Red Scrotum Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Contagious, Cure

Red scrotum syndrome is a rarely occurring syndrome in which scrotum (an organ of male genital system) persistently become red and sometimes also involve base of penis. It is a chronic disease which mostly occurs in males in the 2nd half of their lives i.e. after 25 years of age. Basically erythema occurs on the surface of scrotum with sharp borders. There is no scaling with erythema but patient feels pain and burning sensation. It is a dermatological disease and associated with skin only. Initially it involves specifically anterior half part of the scrotum and can laterally involves its posterior part.

Red Scrotum Syndrome Causes

The exact cause behind red scrotum syndrome is still unknown but some possible reasons are as follows:

  • Vascular endothelium synthesize nitric oxide, which have a vasodilatory effect and this vasodilation can cause redness.
  • Over usage of topical steroids is also seen as leading cause in some cases. But withdrawal of these topical steroids help in treatment of red scrotum syndrome. Dependence is a side effect of steroids which enable patient to stay on steroids for long term. So steroid addiction is considered a main cause behind red scrotum syndrome.
  • Neuropathic element also cause red scrotum syndrome.

Red Scrotum Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Contagious, Cure

Red Scrotum Syndrome Symptoms

Symptoms of red scrotum syndrome are limited and common and do not spread. Red scrotum syndrome as the name indicates redness of scrotum. Scrotum becomes red which is defined by term erythema. Along with redness, patient feels burning sensation, itching and pain in scrotum. It is initially limited to anterior part of scrotum and then gradually involves posterior end and sometimes base of penis is also involved. Skin become tender and patient feel intense pain on touch. Scaling do not occur in red scrotum syndrome. Telangiectases may also present.

Red Scrotum Syndrome Contagious

Many men with red scrotum syndrome are worried about having a sexual relationship with women. Because they think this syndrome can spread by contact. But some men dare to have a sexual relationship with women and proved that this syndrome do not spread on touch. Men use precautions while having sexual intercourse which prevent women from acquiring red scrotum syndrome. So, it is concluded that this syndrome do not spread but still men should avoid direct contact with women and try to use some precautions while having sexual relationship with women.

Red Scrotum Syndrome Cure

In red scrotum syndrome patient 1st try to follow preventive measures. Which involves wearing loose fitted underwear, stop usage of soap, stop using topical steroids i.e. corticosteroids, try to use emollient cream. Along with these tips, medicinal therapy should also be continued which involve use of doxycycline. Doxycycline 50 to 100 mg four times a day is recommended. Treatment should be continued for at least 6 to 12 weeks. If doxycycline is effective, then it can be continued for longer time period. Other treatment options involve use of gabapentin and amitriptyline for neuropathic pain. Primecrolimus cream is an anti-inflammatory cream used to treat redness.
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Grierson gopalan Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Grierson gopalan syndrome is also known as burning feet syndrome. In this syndrome, patient feels pain and burning sensation in their feet. This burning sensation may accompanied by excessive sweating due to vasomotor changes in feet. It may have effect on eyes and causes amblyopia and scotoma. Women are more common with Grierson gopalan syndrome as compared to men. Women of age range 20 to 40 years old can have this syndrome. Burning occurs mainly in the soles of feet but it may involve fingers and lower legs also after some time.

Some people said that they feel needle or pin hurting sensation in their feet. This burning sensation occur mostly at night and less during day time. Grierson gopalan syndrome is called as burning feet syndrome because it only occurs in the soles of feet and does not involve palms of hand and arm. There may be many risk factors which can make this syndrome severe, some of them are obesity (over weight), fungal infection of foot and people wearing more fitted shoes will develop Grierson gopalan syndrome. Over consumption of alcohol for a long term also contribute to the development of Grierson gopalan syndrome.

Grierson gopalan Syndrome Symptoms

As its name indicates it is about burning sensation in feet so its main symptom is pain and burning sensation in the soles of feet. Sometimes numbness and tingling can occur, when this syndrome also involve lower legs and ankle. Other symptoms include redness of feet. Temperature of feet may also increase due to vasomotor changes, and these changes will lead to excessive sweating. Mostly this burning sensation occur at night time and patient feel normal at day time. Feet may got swell and needle or pin hurting sensation occur. All the symptoms above need quick medical attention.

Grierson gopalan Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatmen

Grierson gopalan Syndrome Causes

Symptoms show the leading cause behind it. Like if burning sensation occur at night for short period of time and then recover itself then it may occur due to tiredness. But if severe symptoms are present, then it may be due to nerve damage. Some common causes may be deficiency of vitamin D, HIV, long term alcohol consumption, diabetes and exposure to toxins. Some other possible causes may be chemotherapy, radiation therapy, severe kidney disease, athlete foot, anemia due to vitamin deficiency, hypothyroidism, AIDS, nerve damage due to diabetes and last but not least tarsal tunnel syndrome.

Grierson gopalan Syndrome Treatment

At starting stage, patient should follow some preventive tips to treat it but if it got severe, following treatment should be followed but with consultation of doctor. Here are some medications for relieving burning sensation i.e. desipramine, topiramate, venlafaxine, duloxetine, pregabalin, carbamazepine, gabapentin, desipramine, amitriptyline etc. some other medications which are prescribed for reduction in pain can also be used. Some over the counter drugs are also available for Grierson gopalan syndrome like Motrin, Advil, Aleve, Tylenol and ibuprofen. All these medications reduce pain and burning sensation. Low dose narcotics are also used.
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Pusher Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Physiotherapy, Treatment

Pusher syndrome is an abnormal body posture or postural disorientation. It is a post stroke condition in which patient lies or push towards hemiplegic side of brain with no compensation for instability. Patient is not independent in doing routine activities and require long time for that. In simple words patient tries to push towards the weak side of body. Mostly left side of body is involved as a result of lesion in right hemisphere. Patient with pusher syndrome is at high risk of falling due to imbalance in body. Mostly this syndrome is seen with right hemisphere of brain and less with diseases like multiple sclerosis and brain tumors.

Pusher Syndrome Symptoms

Pusher syndrome is characterized as postural disorientation or abnormal body posture. Patient’s body weight is shifted to hemiplegic side and tries to compensate posture imbalance. Patient can fall on one side due to abnormal body posture. Lesion occurs on one side of brain and patient body is pushed to the other side e.g. if lesion is in right hemisphere of brain then patient tends to push towards left side of body. Other symptoms involve spacial neglect and somatic cells sensory impairment. Aphasia, tactile extinction and hypoesthesia is also seen in patients with pusher syndrome.

Pusher Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Physiotherapy, Treatment

Pusher Syndrome Causes

Pusher syndrome occur due to nerve damage. Truncal graviceptive system is responsible for body’s upright position and when nerves of this system got damaged or disturbed after stroke it leads to abnormal posture of body. It occurs due to excessive disruption in somesthetic information processing. Disruption in sensory nerves lead patient to push towards other side of body having no cerebral lesion. Body pushing can be a secondary response to accidental or unexpected experience of loss of body balance. Nerve damage can also occur due to inappropriate oxygen supply or an accidental head injury which leads to abnormal posture.

Pusher Syndrome Physiotherapy

Physiotherapy is a treatment option in which body exercises are involved. Main aim of physiotherapy is to increase base support and decrease anxiety as well as improving stability of body. Patient is asked to lay down and relax, then some exercises are performed. Some visual aids are used to make patient oriented towards exercise and learn new moves. Weight lifting exercises are also performed to improve sensory functioning. Weight is allowed to hold on side not working well and movement is observed with continuous exercise.

Pusher Syndrome Treatment

Physiotherapy is the treatment option in which some exercises are performed along with massage to improve sensory nerves. Weight bearing exercises are also performed to compensate abnormal posture. In addition to physiotherapy, there are some additional exercises which improve body posture. Sit stand is an easiest exercise to start with. Patient should try to stand in front of mirror and then start exercising. This will make patient energetic and also help patient as a visual aid. In sit stand, patient have to sit on affected side and then stand reaching in the center. Tactile cueing on hips and quads also help to maintain posture.
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Ejaculatory duct Cyst Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Diagnosis

Ejaculatory duct cyst is a type of prostatic cyst which rarely occur. In this condition obstruction in ejaculatory duct occurs due to any reason and then a cyst is formed leading to infertility and other problems. These ejaculatory duct obstructions can be congenital or secondary i.e. inflammation. Normally ejaculatory cyst are intra prostatic when small in size but can spread and extend when become large. Urinary tract infection may be the biggest risk factor. Cyst may occur in both ejaculatory ducts. As a result semen is not able to pass out most constituents and leads to infertility and pelvic region pain.

Ejaculatory duct Cyst Causes

There may be many causes behind ejaculatory duct obstruction which leads to cyst formation. Some of the main causes are discussed below:

Ejaculatory duct obstruction may occur as a result of total loss of semen i.e. aspermia or may also due to decrease in semen volume i.e. oligospermia. Oligospermia involve only the ejaculation of accessory prostate glands downwards to the penis orifice (outer end of ejaculatory duct). It may occur secondary to inflammation. Inflammation may occur as a result of chlamydia, prostatitis, and tuberculosis of prostate gland or other pathogens. Calculus is also reported in blocking of ejaculatory duct and cyst formation.

Ejaculatory duct Cyst Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Diagnosis

Ejaculatory duct Cyst Symptoms

Symptoms of ejaculatory duct cyst are all associated with pelvic region. Pain in pelvic region may occur. Men will face infertility if there is cyst in both ejaculatory ducts. This infertility may occur as a result of aspermia or azoospermia. Patients with ejaculatory duct cyst may not get sexual pleasure and enjoyment of orgasm because of lack of gel like fluid of seminal vesicles. Discomfort in scrotum and anus. Painful sexual intercourse and extreme pain after ejaculation. Patient will have some involuntary contractions of pelvic muscles.

Ejaculatory duct Cyst Diagnosis

Diagnosis of ejaculatory duct cyst or obstruction is easy. Low volume ejaculation from semen or no ejaculation these both conditions will show obstruction in ejaculatory duct. Patient itself can observe it during masturbation or orgasm. Seminal vesicles contain a fluid composed of fructose. So chemical analysis if show decreased concentration of fructose it means patient is suffering from ejaculatory duct cyst. Semen analysis is also performed under microscope to check its concentration and volume. Aspermia and azoospermia are also checked in semen microscopic analysis. Oligospermia and dry ejaculation these are considered main diagnostic features of ejaculatory duct cyst.

Ejaculatory duct Cyst Treatment

According to the underlying cause, there are many treatment options. Transurethral resection is performed to remove cyst from ejaculatory duct. It is an invasive method with some complications. After this men are able to led pregnancies in their sex partners. Main disadvantage is that urine may flow backwards and cause problems. Balloon catheters are also used in recanalization of ejaculatory ducts. Spermatozoa are harvested or produced directly from testes and then introduced into female ovary outside the body, this process is known as in vitro fertilization. After the process is completed, that ovary is again placed in women body for development.
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Stromme Syndrome Images, Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Stromme syndrome is an autosomal recessive congenital disorder. In this disorder, cornea of eye have an opacity like scar right in center which is responsible for problems in vision. Remaining eye is normal. Some people may have smaller eyes than usual and have iris maldevelopment. Pupil is also abnormal. Stromme syndrome was 1st discovered in 1993 when only a few members were reported with this syndrome. This syndrome have many synonyms like Apple peel syndrome, anomalies, CILD31, ciliary dyskinesia, jejunal atresia and ocular anomalies (include different amount of angle dysgenesis, corneal leukemia, hypoplasia, micro cornea, cataracts, anterior synechiae, sclera cornea and sometimes iris colobomas).

Stromme syndrome show some features of ciliopathy and lethality in childhood which can only be observed in severe condition. It is a genetic disorder and gene involved in this syndrome is CENPF gene). Stromme syndrome have some correlated clinical conditions like microcephaly (reduced skull size), vision impairment and bowel obstruction. This syndrome is considered a developmental disorder. It rarely occurs in people. Physicians have described this condition i.e. Hypertelorism and deep set eyes. Patient may suffer from many ocular diseases but glaucoma is not reported with stromme syndrome. This syndrome is highly complicated condition due to involvement of many systemic functions.

Stromme Syndrome Images

Stromme Syndrome Images, Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Stromme Syndrome Causes

It is a genetic disorder which is caused by mutation in a specific gene (CENPF) 1q41. This mutation occur in both partners and as a result it will transfer to their children. There are 25 % chances that stromme syndrome will pass on to children from parents only if each parent have single mutation. This syndrome will transfer to every child with 25 % possibility of occurrence of this disease. Mutation in this autosomal recessive disorder means complete change of selective gene. This is the only cause behind stromme syndrome.

Stromme Syndrome Symptoms

Stromme syndrome have many associated clinical characteristics so its symptoms are very vast. Main symptoms of stromme syndrome are as follows:

Low set ears, Hypertelorism, ear malformation, congenital anomaly of eye, hypo plastic mandible condyle, microcephaly, abnormality of skeleton system, abnormality of respiratory system, ciliary dyskinesia, hydrocephalus, cerebellar hypoplasia, corpus callosum agenesis, abnormality in nervous system, abnormality in digestive system due to involvement of intestine. Duodenal atresia, short columella, hypoplasic mandible condyle, cleft palate and last but not least abnormal head and neck i.e. head is smaller in size than usual and neck is longer than usual.

Stromme Syndrome Treatment

As stromme syndrome is a recessive congenital disorder which occur due to mutation in genes so it cannot be treated. Its associated conditions i.e. visual impairment, intestinal abnormalities and head abnormalities can be treated with medication therapy. In children, intestinal surgery is performed sometimes. Medications involved in treatment of stromme syndrome are as follows: Hormonal therapy involve letrozole, dopamine, estrogens, memantine and many more.

Hormone antagonists are also used. Analgesics, steroid synthesis inhibitors, anti HIV AIDS agent, protein kinase inhibitors etc. Other agents involved are anti-infective agents to avoid occurrence of infections which include anti-microbial and anti-viral.
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Dysnomia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Types, Treatment

Dysnomia is a neurological disease in which person is not able to remember words properly. It is a learning disability in which patient finds difficult to remember names or words. When patient is asked to recall anything, he can describe almost all things about that thing but cannot remember its specific name. Not only words and names, numbers are also difficult to remember. It is a disorder which occurs in childhood. It is considered a mild condition of anomia. It can be easily diagnosed when child feel difficulty in remembering names, dates, reading, speaking, writing and doing math.

Dysnomia Symptoms

Symptoms of Dysnomia are according to its underlying cause. People who suffer from accident or head injury, may have Dysnomia and its symptoms will be according this cause. With the passage of time, these symptoms disappear. Common symptoms of Dysnomia are as follows:

Patient with Dysnomia cannot recall and even spell properly.
They even find it difficult to use and remember common synonyms.
Patient even cannot remember names of family members and close friends.
All patients with Dysnomia do not have disability of recalling names.
All learning abilities are prominent when diagnostic tests are performed to diagnose Dysnomia.

Dysnomia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Test, Treatment

Dysnomia Causes

Dysnomia may have some specific type of causes behind this like delay in maturation of pre frontal cortex. This area is specifically associated with remembering things and words. Dysnomia occurs when there is problem faced by patient in regulating attention and regulating behavior. It is also seen in ADHD. Sometimes it develops on its own in children without any intervention. This is the only cause reported until now. Other causes may include head injury, accident or any other head hit. It may be secondary to some diseases like dyslexia. Dysnomia may be genetic and transfer from parents.

Dysnomia Types

Dysnomia have three main types i.e. word selection anomia, semantic anomia and disconnection anomia. In word selection anomia, patient is aware of using object and can select it from a group of objects but cannot name that specific object. It also have a subtype named color anomia. In color anomia patient can identify color but cannot name it. In semantic anomia, patient can forget meaning of specific word. It sometimes accompany recognition deficit. In disconnection anomia, patient may experience modality specific anomia. In this anomia is related to a specific sensory modality like hearing. It occurs when there is increased connections between language and sensory cortices.

Dysnomia Treatment

Dysnomia cannot be cured completely. There are some treatment options with which we can improve patient leaning and remembering skills. These treatment options involve visual aids. In visual aids patient is helped to remember things with the help of pictures. These rehabilitation activities should be continued for a time and then discontinue to check results. But after two weeks patient wills start getting Dysnomia again. Other treatment options include circumlocution induced naming therapy CIN. In this method patient use circumlocution along with visual aid. Other treatment option include computerized assisted therapy CAT. Some drugs are also used in treatment like levodopa.
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Idioventricular Rhythm Meaning, Rate, ECG, Causes, Treatment

Normally heartbeat is triggered by pace maker of heart but when these triggering signals stop receiving by heart from SA node or AV node then myocardium of heart itself works as pacemaker and this is known as idioventricular rhythm. SA node stands for Sino Atrial node and AV node stands for Atrioventricular node. Myocardium is a membrane which covers heart and protects it. Signals from ventricle are transmitted to every cell via cell to cell phenomenon. Cells involved are cardiomyocytes. Conduction system is not used for transforming signals to cells. It creates bizarre QRS complexes i.e. more than 0.12 seconds.

Idioventricular Rhythm Causes

There are many causes behind idioventricular rhythm some of them are as follows:

  • After cardiac arrest return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC).
  • An athletic heart is another cause of idioventricular rhythm.
  • Some drugs can also cause idioventricular rhythm like adrenaline or isoprenaline. These drugs are beta sympathomimetic.
  • Sometimes drug toxicity can also cause idioventricular rhythm like cocaine, digoxin and some anesthetics like desflurane.
  • The most common cause behind idioventricular rhythm is reperfusion phase of an acute myocardial infarction.
  • Some abnormalities in electrolyte balance lead to idioventricular rhythm.

Other causes are myocarditis, congenital heart disease and last but not least cardiomyopathy.

Idioventricular Rhythm ECG

ECG stands for electrocardiogram. Idioventricular rhythm mostly resembles ventricular tachycardia. But the difference is in ventricular rate which is below 60 beats per second in ventricular tachycardia. Idioventricular rhythm ECG shows atrioventricular dissociation and sometimes termed as slow ventricular tachycardia. When ventricular rate lies between 60 and 100 bpm it is then known as accelerated idioventricular rhythm. Here is an example of ECG of idioventricular rhythm in which there is a left bundle branch block pattern. AV dissociation is visible in this ECG report. Lead V1 rhythm in bottom shows AV node dissociation.

Idioventricular Rhythm Meaning, Rate, ECG, Causes, Treatment

Idioventricular Rhythm Rate

In idioventricular rhythm ventricular rate increases and normally lies between 20 to 40 beats per minute. But in case of accelerated idioventricular rhythm ventricular rate exceeds from 40 beats per minute. Ventricular rhythm rate of 20 to 40 beats per minute is also known as intrinsic automaticity of the ventricular myocardium. Ventricular rate more than 50 beats per minute have consistent ventricular rhythm escape and ventricular rates more than 110 beats per minute have consistent ventricular tachycardia. This is all about idioventricular rhythm rate which differentiate it from other cardiac conditions like tachycardia and other athletic heart diseases.

Idioventricular Rhythm Treatment

Idioventricular rhythm is a time based condition i.e. benign and no treatment is required to treat it. It manages by self-limiting capability. It can resolve itself when rate of sinus increases from ventricular foci. Anti-arrhythmic drugs can precipitate hemodynamic deterioration that’s why these drugs should be avoided. Treating underlying cause can also help to resolve idioventricular rhythm if it occurs due to myocardial perfusion then it should be restored. Sometimes idioventricular rhythm is of help in low cardiac output state and atropine is administered to increase sinus rate and AV conduction. Idioventricular rhythm self-resolving capability makes it harmless.
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