Blog Archive

Cystic Medial Necrosis Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

The breakdown of muscles, elastin and collagen of blood vessels is known as cystic medial necrosis. It commonly involves aorta which supplies oxygenated blood to all parts of bodies. Aorta is the largest artery which is responsible mainly for supplying oxygenated blood to whole body from heart. As collagen, elastin and muscles surrounding blood vessels are responsible for the shape and structure of blood vessels. During cystic medial necrosis, when these structures get damaged, there is a possibility that blood may leaks out of blood vessels and blood flow regurgitation may occur.

Cystic medial necrosis in aorta is also referred as aortic dissection. It is a life threatening condition. Cystic medial necrosis is a histological finding. It is also termed as connective tissue disorder, because connective tissues i.e. elastin, collagen and muscles of blood vessels get damaged in cystic medial necrosis. This condition sometimes does not appear cystic and necrotic. Cystic medial necrosis is associated with three main medical conditions. These conditions are marfan's syndrome, ehlers danlos syndrome and annuloaortic ectasia. The microscopic features of cystic medial necrosis involve basophilic ground substance. Elastic lamina appears disruptive in media. Elastin stains are used to stain blood vessel sample for histological finding.

Cystic Medial Necrosis Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Cystic Medial Necrosis Symptoms

Cystic medial necrosis is a life threatening condition which if not treated on time, can cause death. It is a histological finding and it's associated symptom involves severe chest pain. The symptoms become worse if it results in aortic dissection. Pain in chest involving both back and front side, vomiting, shock and dizziness are reported as symptoms. Excessive blood loss will lead to low blood pressure and sweating occurs as a result. Vomiting may have blood in it. Bloody stool is also reported as a result of cystic medial necrosis.

Cystic Medial Necrosis Causes

Cystic medial necrosis involves destruction or breakdown of muscles, elastin and collagen (collectively called as connective tissues). Sometimes connective tissue breakdown occurs as a result of any degenerative disease. Three main degenerative diseases are reported behind muscle, elastin and collagen breakdown. These diseases include marfan syndrome, Ehlers danlos syndrome and annuloaortic ectasia. Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder. Under microscopic evaluation of marfan syndrome, aortic aneurysm is seen which is the ultimate cystic medial necrosis. Well ehlers danlos syndrome is a genetic defect and highly associated with aortic dissection I.e. cystic medial necrosis.

Cystic Medial Necrosis Treatment

Cystic medial necrosis can be treated in two ways i.e. medical and surgical way. In surgery, the destructive portion of aorta is replaced with a normal one i.e. Dacron graft. Aortic dissection is performed for type A and type B necrosis. Type A is for ascending aorta and type B is for descending aorta. It is preferred when medications are of no use anymore in treating cystic medial necrosis. Medications are prescribed at mild stage of cystic medial necrosis. Beta blockers are used initially and other drug classes involve calcium channel blockers, nitroprusside to relax vascular walls and ACE inhibitors.
Read More

Keratosis Obturans Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Treatment

Keratin blockage in the ear canal is known as keratosis obturans. Desquamated keratin starts accumulating in ear canal i.e. external ear canal. It is a rare disorder. Keratin plug blocks ear canal at inner half of ear canal. Keratin is a protein which is present in skin and nails. It is responsible for giving strength and rigidity to nails and skin. Highly keratinized skin is more prone to keratosis obturans. Epithelial layer of skin is naturally designed to move from the center of ear drum toward walls of ear canal. This epithelium when mixes with sweat and moisture in ear, it makes ear wax. But keratinized plug is different from ear wax.

Keratosis Obturans Symptoms

Keratosis obturans occurs due to keratin accumulation in ear canal. This keratin accumulation leads to erosion of the bone of ear canal. Patient feels severe pain which may radiate from ear to whole face including jaw line and eyes. Patient may suffer from hearing loss. Tinnitus is the common symptom reported. Accumulation of keratin is itself is not an infectious process but can lead to infection. Patients with compromised immune system are more prone to ear infection as a result of keratosis obturans.

Keratosis Obturans Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Treatment

Keratosis Obturans Causes

Movement of epithelium of skin towards walls of ear canal is normal. But in keratosis obturans, something hinders the keratin movement towards ear canal and as a result it starts accumulating in the inner half part of ear canal. The keratin starts piling up in ear canal and blocks it while skin keeps shedding off. Increase in shedding of skin leads to complete blockage of ear canal. Patients with highly keratinized skin are more prone to keratosis obturans. At initial stage of keratin accumulation, patient will start showing symptoms.

Keratosis Obturans Treatment

Piling up of skin keratin can be removed mechanically from ear canal. A microscope is required for that purpose. Inner half part of ear canal is the most sensitive part of ear. Special care is required for removal of ear canal obstruction. Some there may be nerve exposure at the base of pile of keratin, so special care is strictly needed. Keratosis obturans is a different condition from normal wax accumulation. So it is treated once and then patient have to follow some preventive measures to stop it's recurrence. Once the debris is removed, it's symptoms will disappear too.

Keratosis Obturans Prevention

After removal of ear canal debris, patient is asked to clear his ear canal regularly with cotton bud. It will reduce or eliminate the recurrence of keratosis obturans. If doctor have prescribed any medication, then patient have to take it to control the irregular epithelium flow. As keratosis obturans involve the inner half part of ear canal, so it's regular removal may not be an easy task. So most of the patients prefer mechanical removal of ear canal debris again and again after specific period of time. Patient have to avoid water contact and moisture, is it can make the condition severe.
Read More

Pansystolic Murmur Symptoms, Causes, Sound, Treatment

Pansystolic murmur is the type of systolic heart murmur. Murmur is the sound produced by heart during systolic and diastolic blood filling. It is a specific heart sound which is produced as a result of pathological condition. Basically three main conditions are reported behind pansystolic murmur. These conditions involve mitral regurgitation, ventricular septal defect or tricuspid regurgitation. It starts from 1st sound of systolic pressure and extends up to 2nd sound of diastolic pressure. The murmur sound is at its peak during inspiration. It can be heard properly by placing stethoscope at left fourth sternal border.

When blood regurgitant flow towards right ventricle is increased, the intensity can be checked at this point. Pulmonary hypertension is reported to as a cause of tricuspid regurgitation. Tricuspid regurgitation is rare and can be caused by a bacteria named endocarditis. While in case of mitral regurgitation, there is no peak sound during inspiration. It occurs due to incompetent mitral valve. The pressure in left ventricle increases as compare to left atrium at initial isovolumic contraction. The pressure increases because of mitral valve closing i.e. S1. This reason states that why pansystolic murmur starts at S1. The pressure extends up to closure of aortic valve I e. S2.

Pansystolic Murmur Symptoms, Causes, Sound, Treatment

Pansystolic Murmur Causes

There are only 3 main causes reported behind pansystolic murmur. These reasons include tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation or ventricular septal defect. In case of tricuspid regurgitation, murmur sound produces as a result of increased regurgitation flow towards right ventricle during inspiration. Pulmonary hypotension is responsible for causing this increased flow. In case of mitral regurgitation, the defect in mitral valve leads to increase in pressure towards left ventricle and then towards left atrium while aortic valve closure. This is the main reason why pansystolic murmur sound starts from S1 to S2.

Pansystolic Murmur Symptoms

Symptoms of pansystolic murmur sound resemble other murmur abnormalities. Common symptoms include chest pain during inhalation. As pansystolic murmur is at peak during inspiration. Patient feel heart palpitations during breathing. As high blood pressure is the cause, so sweating will occur with less or no exertion. Difficulty in breathing along with shortness of breathe. The color of skin turns blue specially tips of fingers. Patient feel heavy breathing and fatigue. Sometimes patient become faint due to excessive dizziness. Patient may feel weakness in limbs with heavy sweating.

Pansystolic Murmur Treatment

Pansystolic murmur sounds means heart size is enlarged than usual and weaken than before. So it's treatment is necessary. Basically there is no specific treatment for murmur sounds. But it can be cured by treating the leading cause. As if it is occurring as a result of high blood pressure i.e. hypertension, then treatment for managing hypertension is highly recommended. Medication therapy including blood thinning agents is recommended. Medications to lower blood pressure and increased heart beats. Diuretics are also recommended to regulate salt and water concentration and controlling hypertension. If there is a cause other than hypertension, then surgery can be performed to correct heart defect.
Read More

Boggy Uterus Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

In boggy uterus, uterus looks loose or more flaccid than usually it should be. Boggy uterus may be associated with two main conditions named uterine atony and adenomyosis. Uterine atony is the condition in which uterus loses its natural shape or tone. The muscles become loose and the natural shape of uterus disturbs. While in adenomyosis, the endometrium extends outward. Endometrium is the lining which covers the uterus. The extended endometrium get into the outermost covering named myometrium.

Myometrium consists of fibrous and muscular tissues. Boggy uterus causes problem during pregnancy. When endometrial mass does not flow out of body during menses, it will start accumulating inside myometrium and results in swelling of uterus. Patient may also feel muscle cramps. Boggy uterus does not complicate the pregnancy in fact in some cases women do not even have idea about their boggy uterus during pregnancy.

The symptoms of boggy uterus involve vaginal bleeding and cramps. Initial symptoms of boggy uterus involve pain during sexual intercourse, painful bowel movements and pain during menstrual flow. Blood comes out from vagina in the form of blood clots. In some cases it is asymptomatic and cannot be diagnosed without physical examination. Boggy uterus can be diagnosed by touching lower belly with fingers.

Boggy Uterus Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Boggy Uterus Causes

Boggy uterus have two main leading causes 1st one is uterine atony and 2nd one is adenomyosis. In adenomyosis, glandular de arrangement of uterine muscles leads to boggy uterus. It is considered the common cause of all uterine problems after the age of 30 years. About 20 percent of women with adenomyosis have boggy uterus. The exact reason is still unknown but the abnormality in barrier separating endometrium and myometrium causes endometrium to get into myometrium causing adenomyosis and ultimately boggy uterus. In case of uterine atony, muscular abnormality leads to boggy uterus.

Boggy Uterus Symptoms

As boggy uterus appears more loose or flaccid than normally it should be. Other symptoms include vaginal bleeding as occurs during menstruation, Pain during menstruation, muscle cramps with severe pain and painful sexual intercourse. Uterus appear larger and de shaped than usual. Blood comes out in the form of heavy clots. Most of the time boggy uterus is asymptomatic but if it show symptoms then it's diagnosis will be easy. If it occurs during pregnancy, it do not harm the fetus but bleeding do not stop. This may lead to anemia and can affect fetus.

Boggy Uterus Treatment

Initial diagnosis of boggy uterus does not require any treatment. If mild symptoms appear, then painkilling medications are recommended to relief pain and other symptoms. Birth control pills are also used. No surgery is recommended in case of mild symptoms. But if pain becomes unbearable and uterus appears de shaped, then hysterectomy is highly recommended. Hysterectomy is performed in women near to menopause. Other than these treatment strategies, some hormonal therapy is also used like gonadotropin releasing agents like Lupron. These gonadotropin releasing agents will contract uterus and stop menstruation. But there are high chances of recurrence of boggy uterus after therapy discontinuation.
Read More

Submucous Cleft Palate Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Submucous cleft palate is a type of cleft palate. To understand it, the terms and anatomy of mouth should be cleared. Palate is the roof of mouth cavity and cleft is the partition of palate which separates it into two parts from mid. Submucous is the membrane which covers cleft palate. Palate consist of two main portions I.e. soft palate which is the muscular part and hard palate which is the bony part. Where soft palate ends, a small finger like tissue hangs which is known as uvula. The mucous membrane covers the cleft palate in a way that it becomes difficult to see cleft palate with naked eye.

The submucous cleft palate in case of soft palate appears as deficiency in mid line or incorrect positioning of muscles. Submucous cleft palate in case of hard palate appears as bony defect right in the middle of hard palate. When palate is touched with a finger, it appears as a groove or depression right in the middle of palate. Sometimes uvula or bifid may associate with submucous cleft palate. It is a congenital abnormality which occurs during fetal development within mother's womb. Submucous cleft palate show effects on speech.

Submucous Cleft Palate Images

Submucous Cleft Palate Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Submucous Cleft Palate Symptoms

Submucous cleft palate show effects on speech of patient because of improper functioning of cleft palate muscles. Submucous cleft palate may generate problems in middle ear and patient face problem in hearing. Patient have to face difficulty in swallowing. In some patients it is asymptomatic and do not show apparent signs and symptoms. Submucous cleft palate may transfer from generation to generation as an obvious cleft palate transfers via hereditary. Patient may utter during speech. And sometimes patient cannot pronunciation a word properly because of improper attachment of muscles. These are the visible symptoms which makes its diagnosis easy.

Submucous Cleft Palate Causes

Submucous cleft palate is a congenital disease which occurs during fetal development within the womb of mother. The muscles of cleft in the palate attach abnormally to uvula and cause problems. This condition is known as bifid uvula. As it is a congenital abnormality so many genes are responsible for its cause. During pregnancy, when mother have some medications which are not suitable for fetus and can pass placental barrier can cause submucous cleft palate in fetus. Some environmental factors to which mother during pregnancy is exposed may also cause submucous cleft palate.

Submucous Cleft Palate Treatment

Submucous cleft palate is a congenital abnormality so it cannot be treated. But the symptoms can be resolved with specific treatment options. Like for feeding and swallowing problems some special techniques are used to resolve them. Ear and nose problems can be treated with consultation to ENT specialist. Surgery is the option which is performed to make the abnormality muscles aligned. The palate repairs and there is no pharyngeal flap seen. It is performed under general anesthesia and the primary goal is to have good speech production. Pre and post surgical evaluation is necessary in patients to check progress.
Read More

Obturator Hernia Symptoms, Causes, Location, Treatment

Obturator foramen is present in lower pelvic region. When intestine protrudes through this obturator foramen, it causes hernia and this condition is termed as obturator hernia. It is a type of hernia which is not common. It most commonly occur in women specially adult women. Lean or very thin women are more prone to this. As obturator is not visible so there are no lumps in obturator hernia as other types of hernia have lumps. Its diagnosis is also difficult because of its location. Obturator hernia is a life threatening condition because blood supply is cut off in hernia and it leads to cell death.

Obturator Hernia Symptoms

Obturator hernia involves protrusion of intestine through obturator foramen. It leads to bowel obstruction. Bowel obstruction can be easily diagnosed but the obturator hernia diagnosis is not easy. With bowel obstruction, patient may also feel bloating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, severe pain in abdomen and pelvic region and constipation. Howship-Romberg is another symptom of obturator hernia. Howship-romberg is a pain which arises from the middle of thigh and run towards knee. When intestine herniated through obturator foramen, obturator nerve is pushed and howship-Romberg pain generated.

Obturator Hernia Symptoms, Causes, Location, Treatment

Obturator Hernia Causes

Obturator hernia cause is still unclear. But the reported causes are natural aging process. During aging, person loses muscle mass and fats from body. Sudden or continuous weight loss may also lead to obturator hernia. Malnutrition is another leading cause.  When patient start losing tissues and fats around muscles, small openings start appearing on muscles which covers canals. When these small openings appear on muscles surrounding intestine, obturator hernia may occur. Adult lean or very thin women are five times more likely to have obturator hernia as compare to men. Women with more pregnancies are at hit list.

Obturator Hernia Location

Obturator hernia occurs in the lower pelvic region. As obturator foramen is present in pelvic region near lower abdomen and intestine. Obturator foramen is present in pelvic region and function by allowing blood supply to pelvic region. When a part of intestine accidently passes from the opening of obturator foramen, it leads to obturator hernia. Because of hernia, blood supply will be disturbed and cells will start dying. Its diagnosis is difficult because of its hidden location. Obturator hernia leads to bowel obstruction.

Obturator Hernia Treatment

To select treatment strategy, diagnosis should be accurate and confirmed about obturator hernia. CT scan is performed for diagnosis. Treatment should be started as early as possible. Treatment option include Laparoscopy surgery. In traditional hernia surgery, only one incision is made but in case of latest laparoscopic hernia surgery, several small incision are made to reach dead cells of obturator hernia and protruding intestinal part. There is low risk of fatality in obturator hernia because fatality risk is up to 70 percent higher in old age patients as compare to adult lean women.
Read More

Eczema on Foreskin Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Eczema on skin is also known as penile dermatitis eczema. It is a dermal condition in which skin becomes sore and itchy. Patient feels discomfort and embarrassment in public. Eczema is a skin condition which occurs due to over active immune system. It is externally triggered by various factors including food with high sugar and alcohol levels, extremely hot water wash, dry weather conditions, poor hygiene and reaction of certain harsh chemicals. It is hereditary in nature and is present by birth. It has different levels of severity. Mild eczema on foreskin may not bother but severe eczema causes skin rash.

Eczema can occur on any part of body including neck and face. Patient may experience pain in foreskin which is sometimes unbearable. Blisters form on the surface of foreskin skin. This condition may disturb patient sex life. As it is hereditary, so treating it completely is not possible. Medications can reduce its severity and symptoms but patient cannot get rid of it completely. There are some environmental factors which can initiate eczema or trigger pre existing eczema in patients. These factors involve skin rubbing or friction, latex allergy, allergy from a type of cloth, heat, sweat and reaction of any chemical product.

Eczema on Foreskin Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Eczema on Foreskin Symptoms

Eczema appears in different forms. And it can initiates with just a rash. Symptoms of eczema are as follows:Skin become dry and scaly. Blisters start appearing on surface of foreskin skin. Bumps will start raising on surface. Blister and bump formation will lead to scratch and scratching will make it severe. Eczema may affect penile shaft and glands. Itching will become severe. Eczema will show all the above mentioned symptoms if occur on any part of body. But on foreskin it is quite embarrassing and not comfortable at all.

Eczema on Foreskin Causes

Eczema on foreskin is hereditary but may exist in different forms. It may exist in mild form and do not bother. But there are some environmental factors which may trigger pre existing eczema and make it severe. These environmental factors involve dry weather conditions, extremely hot water wash, poor hygiene and as a result of some harsh chemicals. High level of sugar and alcohol in diet may also trigger eczema on foreskin. People find comfort in washing eczema, but it is not a good option because washing will make it severe. Other causes involve latex allergy, fabric allergy, rubbing or friction, sweat and heat.

Eczema on Foreskin Treatment

Eczema on foreskin cannot be treated completely but its severity can be reduced. Mostly topical medications are used for eczema. These medications involve anti histamines. Anti histamines helps to reduce itching and pain. Long term use of emollients is recommended. Emollients will make skin smooth and rash free. It keeps foreskin moisturized. UV light therapy is also recommended but in severe conditions. There is a drawback that UV light may burn the skin of foreskin. Steroid therapy involve topical steroids and are recommended in severe condition. Along with medications, patient have to follow some preventive measures to avoid its recurrence.
Read More

Popular Posts

Search This Blog is protected and monitored under Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Duplication or Republishing of its contents without Permission or provision of credit link to the original article is liable to legal action with DCMA. Protection Status
All Rights Reserved.Health Tips, Diseases, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Test, Definitions Copyrights © 2017
Powered by Blogger.