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Prostatomegaly Size, Grade 1, Grade 2, Grade 3, Mild to Moderate

Prostatomegaly is defined as enlargement of prostate gland. Normally prostate gland in men start increasing in size after 40 years of age. Prostatomegaly is also known as benign prostate hyperplasia. Prostate is an important gland in male reproductive system. It is small in size and have muscular texture. Prostate surrounds urethra and makes fluid in semen. The cells of prostate gland start to multiply these growing and multiplying cells makes prostate gland swell. Due to increase in size of prostate gland, urethra get squeeze or compress and as a result flow of urine become limited. It is not a cancerous condition and does not spread like it. Even it does not lead to cancer.

Prostatomegaly Size



The size of prostate gland usually increases in size after the age of 40 or 45. It is normally small in size and surrounds urethra. When men reaches at the age of 40 or 45, it starts increasing in size due to multiplication of cells. Radiographic images shows enlargement of prostate gland if its size increases from 33 cc i.e 30 grams. The increase in size divides it into different grade sizes i.e. grade 1, grade 2 and grade 3. Each grade size show different symptoms and require different treatment plans according to condition. The symptoms become severe from grade 1 to grade 3.

Prostatomegaly Size, Grade 1, Grade 2, Grade 3, Mild to Moderate

Prostatomegaly Grade 1

       
The very early stage of growing prostate gland show mild symptoms. Like decrease in urine flow or increase in urination time. Patient have to wait for urine to flow. These mild symptoms do not cause any harm and generally do not require treatment but just some life style modifications. The grading system is according to the increase in size of prostate gland. In grade 1 Prostatomegaly, the size of prostate gland increases up to 25 % of the original size. Some patients use medications as a treatment for grade 1 Prostatomegaly.


Prostatomegaly Grade 2

       
When size of the prostate gland increases up to 50 % of original size, this is the grade 2 prostatomegaly. It show symptoms on moderate level. The frequency of urination increases and volume of urine passing out decreases. Patient feel hindrance during urination and do not get satisfy because he can feel bladder full even after urination. For grade 2 prostatomegaly, medication therapy is used. Alpha 1 blockers are used like doxazosin, prazosin, alfuzosin, terazosin and tamsulosin. Some medications are also used to reduce the level of hormones like dutasteride and finasteride. These medications can reverse the size of prostate gland.


Prostatomegaly Grade 3

       
When symptoms of prostatomegaly get severe or worse and causing other problems in normal life routine. This level is grade 3 prostatomegaly. In grade 3 prostatomegaly, medications are of no use and last option i.e. surgery is recommended. Urine flow get totally blocked and this cause severe and unbearable pain in bladder. Patient get uncomfortable. Surgical removal is recommended. Removal can be done by various techniques like transurethral nasal ablation, transurethral microwave therapy and water induced thermotherapy is used in outpatients and transurethral resection of prostate, simple prostatectomy and transurethral incision of prostate are used in inpatients.

Prostatomegaly Mild to Moderate

         
When cells of prostate gland start multiplying and start growing in size it show some mild symptoms. This is the mild state of prostatomegaly. Symptoms appearing in mild state do not cause harm to patient and require some life style modifications to reduce symptoms. When symptoms get a bit severe and start causing problems in life style of patient this is the moderate state of prostatomegaly. Some life style modifications are not enough and patient require some medications which include alpha 1 blockers and some hormone stabilizer medications to maintain hormones.
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Galactocele Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Galactocele is a kind of cyst present in breast. Galactocele contains milky substance or sometimes milk. As the name indicates, galactea means milky white and coele means pouch. Galactocele are formed in the sub-areolar region of breast. The occurrence of galactocele is very rare. It occurs most commonly in pregnant women, lactating women or have just stopped lactation. It feels like a lump in breast. Galactocele are formed as a result of a kind of blockage in ducts of breast. These lesions may be uni or bilateral and nodules formed may be single or multiple. It mostly resembles breast cancer or clogged ducts. As these two conditions have symptom of lump formation.


Galactocele may be painful and sometimes it is not painful at all. The size of galactocele varies, when they get filled with milk or milk like substance its size increases and when it gets empty, its size shrinks. Galactocele may be as large as the size of kiwi. Diagnosis of galactocele is important and can be diagnosed with ultrasound and tissue biopsy. Mammogram is 1st diagnostic tool in diagnosing galactocele lumps. Galactocele are not dangerous at all. Patient do not feel comfortable with these lumps. It takes about a few weeks to months to develop galactocele.

Galactocele Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment


Galactocele Symptoms

         
Galactocele have a main visual symptom i.e. lump formation in breast. These lumps can be felt during lactation. Sometimes these lumps are painful and sometimes it’s not. Galactocele closely resemble breast cyst or blockage of ducts. Milky discharge occur from nipples and sub-areolar mass. Galactocele may be 1 or more in number. Patient feel physical discomfort. Fatigue and fever are not the symptoms of galactocele. If these occur, there may be infection secondary to it. Galactocele are not dangerous. There may be abscess formation secondary to galactocele and cause an infection.

Galactocele Causes


Galactocele have many causes behind its formation. Galactocele may form secondary to any infection inside breast and can occur postpartum. The basic etiology is lesion in ducts of breast. Lactiferous ducts are present in breast. When these ducts get obstructed, distension occurs which lead to accumulation of milk and epithelial cells in these obstructed ducts. As a result, lumps filled with milk are formed. Oral contraceptive pills administration leads to the formation of galactocele. Galactocele are not infected as milk is produced inside breast ducts and is completely sterile. It do not have any way out except lactation.

Galactocele Treatment

         
Galactocele are a kind of cyst, so its treatment resembles cyst treatment. If infection is the root cause then antibiotics are prescribed to treat infection. Normally galactocele are not dangerous or fatal, so treatment is not required. But patient feel uncomfortable and need treatment. Excision is performed as in case of cyst. Excision is performed by making a little incision on breast and tumor is excised. If patient want to treat it herself, then she have to do regular breast massage to unclog the blocked ducts. Mostly galactocele resolve itself after lactation if it occurs due to weaning process.
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Truncal obesity Meaning, Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Abdominal obesity, central obesity are other names of truncal obesity. In obesity, body of patient looks like an apple. It is also called apple shaped body. In truncal obesity, excess fats are accumulated in truncal or abdominal region and leads to many health problems. As heart lies in chest or truncal region, so obesity in truncal region may also causes some cardiovascular diseases. Truncal obesity do not only occur in elder and obese patients but it may be secondary to other diseases like Alzheimer disease.

It may be secondary to metabolic diseases and various vascular diseases. In truncal obesity, the body mass index of patient is equal or greater than 30. In this condition, fats start accumulating around abdominal region primarily. Patients with apple shaped body or truncal obesity have greater risk of severe health problems as compare to persons having fats around hips, thighs and arms. When fat start accumulating in truncal region, it can also effect closely lying organs and cover them in fats. This can lead to diabetes mellitus type 2 and excess fat can also cause back strain. Women are more susceptible to gain weight and fats as compare to men due to hormonal changes.



Truncal obesity Meaning, Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Truncal obesity Causes

         
Truncal obesity occurs due to accumulation of fats around truncal region and fats accumulated as a result of eating too much heavily processed fast foods having high amount of fats. Due to lack of exercise and any kind of physical activity to consume fats it start accumulating in truncal region. Hormonal disturbances in women is the main reported cause of truncal obesity. Truncal obesity may be secondary to many diseases and disorders like it may be secondary to Alzheimer disease and metabolic diseases and vascular diseases. Due to decreased metabolism or impaired metabolism obesity may occur.

Truncal obesity Symptoms

         
Truncal obesity is a visible condition. Patient can be visibly judged whether he is obese or not. Fats accumulate around truncal region and abdomen comes out. The body of patient looks like apple. Many diseases are linked to truncal obesity like cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, insulin resistance and most commonly diabetes mellitus type 2. The circumference of abdomen increases as compare to the circumference of hip. There may be blood lipid disorders, inflammation and many cardiovascular diseases. Truncal obesity is considered the biggest health risk as it is the most common cause to various fatal health problems.

Truncal obesity Treatment


There are many methods regarding weight loss. Dietary modifications and physical exercise are of great help in losing weight. But patient need counseling from a physician because not all exercises help in losing truncal fat obesity. Crunches and cardiovascular exercises are performed to lose truncal fat. Crunches not only burn fat of stomach but it reduce fat from all over the body. Patient have to skip fast foods and eat healthy fruits and vegetables. Some medications also help in reducing weight along with weight loss plan continued. Gastric bypass surgery also help to reduce weight in morbidly obese patients.
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Prostatomegaly Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Prostatomegaly is defined as enlargement of prostate gland. Normally prostate gland in men starts increasing in size after 40 years of age. Prostatomegaly is also known as benign prostate hyperplasia. Prostate is an important gland in male reproductive system. It is small in size and have muscular texture. Prostate surrounds urethra and makes fluid in semen. The cells of prostate gland starts to multiply rapidly make prostate gland swell. Due to increase in size of prostate gland, urethra get squeeze or compress and as a result flow of urine becomes limited. It is not a cancerous condition and does not spread like it.

Even it do not lead to cancer. Symptoms generated due to Prostatomegaly have great impact on quality of life of patient. It most commonly occur in men above 50 years of age. Symptoms are mild but in some cases, if they do not get treated on time, may become worse. The common complications reported are:


There may be total blockage of urine and as a result urinary retention occurs. If small amount of urine pass and some amount of urine remains in bladder every time, this condition is known as chronic retention.

Prostatomegaly Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Prostatomegaly Symptoms


Lower urinary tract infections have the same symptoms as prostatomegaly have. Urethra becomes congested and narrow. There is hindrance in urinary flow. Main visible symptoms are:

  • There will be decreased or weak urine flow.
  •  Urination time increases due to reduced flow.
  • Patient have to wait a bit for urine to flow.
  • At the end of urination, there will be slow dribbling.
  • Patient can feel his bladder full even after urination and do not get satisfy.
  • Urine frequency may increases due to weak urine stream.
  • Increased chances of toilet urgency.

Symptoms are mild but if left untreated, may become severe.

Prostatomegaly Causes

         
The increase in size of prostate gland is natural process in men after the age of 40. It is a normal phenomenon of aging in men. The exact cause is unknown but some scientist say that changes in sex hormones may lead to increase in size of prostate gland. If family history of patient is reported with Prostatomegaly, there are increased risk of occurrence of Prostatomegaly in their young ones. Men who have undergone removal of testicles at very young age do not have any chance of developing Prostatomegaly. All these causes may lead to Prostatomegaly but the exact one is still unknown.


Prostatomegaly Treatment


In some cases, treatment of prostatomegaly is not necessary but if symptoms become severe, they do require treatment. But there is not any treatment which totally eliminate all symptoms but can improve them. If treatment is not required, patient have to adopt some lifestyle modifications like drink less water and try to go to washroom frequently. Stop or reduce the use of caffeine. Alpha blockers, 5 alpha reductase inhibitor are prescribed in medication therapy. if medications are of no help to reduce or eliminate symptoms, then surgical removal of prostate gland is recommended.
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Hypochromasia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Hypochromia is another name of hypochromasia. As the name indicates hypo means deficiency and chromia means color. When more than half diameter of cell have central pallor region or the central pallor region increases this is known as hypochromasia. In this condition, there is decreased production of hemoglobin due to deficiency of iron. Due to deficiency of iron, anemia occurs and poikilocytes are frequently present in iron lack anemia which are formed as a result of oxidation of red blood cells membrane.


It will leads to fragmentation. The concentration of hemoglobin is less as compare to the required concentration according to volume of cell. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is the evaluation parameter of color of anemic red blood cells and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is the parameter to check effect of size of cell to its color. Hypochromia is defined when its value is less than normal mean corpuscular hemoglobin MCH. The normal range of MCH in adults is 27 to 33 picograms per cell and normal range of MCHC is 33 to 36 gram per deciliter in adults. The size of red blood cell also decreases and can overlap leading to microcytic anemia.


Hypochromasia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment


Hypochromasia Symptoms

       
Hypochromasia is a cell disease which have wide range of symptoms all over the body. Tachycardia occurs and may increase up to 100 beats per minute. Due to anemia, blood concentration in body decreases and leads to fatigue and tiredness. Main symptoms of hypochromasia is weakness in body. Hypochromasia disturbs the sleep cycle. When there is decreased concentration of blood it will lead to decreased circulation in veins. Skin becomes pale. When this condition is at peak, sore mouth occurs. Menstrual cycle gets disturb due to deficiency of blood. Pica can also develop due to hypochromic anemia.


Hypochromasia Causes

       
Deficiency of vit B6 in body and less intake of iron in the form of diet along with less absorption of minerals all these factors lead to hypochromasia. Parasitic infections like in case of hookworm also lead to hypochromic anemia. It may occur secondary to prescribed medications. Lead poisoning is another major reported cause now a days. It may be secondary to diseases like thalassemia and iron deficiency. Heavy periods can cause excessive blood loss and lead to hypochromasia. Ulcers and gastric bleeding can cause Hypochromia. Piles, hemorrhoids and inherited gene mutation are last but not least reported causes.

Hypochromasia Treatment

       
Hypochromasia can be treated via collection of treatment options. Like carbonyl iron should be administered to fulfil iron deficiency. Eculizumab is also prescribed for it. It is a monoclonal antibody. Cyanocobalamin whose other name is vitamin B6 is also recommended for vit B6 deficiency. Darbepoetin alfa and Epoetin beta-methoxy polyethylene glycol are prescribed. When it occurs due to a parasitic infection, then homeopathic remedy cina is effective. Ferrum met and ferrum phos helps in production of healthy red blood cells via stimulating bone marrow. There are some life style modifications which should be adapted like quit smoking and exercise etc.
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Pulmonary toilet Definition, Therapy, Procedure, Techniques

Pulmonary hygiene is also known as Broncho pulmonary hygiene. It is a set of methods which are used to clean different secretions or mucous from the pulmonary airways. Pulmonary means lungs and toilet means toillete a French word regarding body care and hygiene. Cleanliness of pulmonary airways leads to respiratory health or pulmonary hygiene. Normally, pulmonary airway is cleared via two mechanisms. 1st one is the mucocilliary clearance system and 2nd one is the ability to cough.

If mucocilliary clearance system is impaired, it will lead to poor functioning of lungs along with many diseases and various disabilities. With the help of pulmonary hygiene, many diseases can be prevented like atelectasis (collapse of the alveoli present in the lungs). Excessive secretions can be discarded with pulmonary toilet which is the main cause behind various respiratory infections. Other benefits of pulmonary hygiene are: pulmonary shunting may be decreased and there may increase in functional reserve capacity of lungs. It also helps in preventing respiratory infections normally occurs after chest trauma. Methods of pulmonary toilet include suction technique to remove mucous and excessive secretions and patient is helped to lie in a position in which fluids drain by gravity.


Pulmonary toilet Definition, Therapy, Procedure, Techniques

Pulmonary toilet Techniques

       
As pulmonary toilet is the set of methods use to drain secretions from lungs and these methods involve deep breathing, incentive spirometry, postural drainage and percussion. Bronchoscopy is a technique in which a long tube is inserted into the airway to view inside lungs and can be a part of pulmonary hygiene. Coughing also helps in initiation of drainage of mucous and secretions. Patient during pulmonary hygiene is not completely sedated so that coughing do not stop. Tracheotomy is another technique helping in pulmonary toilet. In percussion, mucous is loosen and cilia are stimulated to drain mucous.


Pulmonary toilet Therapy


In various lung diseases, pulmonary toilet is performed as a chest physiotherapy. Though physiotherapy is reported with no much efficacy. Chest physiotherapy is important in bronchiectasis and lung abscess. Patient is helped to position in a way that trachea is inclined downward and lie below the chest area which is infected. Postural drainage is considered important and essential in bronchiectasis. Physiotherapy should be received by patient to learn about the position in which draining lobe will be at uppermost position. It should be perform 3 times a day for about 30 minutes in each session.

Pulmonary toilet Procedure

           
As there are different methods or techniques performed for clearing pulmonary mucous and secretions. So, every method or technique have different procedure. In bronchoscopy, a long tube is inserted inside the pulmonary airway to have inside view. Bronchoscopy helps in performing pulmonary toilet. Patient is not overdosed with sedatives to keep patient coughing as coughing stimulates mucous or excessive secretions. In percussion, secretions are loosened by clapping on backside with cupped hand and cilia are simulated to drain secretions. Positioning is also a technique which is important in draining secretions from pulmonary airways with the effect of gravitational pull.
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Argyll robertson pupil Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Argyll Robertson pupil is a type of reflex iridoplegia along with miosis and irregular shape. There is a loss of pupillary reflex to direct light and have normal constriction of pupil while seeing near objects. It is a symptom of tabetic neurosyphilis. Argyll Robertson pupil is a miotic pupil which cannot reflect to direct light but efforts towards accommodate light. Its been more than a century, this condition is describing. This reaction of pupil is a way to confirm the functionality of the optic nerve pathway. It is considered a neurological disorder biomarker like in neurosyphilis, neuro sarcoidosis and multiple sclerosis.

The diagnostic test of Argyll Robertson pupil does not require any special equipment and can be diagnosed easily. The pupil better respond to accommodation as compare to stimulus of light. As miotic pupil occurs due to lesion in dorsally placed fibers which are responsible for light response. This condition was 1st described by a scientist named Douglas Argyll and named this disease after his own name. Pathophysiology behind Argyll Robertson pupil is not clear yet. Some scientist believe that the rostal midbrain in the vicinity of the sylvian aqueduct of the 3rd ventricle is area of damage.



Argyll robertson pupil Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Argyll robertson pupil Symptoms


Argyll Robertson pupil shows consistent pupillary findings with the passage of time from months to years. The abnormal functioning of pupil starts with a very sluggish response to direct light and this abnormal response to direct light leads it towards complete loss of reflection to light. Other symptoms reported are iris atrophies along with loss in its radial folds. Crypts are also reported. Vision is effected and patient is not able to see distinct objects but can see nearly placed objects. It is similar to near sightedness in which far vision is blurred and near vision is accurate.

Argyll robertson pupil Causes

       
The main mechanism or etiology is still unclear but it can occurs secondary to many diseases like syphilis. The Argyll Robertson pupil results in lesion to the pretectal nuclei in the mid brain. Scientist believe that roastal midbrain present in vicinity of cerebral aqueduct of third ventricle is the main area of damage regarding Argyll Robertson pupil. This area involves pupillary fibers which are responsible for reflecting light. If it occurs secondary to syphilis, then pupil generally appears to be unequal and irregular. Atrophy and depigmentation are also reported as rare causes.

Argyll robertson pupil Treatment

         
Treatment regarding Argyll Robertson pupil is not discovered yet but its underlying cause must be treated to cure it. Most of the time, its leading cause is syphilis, which should be treated 1st. Medication therapy of syphilis include intravenous administration of penicillin doxycycline and tetracycline can be administered instead of penicillin. When the treatment has started, it is important to perform plasma regain test. This test measures the level of antibodies against cardiolipin but do not calculate level of antibiotics against treponema. Once a person get infected, this test will always come positive because of presence of antibodies against it.
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