, circumduction and extension. The movements like abduction and adduction cannot be performed easily until a fist is formed.



Metacarpophalangeal Joint Pain


If there is pain in the metacarpophalangeal joint, then arthritis may be a commonest cause behind it, if any injury is not reported. Arthritis is known as inflammation of joints and arthritis is commonly used as a word to describe pain in joints. Pain in the metacarpophalangeal joint may also occur due to osteoarthritis i.e. wear and tear of bone on routine basis. If there is a broken bone in hand then the crack may extend up to the metacarpophalangeal joint and cause pain. Gout, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and pseudogout etc. Are the medical conditions which may cause pain in metacarpophalangeal joint.

Metacarpophalangeal Joint Pain, Injury, Dislocation, Lump, Thumb Pain

Metacarpophalangeal Joint Injury


Metacarpophalangeal joint sprain is an injury which may occur when one of the ligaments attached to knuckles got injured. Injury to the knuckle which is nearest to the metacarpophalangeal joint may cause injury to the joint. In injury, the collateral ligaments around knuckles got injured and causes sprain to the nearest metacarpophalangeal joint. The pain due to sprain is very painful and may cause dislocation of the joint. The severity of pain in dislocation of joint and sprain is difficult to assess. A proper stress test is conducted to check severity of injury and sprain.

Metacarpophalangeal Joint Dislocation


Metacarpophalangeal joint may get dislocate due to injury in the ligaments of nearest knuckle. Usually the border finger digits i.e. small and index finger digits are more susceptible to injury because these are not surrounded by any other protective border. The collateral ligaments of the index finger and small finger digits are more susceptible to injury causing dislocation of metacarpophalangeal joint. The dislocation of metacarpophalangeal joint may be treated with buddy tapping for almost 2 to 3 weeks and this is for 1st degree sprain. For 2nd degree sprain, the digits are made immobilized for about 3 weeks in mid flexion.

Metacarpophalangeal Joint Lump


The lumps in the metacarpophalangeal joint are called ganglion cysts. The most common site of formation of ganglion cysts are the joints at the base of fingers like metacarpophalangeal joint and the joints present near to the nails i.e. distal phalangeal joint.

Metacarpophalangeal joint Thumb pain


The joint of thumb is composed of metacarpal bone and is in connection with trapezium bone of wrist. When person do a lot of movement with wrist, then inflammation may occur in the thumb joint causing pain. Basically the tendons joining thumb to the wrist causes pain in thumb joint.
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