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Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

It is not a simple disease to understand because it is the group of different headache disorders. In this condition, headache involves the whole side of face. Pain may be moderate or severe unilateral involving head and face. The associated features include conjunctival injection, lacrimation, ptosis, eyelid edema and nasal congestion. The headache disorders have different duration and frequency of attacks. Cluster headache is the type of headache disorders which have longer duration than all other types and it is also less frequent than others. Contrary to it, short acting neuralgiform headache and paroxysmal hemicrania have less duration but are very frequent.


The group of headache disorders contains the following:

  • Cluster headache: it is the most common headache disorder which occurs in almost 0.1 percent of cases. Male are at higher risk.
  • Episodic and chronic cluster headache: in about 90 percent of cases, cluster headache occurs in the form of episodes. it has longer duration from days to months.  It can reoccur with the average gap of months and years.
  • Paroxysmal hemicrania: this disorder is more frequent i.e. occurs 4 to 5 times a day but last for 20 to 30 minutes.
  • Short lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache: the attack persists for about 600 seconds and is known as most frequent.

Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgia Symptoms


As it's definition tells that it is a group of headache disorders so headache is the primary and common symptom. Pain does not only occur in head region, but face is also involved. Pain occurs on one side of head and face. Sometimes it is bilateral. The associated features of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia are excessive lacrimation, rhinorrhea, conjunctival injection, ptosis, nasal congestion and eyelid edema. Other symptoms are according to every type of headache disorder. Like grittiness or itching occurs in eye in case of hemicrania continua.

Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgia Causes


In trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia, the posterior hypothalamus region is activated. This activation is specific in cluster headache, short lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache and paroxysmal hemicrania. Locus ceruleus, dorsal pons and periaqueductal gray matter are the main areas involved in migraine. The striking in trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia is tha is the autonomic component which accompany each attack. The autonomic symptoms are considered normal physiological response. Basically trigeminal nerve compression is responsible for trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia. The dis inhibition of trigeminal autonomic reflex and hypothalamic direct modulation pathway named trigeminovascular nociceptive are considered the main causes.

Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgia Treatment


There are two main treatment strategies I.e. non pharmacological and pharmacological. In non pharmacological treatment involve the following:

  • Greater occipital nerve injection: the trigeminocervical complex is modulated. This system is either blocked or stimulated to reduce pain. A steroid injection or local anesthetics injection are used in treatment of headache.
  • Occipital nerve stimulation: there is a bit acute abortive effect.
  • In hypothalamic deep brain stimulation, the posterior side of hypothalamus is stimulated and this stimulation give positive results.
  • Every type of headache disorder in trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia show different response to all the above mentioned treatment strategies.

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Peritendinitis Symptoms, Causes, Treatment | Achilles Peritendinitis

Peritendinitis is defined as the inflammation of paratenon. Paratenon is the sheath covering tendons all over the body. Peritendinitis resembles tendinitis in which inflammation of tendon itself occurs. It occurs commonly in people who are used to hard work like athletes and gym guys. Paratenon covers the tendon and help in its movement by reducing friction. So in peritendinitis, the tendon cannot move smoothly. It is a sensitive case. Because moving the stiff tendon with high friction can break it and patient won't be able to move any more. When the inflammation occurs in paratenon, tendon becomes stiff and hard to move freely.


Peritendinitis Symptoms


Peritendinitis involves tendons (joining muscles to the skeleton). When inflammation occurs in paratenon (covering of tendons), it makes the tendon stiff. Patient find it hard to move freely. Severe pain occurs while moving the affected region of body. Limited motion can be produced. On touch, the affected site feels hot and swollen. Swelling occurs on the whole part involved in peritendinitis. Telltale sound is produced while moving the affected site of body. Telltale sound is the cracking sound which produces because of paratenon inflammation and more friction. During inflammation, the surface of tendon looks cracked like water dries up leaving the earth surface cracked.

Peritendinitis Symptoms, Causes, Treatment | Achilles Peritendinitis

Peritendinitis Causes


There is not any defined cause behind peritendinitis. Scientists believe that it can occur secondary to tendinitis which is the inflammation of tendon itself. Inflammation of paratenon occurs due to excessive workout. It commonly occurs in male gender. Athletes and gym guys are at the hit list because they got little time to rest their body and workout most of the time. Moving the limbs excessively can increase the chances of peritendinitis as kneading the dough in restraunts most of the time can cause peritendinitis in wrist or elbow.

Peritendinitis Treatment


Initially, patient is asked to take rest for atleast a week or until the swelling and pain reduces or subside. Some adaptive devices like crutches are used to take off burden from tendons for faster healing. Patient is asked to compress the inflamed area with hot water or cold ice. As it will naturally help a lot in reducing inflammation and muscle relaxing. Tests should be performed regularly with one week interval to check progress. If no progress occurs, then steroid injection is the solution. But it's administration is quite complicated. It should be injected in paratenon not in the tendon.

Achilles Peritendinitis


Achilles is the tendon present in heels. It is a fibrous tissue tough band which connects the heel bone to the calf muscles. Calcaneal tendon is the other name of Achilles tendon. When inflammation of paratenon of Achilles tendon occurs, it is known as Achilles Peritendinitis. Achilles tendon is the most common tendon involved in peritendinitis because heels and feet are the most working part of our body all the time. The symptoms are same I.e. pain and swelling and stiffness. Patient with Achilles Peritendinitis will take at least 15 days to recover with complete bed rest.
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Corneal Infiltrates Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Healing Time

Corneal infiltrates is the kind of ulcer. It is an epithelial defect which occurs due to inflammation. Inflammation may either occurs as a result of infection or without infection. Disruption of corneal epithelium occurs in corneal infiltrates. We can say that corneal infiltrates may lead to corneal ulcer. It is a rare disease. It can be diagnosed easily via visual inspection. Filtrates or ulcer can be clearly seen at the boundary of cornea. Eyes appear red in color. Corneal infiltrates do not involve systemic circulation and is associated with conjunctival mediators and tear film. Management of corneal infiltrates is necessary otherwise it can lead to further diseases.


Corneal Infiltrates Images


Corneal Infiltrates Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Healing Time


Corneal Infiltrates Symptoms


Corneal infiltrates or ulcer occurs as a result of inflammation in corneal epithelium. So inflammation of corneal epithelium is the most prominent sign. The affected eye appears red in color. The accumulated white blood cells are visible in the peripheral cornea of eye and this accumulation is termed as infiltrates. The corneal infiltrates on margin are small in size I.e. approximately 1mm around corneal border. It looks like Gray white circumlimbal lesions. It may be bilateral. In case of sterile marginal corneal infiltrates, the infiltrates are usually asymptomatic. But if symptoms present, mild quadratic conjunctival hyperemia is the commonest.

Corneal Infiltrates Causes


Whenever damage occurs in cornea, it leads to immune response. In case of corneal infiltrates, the immune response is acute. If the cause is infectious, then introduction of an external antigen directly into the eye can cause inflammation. During inflammation, the blood vessels dilate and white blood cells start accumulating in the cornea. Coalescence of white blood cells form infiltrates in cornea. While in case of non infectious corneal infiltrates, it can occur as a result of wearing contact lenses, trauma occurring after surgery, toxins produced by bacteria or any other toxic stimuli and any autoimmune disease.

Corneal Infiltrates Treatment


The treatment strategy of corneal infiltrates is designed on the basis of the cause. If inflammation occurs due to contact lenses, then it is considered a sterile inflammation. The cause may be infectious or non infectious I.e. sterile. So differentiation between sterile and infectious corneal infiltrates is necessary because the treatment is based on it. Antibiotics are prescribed in case of infectious corneal infiltrates. Later, topical corticosteroids are prescribed. In sterile corneal infiltrates, the patient have to avoid some things like wearing contacts, dust and direct sunlight.

Corneal Infiltrates Healing Time


Corneal infiltrates heal fast. Even if it is left untreated, it can easily recover within a week or two. Steroids used along with antibiotics helps to reduce the healing time. Steroids also helps to reduce chances of secondary infections. If corneal infiltrates occurs due to wearing contact lenses, then patient is advised to avoid using contact lenses until complete healing. Improving corneal hygiene, changed lens design and scheduled lens wearing also helps a lot in minimizing healing time. The drug therapy used along with elimination of the initial stimulus contribute a lot in healing process.
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Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Surgery, Recovery

Median arcuate ligament syndrome is the other name of celiac artery compression syndrome. In this symptom, the celiac artery is compressed due to any reason, which leads to severe abdominal pain and weight loss. Celiac artery is responsible for supplying blood to upper part of abdominal region. It is the rare cause of weight loss and abdominal pain. The compression of celiac artery occurs due to median arcuate ligament. Median arcuate ligament is the fibrous muscular band which is present in diaphragm. The abdominal pain is chronic and recurrent. It is a rare disorder with high prevalence.


Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Symptoms


Patients with celiac artery compression syndrome feels a layer of pain in abdomen right after eating. Sudden and visible weight loss occurs. Abnormal sounds are produced in abdomen due to compression of celiac artery and these sounds are termed as abdominal bruit. The most common symptom of all is abdominal pain which occurs in more than 80 percent of cases. Weight loss occurs in almost 48 percent of cases and abdominal bruit occurs in approximately 35 percent cases. Other symptoms related to abdomen are nausea, vomiting, restlessness, weakness, dizziness, delayed gastric emptying and diarrhea.

Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Surgery, Recovery


Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Causes


The exact cause of compression of celiac artery is still not known. There is a great dispute on defining accurate cause. Basically, in ancient times, it was believed that celiac artery compression syndrome occurs due to improper blood supply which in turn occurs due to compression of celiac artery by median arcuate ligament. It can also occur due to nerve dysfunction. Nerve dysfunction is considered the main cause behind following symptoms

  • Delayed gastric emptying
  • Epigastric pain.

There is'nt any other defined cause behind Celiac artery compression syndrome and the causes mentioned above are also not sure.

Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Surgery


Surgery is the only treatment option because no medication can help in relieving compression of celiac artery. During surgery, the median arcuate ligament and celiac plexus (collection or group of nerves supplying blood in abdomen) are divided and Celiac artery become decompressed. The surgical operation may also involve implantation of stent, angiography and vascular reconstruction of celiac artery in abdomen. Surgery can treat the exact cause of celiac artery compression syndrome but the symptoms can be relieved with the help of medication. Pain killers are used to reduce pain intensity. If this syndrome left untreated, it can lead to patient's death.

Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Recovery


The recovery after surgery varies patient to patient. Some people respond better to surgical treatment and recover in less time. Patients with chronic abdominal pain and sudden visible weight loss respond more quickly to the surgical intervention as compare to the one with less pain and less weight loss. The patients at chronic stage recover fast after surgery. Old age patients respond less to the surgery and take time to recover completely. Patient have to follow healthy diet plan to reduce post operative complications. Alcoholic patients will not recover fast.
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Nasal Vestibular Furunculosis Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Remedies

Nasal vestibular is a bacterial infection which occurs in the vestibule of nose. When hair follicle is involved in the infection, then it is termed as nasal vestibular furunculosis. It is a common infection. It is a localized infection and limits to a single hair follicle. Staphylococcus aureus is the cause of nasal vestibular furunculosis. Redness occurs along with inflammation which confirms its diagnosis. Sometimes the involved hair follicle become hard and dry and forms a crust. Itching occurs most of the time. Nasal vestibular furunculosis may be secondary to hair plucking or cutting within the nostrils.


Nasal Vestibular Furunculosis Causes


Staphylococcus aureus is the main cause of infection. It is a bacterial infection. It can occur in reaction to external particle like dust and pollen grains. Plucking hair in nostril can be the cause. Basically abscess occurs in hair follicle. Furunculosis is the term used for abscess. Any other follicle infection inside the nostrils can lead to nasal vestibular furunculosis. Sometimes trimmed nasal hair remain inside nostrils and cause nasal vestibular furunculosis. Some rare causes may be folliculitis, respiratory infections (upper or lower and viral or bacterial), chronic rhinorrhea and hair picking or trimming on regular basis.

Nasal Vestibular Furunculosis Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Remedies


Nasal Vestibular Furunculosis Symptoms


The common symptoms of nasal vestibular furunculosis are:

Inflammation of nostril, localized redness, severe pain accompanying inflammation, pain also occurs on the skin covering nasal vestibule. Redness occurs according to the area involved because it is a localized infection. Abscess formation is rare. Systemic symptom occurs in rare cases. Pustules usually does not occur. These are the only symptoms associated with nasal vestibular furunculosis. The re-occurrence chances are high because, patient already exposed to staphylococcus aureus which contributes in re-occurrence. Whenever patient plucks nasal hair, the follicle exposed to the staphylococcus aureus which causes infection.

Nasal Vestibular Furunculosis Treatment


As it a bacterial infection, so antibiotics are prescribed for the treatment. At initial stage, combination of three antibiotics is used I.e. polymyxin, bacitracin and neomycin. If resistance occurs, then topical antibiotics are used which consist of two antibiotics I.e. mupirocin and retapamulin. The healing process becomes fast with topical antibiotic ointment. It is prescribed two times a day and advised to Apply with cotton. Direct contact should be avoided. Ointment should be continued for almost 3 days. Following this treatment guideline will completely heal infection within days. Antibiotics are the only treatment option for nasal vestibular furunculosis.

Nasal Vestibular Furunculosis Remedies


Along with allopathic treatment, some home remedies helps a lot in reducing the symptoms like pain, swelling, inflammation and redness. The best remedy is applying onion because onion has antiseptic and antimicrobial activity. Onion increases the healing time. Likewise garlic also have antimicrobial, antiseptic and anti inflammatory properties. It is a natural detoxifier of body. Garlic is applied directly on the spot for reducing inflammation. Turmeric is a topical antiseptic and helps a lot in healing. Other remedies involve use of tea tree oil, steam of mint tea and drinking lemon water every day.
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Morpheaform Basal Cell Carcinoma Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Prognosis, Treatment

Basal cell carcinoma is the skin cancer, which develops on the surface layer called epidermis. It occurs due to over growth of basal cells. Morpheaform basal cell carcinoma is the type of basal cell carcinoma. In this type, the skin becomes hard and patchy. It is called as morpheaform basal cell carcinoma because it resembles morphea plaques. The surface become hard and shiny and smooth on touch. These are light colored lesions with waxy texture. The morpheaform basal cell carcinoma looks like scars. The borders are not defined which make it hard to spot or diagnose.


Morpheaform Basal Cell Carcinoma Symptoms


Morpheaform basal cell carcinoma usually does not show symptoms other than its appearance. It appears like lesions on the surface of skin. These lesions are hard and patchy, smooth on touch and have shiny surface. These lesions are light in color with waxy texture. Sometimes it appears in the form of scars with no defined boundary. Bleeding may occur most of the time and looks like these lesions or cuts will not heal. There are some diseases which closely resemble morpheaform basal cell carcinoma. These diseases involve sebaceous hyperplasia, molluscum contagiosum, fibrous papule, mercel cell carcinoma, amelanotic melanoma and cutaneous adnexal tumors.


Morpheaform Basal Cell Carcinoma Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Prognosis, Treatment

Morpheaform Basal Cell Carcinoma Causes


There are many factors which can cause morpheaform basal cell carcinoma. Use of fluorouracil previously can cause morpheaform basal cell carcinoma in future. It may be genetic due to gene mutation in hedgehog signalling pathway. Mutation exactly occurs at patched tumor suppressor gene. Excessive contact with ultraviolet radiations also contribute in causing morpheaform basal cell carcinoma. Many gene defects are considered the predisposing factors of this type of basal cell carcinoma. It commonly occurs in adults and rarely occur in females and young ones. Previous any type of basal cell carcinoma can lead to morpheaform basal cell carcinoma.

Morpheaform Basal Cell Carcinoma Treatment


Morpheaform basal cell carcinoma is a skin disease, so two types of treatment strategies are designed I.e. photodynamic therapy and surgical excision. Topical photodynamic therapy shows a good cosmetic result but alone it is not sufficient for treating morpheaform basal cell carcinoma. Surgical excision is the proposed treatment. If it appears on face, then Moh's surgery is recommended. It is considered best for facial morpheaform basal cell carcinoma. A sharp razor is used primarily in surgical excision to remove tumor from skin surface. It leaves no or less scars on skin.

Morpheaform Basal Cell Carcinoma Prognosis


It is a non fatal condition. It's prognosis is excellent because the treatment options works well and give good outcomes. Treatment is necessary because if left untreated, it may further lead to fatal diseases. The success rate of surgical excision are high as compare to photodynamic therapy. So most of the time both treatments are carried out side by side. Once it is removed completely from epidermal layer of skin, then it never comes back. In some cases, the untreated morpheaform basal cell carcinoma may lead to other types of basal cell carcinoma.
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Left Anterior Fascicular Block Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

It is a condition of heart in which heart muscles show irregular contraction. It occurs due to blockage of anterior half of bundle of His. Bundle of His is the group of cells which are responsible for transmitting electrical impulses from AV node towards apex of heart. Due to blockage of anterior half of bundle of His electrical delay in nerve impulse transmission across heart muscles occurs. And as a result delay in pumping activity of heart occurs. Left anterior fascicular block is also known as left anterior hemiblock.


It is observed via Electro cardio gram of heart. This condition is commonly seen in patient with myocardial infarction. Other conditions with associated left anterior fascicular block involve hypertension, valvular disorder, degenerative fibrotic disease and cardiomyopathy. It is the abnormal condition of left ventricle of heart. It closely resembles left bundle branch block LBBB but both of them are different conditions.  In left anterior fascicular block, only the left half of bundle is involved.

The Electro cardio gram shows deviation of left axis. Patients with pre existing inferior wall myocardial infarction cannot be easily diagnosed for left anterior fascicular block because myocardial infarction itself causes deviation in left axis.

Left Anterior Fascicular Block Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Left Anterior Fascicular Block Symptoms


When left anterior half of bundle of His is blocked, it leads to irregular or abnormal contraction. It is an asymptomatic condition and does not show any specific symptoms. It can only be diagnosed with Electro cardio gram. Some common symptoms which are related to associated condition involve  severe pain in chest region which is intermittent and occur again and again. Pain occurs due to blockage in circulation. Patient may go faint due to improper functioning of heart. On touch, patient can feel double beat I.e. the two ventricles do not beat at a time but bear one at a time.

Left Anterior Fascicular Block Causes


There are no of conditions which may lead to left anterior fascicular block. Some common conditions are listed below.

  • Chronic hypertension is considered the most common cause of left anterior fascicular block.
  • Degenerative fibrotic diseases leads to blockage of anterior half of bundle of His.
  • Aging
  • Aortic stenosis is responsible for development of this condition.
  • Valvular disorder also cause blockage of bundle of His.
  • Myocardial infarction. But only 4 percent of cases show left anterior fascicular block.
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy.
  • Aortic root dilation and some lung diseases can also cause blockage.

Left Anterior Fascicular Block Treatment


The treatment strategy depends upon the severity of condition and degree of blockage. Management is required along with treatment for best results. Dietary modifications are required. Patient is asked to take low carb, low fat and high protein food. Patient is asked to take supplements like omega 3 fatty acids and vitamins. Intake of poly unsaturated fats is recommended. Physical activity is necessary, as it helps a lot in managing tis condition. If patient is a smoker or alcoholic, then he is asked to quit smoking and alcohol consumption as it can cause vasoconstriction.
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Polyclonal Gammopathy Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Every individual have a defence system in his body which protects the body against invading pathogens. It consists of immunoglobulins. Whenever a pathogen invades inside body and causes any infection, the defense system of body get activated against it and produces antibodies against that pathogenic antigen. As we all know that excess of everything is bad, so increased level of immunoglobulins above the usual limit is known as gammopathy.


Polyclonal gammopathy is not a disorder but it is a strong or potent immunoglobulin response against infections. Polyclonal gammopathy does not occur in response to mild or acute infections but it only occurs in response to chronic infections or chronic diseases. Diseases of liver and collagen commonly leads to polyclonal gammopathy. Other diseases or infections which arise polyclonal gammopathy include scleroderma, primary biliary cirrhosis, polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fungal infections, chronic bronchitis, systemic lupus eryhtmatous, tuberculosis, infectious hepatitis and chronic active hepatitis.

So symptoms of polyclonal gammopathy are associated with the underlying cause. The treatment strategy is also designed according to the leading cause because treating the disease or infection automatically decrease the level of immunoglobulins.

Polyclonal Gammopathy Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Polyclonal Gammopathy Symptoms


In most of the cases polyclonal gammopathy does not show symptoms. Symptoms appearing may be associated with the underlying cause. But some common symptoms which appear in almost all infections and diseases are stress, fatigue, depressed mood, pain in the specified area of infection and anxious mood. Remaining symptoms are specified by the underlying disease or infection. It is asymptomatic because it only appears in response to chronic diseases and infections as a potent response. It is not a disorder or disease, but it has a plus point, that it successfully eliminates infectious pathogen from body.

Polyclonal Gammopathy Causes


Polyclonal gammopathy is a potent response against chronic diseases or infection. Some common diseases which leads to polyclonal gammopathy involve tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, osteomyelitis, trauma with slow healing process, chronic bronchitis, scleroderma, chronic fungal infections, syphilis, metastatic carcinoma, polymyositis, primary biliary cirrhosis PBC, infectious hepatitis, chronic active hepatitis CAH, rheumatoid arthritis RA, leishmaniasis also known as kala azar, chronic malaria, filariasis and systemic lupus eryhtmatous SLE. Other than these serum protein electrophoresis SPE strongly increase the level of gamma globulin leading to polyclonal gammopathy. the primary cause of polyclonal gammopathy should be known to design treatment strategy.

Polyclonal Gammopathy Treatment


Polyclonal gammopathy is not a disorder but a potent response which occurs in response to chronic diseases and infections. So treating the underlying cause will automatically decrease the level of immunoglobulins and polyclonal gammopathy will be treated.  As it is an asymptomatic disease, so it does not even require medication to relief symptoms. If cancer is the cause, chemotherapy will help a lot. Otherwise antibiotics are prescribed to treat infection. It only occurs in response to chronic diseases and infections so immediate diagnosis and treatment is required. If left untreated, it can cause death.
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Premature Adrenarche Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Premature adrenarche means premature puberty. It is a condition in which children become mature before their teenage starts. Children start maturing at the age of 8 in case of girls and at the age of 9 in case of boys. Basically adrenarche occurs due to premature awakening of adrenal gland. Adrenal gland is responsible for producing sex hormones. So premature releasing of sex hormones causes puberty i.e. adrenarche. Adrenal gland is present at the top of kidney. The sex hormones include androgens.


Zona reticularis of adrenal gland contains dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). When there is increase in production of these two regulators, it leads to increased adrenal androgen production. And children start maturing before their teenage. Premature adrenarche is not normal and can cause various diseases. There is an increased risk of polycystic ovary syndrome, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance.

When we discuss puberty it means development of secondary sex characteristics which transforms a sexually immature teenager to sexually mature teenager. It is normal at the age of 14 years in case of girls but in boys at the age of 16 years. During puberty, the secondary sex organs starts developing I.e. development of breast and pubic hair in girls and development of testes, pubic hair and chest hair in boys.

Premature Adrenarche Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Premature Adrenarche Sympytoms


When premature adrenarche occurs, secondary sex organs start developing in children before the age
of maturity. Girls start maturing at the age of 8 years while boys start maturing at the age of 9 years. Breast development and pubic hair growth are the symptoms of premature puberty in girls. In boys, development of bigger testes, pubic hair growth and chest hair growth is seen during puberty. There are no other pathological symptoms but premature adrenarche can lead to some medical conditions like insulin resistance.

Premature Adrenarche Causes


The exact cause of premature adrenarche is not known. It's pathology helps a lot in understanding the reason behind premature adrenarche. Dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate DHEAS are present in the zona reticularis of adrenal gland. These are the regulators of adrenal gland secretions. Increased production of DHEAS and DHEA leads to increased release of androgen which is a sex hormone. This hormone is responsible for puberty. When adrenal gland get activated before the usual age of maturity, it leads to premature adrenarche. DHEA and DHEAS are considered the biomarkers of premature adrenarche in children.

Premature Adrenarche Treatment



There is no treatment guidelines for premature adrenarche. It is just sexual growth of children before the usual age so it is considered okay. It is necessary to make sure if these changes are normal and do not causing any complications. Children with premature adrenarche are not self satisfied, so parents have to give them courage and should teach them that it is completely normal. If premature adrenarche is causing problems like insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome in adults and polycystic ovary syndrome in girls, then these conditions do require treatment. These conditions will be treated as per their treatment guidelines.
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Lichen Planus Vulva Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Cancer

Lichen planus is a rarely occurring inflammatory disease. It is a skin disease which has subtypes on the basis of body part involved. It occurs on skin, mucosa, nails and scalp. Likewise lichen planus vulva is the subtype of lichen planus which involves vulva. As vulva and vagina have mucous membrane on its surface. It is characterized as skin erosion, heterotrophic or papular lesions on the surface of vulva. It sometimes involves vagina too. It most commonly occurs on mucosal surfaces like oral cavity, vulvar and vaginal surface. Erosion occurs on the surface which may lead to severe tissue destruction.


Lichen Planus Vulva Images


Lichen Planus Vulva Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Cancer

Lichen Planus Vulva Symptoms


As it is a dermatological condition, so surface of the skin is involved. Erosion occurs on the surface. Sometimes papular or heterotrophic lesion occurs on mucosal surface. In women it commonly covers genital area I.e. vagina and vulva. So common symptoms include rash, itching, pain due to erosion because erosion causes severe tissue damage, redness and burning sensation. Chronic inflammation leads to scarring on vulvar surface. The reddish and inflammed puffy area is known as erosion on vulva. Other symptoms involve construction of vaginal opening and loss of labia minora (inner small lips of vagina).

Lichen Planus Vulva Causes


The exact cause behind lichen planus vulva is not known. But it is believed that it occurs in response to over active immune system. It is considered an autoimmune problem causing inflammation. It does not occur in response to an infection. Likewise age, hygiene, diet, menopause and sexual activity are not responsible for causing lichen planus vulva. It is not contagious and do not spread via direct contact or sexual activity. The common sites which it affects the most are the sites having mucosal surfaces like oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, nasal mucosa,  urethra and conjunctiva.

Lichen Planus Vulva Treatment


Treatment involves some life style changes which helps a lot in combat symptoms. As it is a skin disease, so patient is asked to avoid products which cause irritation. Some topical steroids creams and ointments are used. Local estrogen helps a lot in vulvar and vaginal healing. Lichen planus vulva may disappear on treatment, but it can reoccur after some time with no symptoms. As sexual intercourse is painful and full penetration of penis is almost impossible. So vaginal dilators are used to dilate vaginal opening for easy penetration. Surgery can be performed but in rare cases.

Lichen Planus Vulva Cancer


Rarely lichen planus vulva, if left untreated, can lead to vulvar cancer. But it is very rare I.e. there are only less than 5 percent chances of cancer development. Regular examinations are required to check out cancer cells production. As it is considered an autoimmune disease, so chances of cancer development is rare. Poor hygienic conditions of vagina and vulva may lead to vulvar cancer. If vulvar cancer is diagnosed, then immediate treatment is required. Symptoms become severe in vulvar cancer. Sometimes it left undiagnosed because most of the women do not pay attention and tell some one due to shame, so leaving it as it is is another factor which causes development of vulvar cancer.
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Richter Hernia Pain Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Richter hernia is a rare type of hernia associated with small intestine. Basically it occurs in the anti mesenteric wall of small intestine as a result of defect in abdominal wall. It is different and rare type of abdominal hernias in which only a single wall of intestine protrudes due to defect. It means the intestinal lumen shows incomplete involvement in defect and the uninvolved part remains in peritoneal cavity. If necrosis occurs accompanying protrusion during hernia then it may lead to repair, peritonitis and perforation. It is very dangerous type of hernia that it can prove fatal for health.


Richter's Hernia Symptoms


Initially Richter's hernia shows mild symptoms but with passage of time, the symptoms become severe and some times prove fatal. Common symptoms of Richter's hernia involve systemic malaise and systemic fever. Cramps in abdomen with severe abdominal pain. Patient may experience excessive vomiting and nauseatic feeling. Visually abdomen looks swell. On touch, patient can observe a painful mas in the groin region, which is hard on touch. Problem arises in the digestion of food. Bowel movement of intestine causes pain. As every bowel movement induces a layer of pain in abdomen which is almost unbearable.

Richter Hernia Pain Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Richter's Hernia Causes


Richter's hernia is a type of abdominal hernia. It occurs when intestinal wall starts pushing itself through muscle wall of abdominal opening. It is really small in size and difficult to diagnose. Once it tries to pass through abdominal opening, it got traped. As a result strangulated tissues start forming immediately. It happens because of improper blood supply to the area. When there is no blood, gangrene occurs (gangerene is the cell death and tissue death). As a result, life threatening condition occurs. That's why Richter's hernia has proved fatal for health. It requires immediate management right after diagnosis.

Richter's Hernia Treatment


It is the dangerous and rare type of hernia which occurs in abdomen. It requires immediate treatment right after diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment option for Richter's hernia. It has a drawback, that diagnosis of Richter's hernia is not easy, so treatment delays and patient dies in most of the cases. It has high mortality rate with late diagnosis and late treatment. Gold standard technique is used primarily to repair the part involved in peritoneal cavity. Then laparotomy is performed, in case perforation is suspected. No medications are prescribed other than pain medications I.e. ibuprofen.

Richter's Hernia Pain


As Richter's hernia is the type of abdominal hernia, so all the symptoms are associated with abdomen. Pain is the common symptom. It is mild at the initial stage of Richter's hernia but it becomes worse with the passage of time. When intestinal anti mesenteric wall tries to pass through abdominal opening, it got trapped and pinched. Due to pinching, pain arises. At starting, it is mild but gradually it become unbearable. Intensity of pain increases because of gangerene I.e. cell death. Improper blood and oxygen supply to the site is responsible for gangrene or tissue death.
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Right Ventricular Conduction Delay Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Right ventricular conduction delay means late blood pumping from right ventricle of heart. It is characterized as long QRS complex I.e. more than 0.12 seconds. A single tissue of any branch of bundle of His is involved in delayed conduction. There are three main conditions associated with conduction block which are left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block and interventricular conduction delay. In case of right ventricular conduction delay, right bundle branch block is responsible.


The bundle branch block may be complete or incomplete. Due to right bundle branch block, the conduction of blood towards right bundle of His is reduced and slow. When depolarization occurs in right ventricle, the left one is halfway finished and electrical activity is lost. The QRS interval of right ventricle is marked positive. Right bundle branch block is considered the most common cause behind right ventricular conduction delay.

When we compare complete and incomplete right bundle branch block, the duration of QRS varies. In complete right bundle branch block, the QRS interval is above 120 ms in adults and above 100 ms in children. In case of incomplete right bundle branch block, the QRS interval is between 110 and 120 ms in adults and between 90 and 100 ms in children.

Right Ventricular Conduction Delay Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Right Ventricular Conduction Delay Symptoms


Right  ventricular conduction delay shows symptoms which resemble with symptoms of other heart diseases. Patient suffers from chest pain. Pain may become severe with time due to improper functioning of heart. Patient may become faint due to low blood pressure. Palpitations occur and patient faces difficulties in breathing like shortness of breath with slow exertion. Sometimes rapid breathing occurs due to insufficient conduction of blood and insufficient cellular oxygen supply. Patient may feel nausea and muscle fatigue due to decreased blood supply and cellular oxygen supply.

Right Ventricular Conduction Delay Causes


Right bundle branch block is considered the most common cause of right ventricular conduction delay in healthy individuals. It is responsible for delayed right ventricular depolarization. There may be many reasons behind right bundle branch block. Some of them are atrial septal defect, rheumatic heart disease, right ventricular hypertrophy i.e. increase in size of ventricle, myocarditis, pulmonary embolism I.e. moveable blockage in pulmonary artery or vein, hypertension or cardiomyopathy and brugada syndrome. Bruguda syndrome is defined as prolonged or elevated ST interval due to ventricular fibrillation. These are the all possible reasons which can cause right ventricular conduction delay.

Right Ventricular Conduction Delay Treatment


Right ventricular conduction delay can be treated via following the treatment strategy of the underlying cause. Treating right bundle branch block will help a lot in treating right ventricular conduction delay. Medications are prescribed to control blood pressure. These medications will also reduce the chances of heart failure. Coronary angioplasty is performed in severe cases to open up the pulmonary artery supplying blood to ventricle. In some cases, a pace maker is attached for normal functioning of heart. Cardiac resynchronization is another treatment option which closely resemble pace maker but have an additional wire attached with left side of heart.
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Cystic Medial Necrosis Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

The breakdown of muscles, elastin and collagen of blood vessels is known as cystic medial necrosis. It commonly involves aorta which supplies oxygenated blood to all parts of bodies. Aorta is the largest artery which is responsible mainly for supplying oxygenated blood to whole body from heart. As collagen, elastin and muscles surrounding blood vessels are responsible for the shape and structure of blood vessels. During cystic medial necrosis, when these structures get damaged, there is a possibility that blood may leaks out of blood vessels and blood flow regurgitation may occur.


Cystic medial necrosis in aorta is also referred as aortic dissection. It is a life threatening condition. Cystic medial necrosis is a histological finding. It is also termed as connective tissue disorder, because connective tissues i.e. elastin, collagen and muscles of blood vessels get damaged in cystic medial necrosis. This condition sometimes does not appear cystic and necrotic. Cystic medial necrosis is associated with three main medical conditions. These conditions are marfan's syndrome, ehlers danlos syndrome and annuloaortic ectasia. The microscopic features of cystic medial necrosis involve basophilic ground substance. Elastic lamina appears disruptive in media. Elastin stains are used to stain blood vessel sample for histological finding.

Cystic Medial Necrosis Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Cystic Medial Necrosis Symptoms


Cystic medial necrosis is a life threatening condition which if not treated on time, can cause death. It is a histological finding and it's associated symptom involves severe chest pain. The symptoms become worse if it results in aortic dissection. Pain in chest involving both back and front side, vomiting, shock and dizziness are reported as symptoms. Excessive blood loss will lead to low blood pressure and sweating occurs as a result. Vomiting may have blood in it. Bloody stool is also reported as a result of cystic medial necrosis.

Cystic Medial Necrosis Causes


Cystic medial necrosis involves destruction or breakdown of muscles, elastin and collagen (collectively called as connective tissues). Sometimes connective tissue breakdown occurs as a result of any degenerative disease. Three main degenerative diseases are reported behind muscle, elastin and collagen breakdown. These diseases include marfan syndrome, Ehlers danlos syndrome and annuloaortic ectasia. Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder. Under microscopic evaluation of marfan syndrome, aortic aneurysm is seen which is the ultimate cystic medial necrosis. Well ehlers danlos syndrome is a genetic defect and highly associated with aortic dissection I.e. cystic medial necrosis.

Cystic Medial Necrosis Treatment


Cystic medial necrosis can be treated in two ways i.e. medical and surgical way. In surgery, the destructive portion of aorta is replaced with a normal one i.e. Dacron graft. Aortic dissection is performed for type A and type B necrosis. Type A is for ascending aorta and type B is for descending aorta. It is preferred when medications are of no use anymore in treating cystic medial necrosis. Medications are prescribed at mild stage of cystic medial necrosis. Beta blockers are used initially and other drug classes involve calcium channel blockers, nitroprusside to relax vascular walls and ACE inhibitors.
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Keratosis Obturans Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Treatment

Keratin blockage in the ear canal is known as keratosis obturans. Desquamated keratin starts accumulating in ear canal i.e. external ear canal. It is a rare disorder. Keratin plug blocks ear canal at inner half of ear canal. Keratin is a protein which is present in skin and nails. It is responsible for giving strength and rigidity to nails and skin. Highly keratinized skin is more prone to keratosis obturans. Epithelial layer of skin is naturally designed to move from the center of ear drum toward walls of ear canal. This epithelium when mixes with sweat and moisture in ear, it makes ear wax. But keratinized plug is different from ear wax.


Keratosis Obturans Symptoms


Keratosis obturans occurs due to keratin accumulation in ear canal. This keratin accumulation leads to erosion of the bone of ear canal. Patient feels severe pain which may radiate from ear to whole face including jaw line and eyes. Patient may suffer from hearing loss. Tinnitus is the common symptom reported. Accumulation of keratin is itself is not an infectious process but can lead to infection. Patients with compromised immune system are more prone to ear infection as a result of keratosis obturans.

Keratosis Obturans Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Treatment

Keratosis Obturans Causes


Movement of epithelium of skin towards walls of ear canal is normal. But in keratosis obturans, something hinders the keratin movement towards ear canal and as a result it starts accumulating in the inner half part of ear canal. The keratin starts piling up in ear canal and blocks it while skin keeps shedding off. Increase in shedding of skin leads to complete blockage of ear canal. Patients with highly keratinized skin are more prone to keratosis obturans. At initial stage of keratin accumulation, patient will start showing symptoms.

Keratosis Obturans Treatment


Piling up of skin keratin can be removed mechanically from ear canal. A microscope is required for that purpose. Inner half part of ear canal is the most sensitive part of ear. Special care is required for removal of ear canal obstruction. Some there may be nerve exposure at the base of pile of keratin, so special care is strictly needed. Keratosis obturans is a different condition from normal wax accumulation. So it is treated once and then patient have to follow some preventive measures to stop it's recurrence. Once the debris is removed, it's symptoms will disappear too.

Keratosis Obturans Prevention


After removal of ear canal debris, patient is asked to clear his ear canal regularly with cotton bud. It will reduce or eliminate the recurrence of keratosis obturans. If doctor have prescribed any medication, then patient have to take it to control the irregular epithelium flow. As keratosis obturans involve the inner half part of ear canal, so it's regular removal may not be an easy task. So most of the patients prefer mechanical removal of ear canal debris again and again after specific period of time. Patient have to avoid water contact and moisture, is it can make the condition severe.
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Pansystolic Murmur Symptoms, Causes, Sound, Treatment

Pansystolic murmur is the type of systolic heart murmur. Murmur is the sound produced by heart during systolic and diastolic blood filling. It is a specific heart sound which is produced as a result of pathological condition. Basically three main conditions are reported behind pansystolic murmur. These conditions involve mitral regurgitation, ventricular septal defect or tricuspid regurgitation. It starts from 1st sound of systolic pressure and extends up to 2nd sound of diastolic pressure. The murmur sound is at its peak during inspiration. It can be heard properly by placing stethoscope at left fourth sternal border.


When blood regurgitant flow towards right ventricle is increased, the intensity can be checked at this point. Pulmonary hypertension is reported to as a cause of tricuspid regurgitation. Tricuspid regurgitation is rare and can be caused by a bacteria named endocarditis. While in case of mitral regurgitation, there is no peak sound during inspiration. It occurs due to incompetent mitral valve. The pressure in left ventricle increases as compare to left atrium at initial isovolumic contraction. The pressure increases because of mitral valve closing i.e. S1. This reason states that why pansystolic murmur starts at S1. The pressure extends up to closure of aortic valve I e. S2.

Pansystolic Murmur Symptoms, Causes, Sound, Treatment

Pansystolic Murmur Causes


There are only 3 main causes reported behind pansystolic murmur. These reasons include tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation or ventricular septal defect. In case of tricuspid regurgitation, murmur sound produces as a result of increased regurgitation flow towards right ventricle during inspiration. Pulmonary hypotension is responsible for causing this increased flow. In case of mitral regurgitation, the defect in mitral valve leads to increase in pressure towards left ventricle and then towards left atrium while aortic valve closure. This is the main reason why pansystolic murmur sound starts from S1 to S2.

Pansystolic Murmur Symptoms


Symptoms of pansystolic murmur sound resemble other murmur abnormalities. Common symptoms include chest pain during inhalation. As pansystolic murmur is at peak during inspiration. Patient feel heart palpitations during breathing. As high blood pressure is the cause, so sweating will occur with less or no exertion. Difficulty in breathing along with shortness of breathe. The color of skin turns blue specially tips of fingers. Patient feel heavy breathing and fatigue. Sometimes patient become faint due to excessive dizziness. Patient may feel weakness in limbs with heavy sweating.

Pansystolic Murmur Treatment


Pansystolic murmur sounds means heart size is enlarged than usual and weaken than before. So it's treatment is necessary. Basically there is no specific treatment for murmur sounds. But it can be cured by treating the leading cause. As if it is occurring as a result of high blood pressure i.e. hypertension, then treatment for managing hypertension is highly recommended. Medication therapy including blood thinning agents is recommended. Medications to lower blood pressure and increased heart beats. Diuretics are also recommended to regulate salt and water concentration and controlling hypertension. If there is a cause other than hypertension, then surgery can be performed to correct heart defect.
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Boggy Uterus Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

In boggy uterus, uterus looks loose or more flaccid than usually it should be. Boggy uterus may be associated with two main conditions named uterine atony and adenomyosis. Uterine atony is the condition in which uterus loses its natural shape or tone. The muscles become loose and the natural shape of uterus disturbs. While in adenomyosis, the endometrium extends outward. Endometrium is the lining which covers the uterus. The extended endometrium get into the outermost covering named myometrium.


Myometrium consists of fibrous and muscular tissues. Boggy uterus causes problem during pregnancy. When endometrial mass does not flow out of body during menses, it will start accumulating inside myometrium and results in swelling of uterus. Patient may also feel muscle cramps. Boggy uterus does not complicate the pregnancy in fact in some cases women do not even have idea about their boggy uterus during pregnancy.

The symptoms of boggy uterus involve vaginal bleeding and cramps. Initial symptoms of boggy uterus involve pain during sexual intercourse, painful bowel movements and pain during menstrual flow. Blood comes out from vagina in the form of blood clots. In some cases it is asymptomatic and cannot be diagnosed without physical examination. Boggy uterus can be diagnosed by touching lower belly with fingers.

Boggy Uterus Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Boggy Uterus Causes


Boggy uterus have two main leading causes 1st one is uterine atony and 2nd one is adenomyosis. In adenomyosis, glandular de arrangement of uterine muscles leads to boggy uterus. It is considered the common cause of all uterine problems after the age of 30 years. About 20 percent of women with adenomyosis have boggy uterus. The exact reason is still unknown but the abnormality in barrier separating endometrium and myometrium causes endometrium to get into myometrium causing adenomyosis and ultimately boggy uterus. In case of uterine atony, muscular abnormality leads to boggy uterus.

Boggy Uterus Symptoms


As boggy uterus appears more loose or flaccid than normally it should be. Other symptoms include vaginal bleeding as occurs during menstruation, Pain during menstruation, muscle cramps with severe pain and painful sexual intercourse. Uterus appear larger and de shaped than usual. Blood comes out in the form of heavy clots. Most of the time boggy uterus is asymptomatic but if it show symptoms then it's diagnosis will be easy. If it occurs during pregnancy, it do not harm the fetus but bleeding do not stop. This may lead to anemia and can affect fetus.

Boggy Uterus Treatment


Initial diagnosis of boggy uterus does not require any treatment. If mild symptoms appear, then painkilling medications are recommended to relief pain and other symptoms. Birth control pills are also used. No surgery is recommended in case of mild symptoms. But if pain becomes unbearable and uterus appears de shaped, then hysterectomy is highly recommended. Hysterectomy is performed in women near to menopause. Other than these treatment strategies, some hormonal therapy is also used like gonadotropin releasing agents like Lupron. These gonadotropin releasing agents will contract uterus and stop menstruation. But there are high chances of recurrence of boggy uterus after therapy discontinuation.
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Submucous Cleft Palate Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Submucous cleft palate is a type of cleft palate. To understand it, the terms and anatomy of mouth should be cleared. Palate is the roof of mouth cavity and cleft is the partition of palate which separates it into two parts from mid. Submucous is the membrane which covers cleft palate. Palate consist of two main portions I.e. soft palate which is the muscular part and hard palate which is the bony part. Where soft palate ends, a small finger like tissue hangs which is known as uvula. The mucous membrane covers the cleft palate in a way that it becomes difficult to see cleft palate with naked eye.


The submucous cleft palate in case of soft palate appears as deficiency in mid line or incorrect positioning of muscles. Submucous cleft palate in case of hard palate appears as bony defect right in the middle of hard palate. When palate is touched with a finger, it appears as a groove or depression right in the middle of palate. Sometimes uvula or bifid may associate with submucous cleft palate. It is a congenital abnormality which occurs during fetal development within mother's womb. Submucous cleft palate show effects on speech.

Submucous Cleft Palate Images


Submucous Cleft Palate Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Submucous Cleft Palate Symptoms


Submucous cleft palate show effects on speech of patient because of improper functioning of cleft palate muscles. Submucous cleft palate may generate problems in middle ear and patient face problem in hearing. Patient have to face difficulty in swallowing. In some patients it is asymptomatic and do not show apparent signs and symptoms. Submucous cleft palate may transfer from generation to generation as an obvious cleft palate transfers via hereditary. Patient may utter during speech. And sometimes patient cannot pronunciation a word properly because of improper attachment of muscles. These are the visible symptoms which makes its diagnosis easy.

Submucous Cleft Palate Causes


Submucous cleft palate is a congenital disease which occurs during fetal development within the womb of mother. The muscles of cleft in the palate attach abnormally to uvula and cause problems. This condition is known as bifid uvula. As it is a congenital abnormality so many genes are responsible for its cause. During pregnancy, when mother have some medications which are not suitable for fetus and can pass placental barrier can cause submucous cleft palate in fetus. Some environmental factors to which mother during pregnancy is exposed may also cause submucous cleft palate.

Submucous Cleft Palate Treatment


Submucous cleft palate is a congenital abnormality so it cannot be treated. But the symptoms can be resolved with specific treatment options. Like for feeding and swallowing problems some special techniques are used to resolve them. Ear and nose problems can be treated with consultation to ENT specialist. Surgery is the option which is performed to make the abnormality muscles aligned. The palate repairs and there is no pharyngeal flap seen. It is performed under general anesthesia and the primary goal is to have good speech production. Pre and post surgical evaluation is necessary in patients to check progress.
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Obturator Hernia Symptoms, Causes, Location, Treatment

Obturator foramen is present in lower pelvic region. When intestine protrudes through this obturator foramen, it causes hernia and this condition is termed as obturator hernia. It is a type of hernia which is not common. It most commonly occur in women specially adult women. Lean or very thin women are more prone to this. As obturator is not visible so there are no lumps in obturator hernia as other types of hernia have lumps. Its diagnosis is also difficult because of its location. Obturator hernia is a life threatening condition because blood supply is cut off in hernia and it leads to cell death.


Obturator Hernia Symptoms


Obturator hernia involves protrusion of intestine through obturator foramen. It leads to bowel obstruction. Bowel obstruction can be easily diagnosed but the obturator hernia diagnosis is not easy. With bowel obstruction, patient may also feel bloating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, severe pain in abdomen and pelvic region and constipation. Howship-Romberg is another symptom of obturator hernia. Howship-romberg is a pain which arises from the middle of thigh and run towards knee. When intestine herniated through obturator foramen, obturator nerve is pushed and howship-Romberg pain generated.

Obturator Hernia Symptoms, Causes, Location, Treatment

Obturator Hernia Causes


Obturator hernia cause is still unclear. But the reported causes are natural aging process. During aging, person loses muscle mass and fats from body. Sudden or continuous weight loss may also lead to obturator hernia. Malnutrition is another leading cause.  When patient start losing tissues and fats around muscles, small openings start appearing on muscles which covers canals. When these small openings appear on muscles surrounding intestine, obturator hernia may occur. Adult lean or very thin women are five times more likely to have obturator hernia as compare to men. Women with more pregnancies are at hit list.

Obturator Hernia Location


Obturator hernia occurs in the lower pelvic region. As obturator foramen is present in pelvic region near lower abdomen and intestine. Obturator foramen is present in pelvic region and function by allowing blood supply to pelvic region. When a part of intestine accidently passes from the opening of obturator foramen, it leads to obturator hernia. Because of hernia, blood supply will be disturbed and cells will start dying. Its diagnosis is difficult because of its hidden location. Obturator hernia leads to bowel obstruction.

Obturator Hernia Treatment


To select treatment strategy, diagnosis should be accurate and confirmed about obturator hernia. CT scan is performed for diagnosis. Treatment should be started as early as possible. Treatment option include Laparoscopy surgery. In traditional hernia surgery, only one incision is made but in case of latest laparoscopic hernia surgery, several small incision are made to reach dead cells of obturator hernia and protruding intestinal part. There is low risk of fatality in obturator hernia because fatality risk is up to 70 percent higher in old age patients as compare to adult lean women.
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Eczema on Foreskin Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Eczema on skin is also known as penile dermatitis eczema. It is a dermal condition in which skin becomes sore and itchy. Patient feels discomfort and embarrassment in public. Eczema is a skin condition which occurs due to over active immune system. It is externally triggered by various factors including food with high sugar and alcohol levels, extremely hot water wash, dry weather conditions, poor hygiene and reaction of certain harsh chemicals. It is hereditary in nature and is present by birth. It has different levels of severity. Mild eczema on foreskin may not bother but severe eczema causes skin rash.


Eczema can occur on any part of body including neck and face. Patient may experience pain in foreskin which is sometimes unbearable. Blisters form on the surface of foreskin skin. This condition may disturb patient sex life. As it is hereditary, so treating it completely is not possible. Medications can reduce its severity and symptoms but patient cannot get rid of it completely. There are some environmental factors which can initiate eczema or trigger pre existing eczema in patients. These factors involve skin rubbing or friction, latex allergy, allergy from a type of cloth, heat, sweat and reaction of any chemical product.

Eczema on Foreskin Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Eczema on Foreskin Symptoms


Eczema appears in different forms. And it can initiates with just a rash. Symptoms of eczema are as follows:Skin become dry and scaly. Blisters start appearing on surface of foreskin skin. Bumps will start raising on surface. Blister and bump formation will lead to scratch and scratching will make it severe. Eczema may affect penile shaft and glands. Itching will become severe. Eczema will show all the above mentioned symptoms if occur on any part of body. But on foreskin it is quite embarrassing and not comfortable at all.

Eczema on Foreskin Causes


Eczema on foreskin is hereditary but may exist in different forms. It may exist in mild form and do not bother. But there are some environmental factors which may trigger pre existing eczema and make it severe. These environmental factors involve dry weather conditions, extremely hot water wash, poor hygiene and as a result of some harsh chemicals. High level of sugar and alcohol in diet may also trigger eczema on foreskin. People find comfort in washing eczema, but it is not a good option because washing will make it severe. Other causes involve latex allergy, fabric allergy, rubbing or friction, sweat and heat.

Eczema on Foreskin Treatment


Eczema on foreskin cannot be treated completely but its severity can be reduced. Mostly topical medications are used for eczema. These medications involve anti histamines. Anti histamines helps to reduce itching and pain. Long term use of emollients is recommended. Emollients will make skin smooth and rash free. It keeps foreskin moisturized. UV light therapy is also recommended but in severe conditions. There is a drawback that UV light may burn the skin of foreskin. Steroid therapy involve topical steroids and are recommended in severe condition. Along with medications, patient have to follow some preventive measures to avoid its recurrence.
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Balint's Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Balint syndrome is a neuropsychological condition which is rare and not completely understood yet. Balint syndrome leads to various medical conditions like optic ataxia, visual simultagnosia and oculomotor apraxia. In Balint syndrome patient is not able to move his eyes intentionally to see an object he wants to see. Patient cannot reach to an object he wants to hold and patient is not able to visualize the whole scene with his eyes but can only see a part of the scene. It can be explained via common example. If a patient tries to see a house, he would be able to see only a door or window of that house, not the whole house.


All the above mentioned conditions are related to vision and eye movement. So patient with Balint syndrome have to depend on other senses for guidance. Balint syndrome appears as acute onset after two or more strokes in each hemisphere. These strokes appear at same place in both hemisphere. This is the reason behind its rareness. The strokes may occur due to severe and sudden hypotension. Infarction occurs on bilateral border zone of occipital parietal region. In degenerative diseases, chance of progression of Balint syndrome increases.

Balint's Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Balint Syndrome Symptoms


Balint syndrome leads to three main abnormalities related to eyes. 1st one is optic ataxia. In this condition patient is not able to see intentionally towards an object he wants to see. 2nd one is visual simultagnosia. In this condition patient cannot see the whole scene with his eyes but can see some things in whole scene. Like when patient sees a house, the whole scenery become blur and he can only see the door or window clearly. 3rd condition is oculomotor apraxia in which patient cannot access to an object he is currently watching.

Balint Syndrome Causes


Balint syndrome is a rare neuropsychological abnormality which is not completely understood yet. Its underlying cause is also not known clearly. But the only reported cause behind Balint syndrome is parietaloccipital lobe damage. Damage is On both sides of brain. parietal lobe is present right in the middle of the top part of brain and occipital lobe is present in the back side of brain. Temporal lobes are not affected. This damage to occipital parietal lobe leads to occurrence of stroke in both hemisphere. Hypotension is another leading cause of Balint syndrome. Infarction in border line of occipital parietal lobe also cause Balint syndrome.

Balint Syndrome Treatment


Balint syndrome is related to eye movement and vision. It is a neuropsychological abnormality so its treatment strategy related to it. Rehabilitation training helps a lot in recovering vision and also helps in developing guided manual movements. There are only 3 main treatment strategies which are used. 1st one is adaptive approach in which functional tasks make patient active and provide strength. It is the most popular treatment approach. 2nd one is multicontext approach in which practice is preferred along with visual learning. In this approach patient is asked to perform multiple tasks in different environment. 3rd approach is remedial approach in which recovery of damaged CNS is involved.
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Dennie Morgan Lines Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

The skin below lower eyelid in humans show lines which occur in response to atopic edema. These lines are known as Dannie Morgan lines. These lines apparently resemble wrinkle lines. But wrinkles appear on whole face and Dannie Morgan lines appear just below the lower eyelid. Basic reason behind it is edema in atopic dermatitis. It is also considered a diagnostic feature of allergy. It has 78% sensitivity and 76% specificity. Some people confuse it with allergic shiners and dark circles under the eye. Basic pathophysiology is unknown.


The only reported mechanism behind this condition is continuous spasm of Muller eyelid muscle. Usually skin edema leads to Dannie Morgan lines because of hypoxia from poor circulation. Accumulation of fluid is known as edema and in case of Dannie Morgan lines, it appears in the infra orbital groove. And the leading cause is nasal congestion. One line below the lower eyelid is normal but extra folds below lower eyelid indicates Dannie Morgan lines. Apparently these folds look dry.  There is no age limitation in Dannie Morgan line. Treating the underlying cause will cure Dannie Morgan Lines. There is no specific treatment designed for these Dannie Morgan folds.

Dennie Morgan Lines Pictures


Dennie Morgan Lines Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Dannie Morgan Lines Symptoms


Dannie Morgan Lines  is a visible condition which do not occur on its own but a sign of edema. Edema in the infra orbital groove occurs which leads to lines or wrinkles below the lower eyelid. Eyes look dry in Dannie Morgan Lines. It has no affect on vision. As it is a main sign of edema in atopic dermatitis and allergy, so other symptoms may related to underlying cause. Other symptoms may involve redness around eyes, swelling or inflammation, scaling, cracking and crusting. Dannie Morgan lines may turn to extremely itchy and inflamed skin folds.

Dannie Morgan Lines Causes


Dannie Morgan lines may occur as a result of edema in atopic dermatitis and allergy. In case of allergy, inflammation and nasal congestion it may occur. Nasal congestion leads to poor blood circulation in facial area due to which blood start backing up to eye region. Poor blood circulation will cause oxygen deficient condition of tissues named hypoxia. When there is less supply of oxygen, a particular muscle in eyelid i.e. Muller muscle will shoe spasm. Continuous spasms of this particular muscle will cause Dannie Morgan lines. Same phenomenon occurs in case of atopic dermatitis because inflammation is also a sign of atopic dermatitis.

Dannie Morgan Lines Treatment


There is no specific systemic treatment for Dannie Morgan lines but treating the underlying cause can resolve these extra skin folds. As in allergy, the poor circulation can be improved by treating nasal congestion and as a result Dannie Morgan lines will disappear. Other than treating underlying cause, topical medications are also used to reduce Dannie Morgan lines appearance. These topical medications contains alpha hydroxy acids. These AHAs have tendency to regenerate cells and improve skin texture. Alpha hydroxy acids help to remove top most layer of cells and generate new cells.
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Morrison's Pouch Fluid Symptoms, Causes, Location, Treatment

Morison pouch is also known as pouch of Morison, sub hepatic recess and hepatorenal recess. It is a separation which separates right kidney from liver. And fluid filled in that space leads to a condition named Morison pouch fluid. Usually there is no fluid in Morison pouch but it can be filled with fluid if stomach get filled with fluid (In case of hemoperitoneum). Intraperitoneal fluid,ascites, blood itself and dialysate may accumulate in Morison’s pouch. CT scan and ultrasound showss fluid in Morison pouch. But there is a limitation i.e. only 30 to 40 ml of fluid in abdomen can be seen with CT scan and ultrasound.


Morison’s Pouch Fluid Symptoms


When intraperitoneal fluid, blood, ascites or dialysate fills abdomen, it start moving towards space between right kidney and liver. This space is Morrison’s pouch. When fluid fillthis space, patient’s comfort level decreases. Patient may have feeling of fullness. Pain in the right side of body specially lower abdomen region. Patient cannot lie down easily. This fluid may further leads to formation of cancerous cells. These cancerous cells may make the condition worse and as a result ovarian cancer may occur. Ovarian cancer is also a diagnostic parameter of Morrison’s pouch fluid.

Morrison's Pouch Fluid Symptoms, Causes, Location, Treatment

Morrison’s Pouch Fluid Causes


Morison’s pouch fluid may occur due to accumulation of fluid in abdomen. And fluid starts accumulating in abdomen in various conditions including any kind of trauma and bleeding may result in abdominal filling with blood. Ascites is the fluid other than bleeding and it can accumulate in abdomen and Morison’s pouch as a result of heart, liver and kidney problem. As in heart failure, fluid starts accumulating in the abdomen, legs and liver leading to Morison’s pouch fluid. Portal hypertension, cirrhosis and liver failure also results in fluid filling in Morison’s pouch.

Morrison’s Pouch Fluid Location


Morrison’s pouch is present near lower abdomen. It is a potential space which is present in every person. It separates right kidney from liver. It is present inside the peritoneum and usually it do not have fluid in it. But in case of some diseases, fluid start filling in abdominal cavity and then this fluid starts shifting to Morrison’s pouch. The Morrison’s pouch when filled with fluid can easily be seen in computed tomography scan and ultrasound. But only 30 to 40 ml of abdominal fluid can be seen with these diagnostic techniques.

Morrison Pouch Fluid Treatment


Morrison’s pouch usually do not have fluid in it. But if fluid accumulates in Morison pouch, laparotomy is performed. In laparotomy, an incision is made right through abdominal wall for easy abdominal access. After accessing abdomen, abdominal fluid is extracted from it. After complete removal of abdominal fluid, wound is closed with stitches. The incision is made right in the mid of abdomen for easy access and is known as mid line incision.
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Curling's Ulcer Signs and Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment

Curling’s ulcer or curling ulcer is a type of ulcer which occurs in duodenum of gastro intestinal tract. Duodenum is the part of small intestine. Skin lesions and surface wounds are known as ulcers. In curling’s ulcer, small sized lesions or wounds occur on the surface of walls of small intestine. Epidermal tissues are involved in this disease. Curling’s ulcer is a dangerous condition which may occur as a result of severe burns to the body. MassiveTrauma and injuries may also lead to curling ulcer. Stress ulcers is another name of curling ulcer because it occurs as a result of severe stress on the body.


Curling’s Ulcer Symptoms


Curling’s ulcer occurs in small intestine specifically in duodenum. Its symptoms resemble symptoms of other type of stomach ulcers.Wounds or lesions occur on the surface of duodenal walls. These are surface lesions and tissues are involved. These lesions results in stomach pain. Patient feels lack of appetite and persistent vomiting. Blood in stool is another sign of curling ulcer. On the basis of above mentioned symptoms no one can diagnose curling ulcer. These symptoms appear as a result of burns on body so it makes difficult to diagnose curling ulcer specifically.

Curling's Ulcer Signs and Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment

Curling Ulcer Causes


There are limited number of causes behind it.Curling ulcer is a severe complication of burns on body. Other causes involve accidental injuries and massive trauma. In case of burns involving larger area of body, blood supply to small intestine with oxygen and other nutrients is reduced. As a result, intestine receive less oxygen and nutrients from blood. And due to lack of oxygen, cells and tissues of intestine will start dying. These dead cells are responsible for causing curling ulcer in small intestine. Same phenomenon occurs in case of injury and massive trauma.

Curling Ulcer Diagnosis


Curling syndrome diagnosis is really important because all the symptoms of curling ulcer, resemble symptoms of burns which makes it difficult to diagnose. Whenever these symptoms appear, endoscopy is performed to diagnose the cause. In endoscopy, a camera is inserted inside small intestine via mouth or anus. This camera take pictures or record inside condition of intestine. It is the only diagnostic process used for curling ulcer. Sometimes biopsy is performed to take sample of tissues and then further tests are performed on that sample. Assessment of results tells about the right cause behind it and treatment strategy is selected according to it.

Curling Ulcer Treatment


Curling ulcer occurs as a severe complication of burns in the body. So underlying cause is treated to cure curling’s ulcer. Curling ulcer was anciently cured by surgery only. Surgery  was performed to remove epidermal wounds of burns which ultimately cure curling ulcer.But now a days medicinal therapy have reduced the occurrence of curling ulcer. Medicinal therapy involves following medications. Antacids and H2 receptor antagonists. Proton pump inhibitors like omeprazole also helps in minimizing chances of occurrence of curling ulcer. All these medications are administered via enteral feeding which is a combination therapy with surgery.
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