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Lichen Planus Vulva Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Cancer

Lichen planus is a rarely occurring inflammatory disease. It is a skin disease which has subtypes on the basis of body part involved. It occurs on skin, mucosa, nails and scalp. Likewise lichen planus vulva is the subtype of lichen planus which involves vulva. As vulva and vagina have mucous membrane on its surface. It is characterized as skin erosion, heterotrophic or papular lesions on the surface of vulva. It sometimes involves vagina too. It most commonly occurs on mucosal surfaces like oral cavity, vulvar and vaginal surface. Erosion occurs on the surface which may lead to severe tissue destruction.

Lichen Planus Vulva Images


Lichen Planus Vulva Images, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Cancer

Lichen Planus Vulva Symptoms


As it is a dermatological condition, so surface of the skin is involved. Erosion occurs on the surface. Sometimes papular or heterotrophic lesion occurs on mucosal surface. In women it commonly covers genital area I.e. vagina and vulva. So common symptoms include rash, itching, pain due to erosion because erosion causes severe tissue damage, redness and burning sensation. Chronic inflammation leads to scarring on vulvar surface. The reddish and inflammed puffy area is known as erosion on vulva. Other symptoms involve construction of vaginal opening and loss of labia minora (inner small lips of vagina).

Lichen Planus Vulva Causes


The exact cause behind lichen planus vulva is not known. But it is believed that it occurs in response to over active immune system. It is considered an autoimmune problem causing inflammation. It does not occur in response to an infection. Likewise age, hygiene, diet, menopause and sexual activity are not responsible for causing lichen planus vulva. It is not contagious and do not spread via direct contact or sexual activity. The common sites which it affects the most are the sites having mucosal surfaces like oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, nasal mucosa,  urethra and conjunctiva.

Lichen Planus Vulva Treatment


Treatment involves some life style changes which helps a lot in combat symptoms. As it is a skin disease, so patient is asked to avoid products which cause irritation. Some topical steroids creams and ointments are used. Local estrogen helps a lot in vulvar and vaginal healing. Lichen planus vulva may disappear on treatment, but it can reoccur after some time with no symptoms. As sexual intercourse is painful and full penetration of penis is almost impossible. So vaginal dilators are used to dilate vaginal opening for easy penetration. Surgery can be performed but in rare cases.

Lichen Planus Vulva Cancer


Rarely lichen planus vulva, if left untreated, can lead to vulvar cancer. But it is very rare I.e. there are only less than 5 percent chances of cancer development. Regular examinations are required to check out cancer cells production. As it is considered an autoimmune disease, so chances of cancer development is rare. Poor hygienic conditions of vagina and vulva may lead to vulvar cancer. If vulvar cancer is diagnosed, then immediate treatment is required. Symptoms become severe in vulvar cancer. Sometimes it left undiagnosed because most of the women do not pay attention and tell some one due to shame, so leaving it as it is is another factor which causes development of vulvar cancer.
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Richter Hernia Pain Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Richter hernia is a rare type of hernia associated with small intestine. Basically it occurs in the anti mesenteric wall of small intestine as a result of defect in abdominal wall. It is different and rare type of abdominal hernias in which only a single wall of intestine protrudes due to defect. It means the intestinal lumen shows incomplete involvement in defect and the uninvolved part remains in peritoneal cavity. If necrosis occurs accompanying protrusion during hernia then it may lead to repair, peritonitis and perforation. It is very dangerous type of hernia that it can prove fatal for health.

Richter's Hernia Symptoms


Initially Richter's hernia shows mild symptoms but with passage of time, the symptoms become severe and some times prove fatal. Common symptoms of Richter's hernia involve systemic malaise and systemic fever. Cramps in abdomen with severe abdominal pain. Patient may experience excessive vomiting and nauseatic feeling. Visually abdomen looks swell. On touch, patient can observe a painful mas in the groin region, which is hard on touch. Problem arises in the digestion of food. Bowel movement of intestine causes pain. As every bowel movement induces a layer of pain in abdomen which is almost unbearable.

Richter Hernia Pain Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Richter's Hernia Causes


Richter's hernia is a type of abdominal hernia. It occurs when intestinal wall starts pushing itself through muscle wall of abdominal opening. It is really small in size and difficult to diagnose. Once it tries to pass through abdominal opening, it got traped. As a result strangulated tissues start forming immediately. It happens because of improper blood supply to the area. When there is no blood, gangrene occurs (gangerene is the cell death and tissue death). As a result, life threatening condition occurs. That's why Richter's hernia has proved fatal for health. It requires immediate management right after diagnosis.

Richter's Hernia Treatment


It is the dangerous and rare type of hernia which occurs in abdomen. It requires immediate treatment right after diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment option for Richter's hernia. It has a drawback, that diagnosis of Richter's hernia is not easy, so treatment delays and patient dies in most of the cases. It has high mortality rate with late diagnosis and late treatment. Gold standard technique is used primarily to repair the part involved in peritoneal cavity. Then laparotomy is performed, in case perforation is suspected. No medications are prescribed other than pain medications I.e. ibuprofen.

Richter's Hernia Pain


As Richter's hernia is the type of abdominal hernia, so all the symptoms are associated with abdomen. Pain is the common symptom. It is mild at the initial stage of Richter's hernia but it becomes worse with the passage of time. When intestinal anti mesenteric wall tries to pass through abdominal opening, it got trapped and pinched. Due to pinching, pain arises. At starting, it is mild but gradually it become unbearable. Intensity of pain increases because of gangerene I.e. cell death. Improper blood and oxygen supply to the site is responsible for gangrene or tissue death.
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Right Ventricular Conduction Delay Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Right ventricular conduction delay means late blood pumping from right ventricle of heart. It is characterized as long QRS complex I.e. more than 0.12 seconds. A single tissue of any branch of bundle of His is involved in delayed conduction. There are three main conditions associated with conduction block which are left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block and interventricular conduction delay. In case of right ventricular conduction delay, right bundle branch block is responsible.

The bundle branch block may be complete or incomplete. Due to right bundle branch block, the conduction of blood towards right bundle of His is reduced and slow. When depolarization occurs in right ventricle, the left one is halfway finished and electrical activity is lost. The QRS interval of right ventricle is marked positive. Right bundle branch block is considered the most common cause behind right ventricular conduction delay.

When we compare complete and incomplete right bundle branch block, the duration of QRS varies. In complete right bundle branch block, the QRS interval is above 120 ms in adults and above 100 ms in children. In case of incomplete right bundle branch block, the QRS interval is between 110 and 120 ms in adults and between 90 and 100 ms in children.

Right Ventricular Conduction Delay Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Right Ventricular Conduction Delay Symptoms


Right  ventricular conduction delay shows symptoms which resemble with symptoms of other heart diseases. Patient suffers from chest pain. Pain may become severe with time due to improper functioning of heart. Patient may become faint due to low blood pressure. Palpitations occur and patient faces difficulties in breathing like shortness of breath with slow exertion. Sometimes rapid breathing occurs due to insufficient conduction of blood and insufficient cellular oxygen supply. Patient may feel nausea and muscle fatigue due to decreased blood supply and cellular oxygen supply.

Right Ventricular Conduction Delay Causes


Right bundle branch block is considered the most common cause of right ventricular conduction delay in healthy individuals. It is responsible for delayed right ventricular depolarization. There may be many reasons behind right bundle branch block. Some of them are atrial septal defect, rheumatic heart disease, right ventricular hypertrophy i.e. increase in size of ventricle, myocarditis, pulmonary embolism I.e. moveable blockage in pulmonary artery or vein, hypertension or cardiomyopathy and brugada syndrome. Bruguda syndrome is defined as prolonged or elevated ST interval due to ventricular fibrillation. These are the all possible reasons which can cause right ventricular conduction delay.

Right Ventricular Conduction Delay Treatment


Right ventricular conduction delay can be treated via following the treatment strategy of the underlying cause. Treating right bundle branch block will help a lot in treating right ventricular conduction delay. Medications are prescribed to control blood pressure. These medications will also reduce the chances of heart failure. Coronary angioplasty is performed in severe cases to open up the pulmonary artery supplying blood to ventricle. In some cases, a pace maker is attached for normal functioning of heart. Cardiac resynchronization is another treatment option which closely resemble pace maker but have an additional wire attached with left side of heart.
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Cystic Medial Necrosis Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

The breakdown of muscles, elastin and collagen of blood vessels is known as cystic medial necrosis. It commonly involves aorta which supplies oxygenated blood to all parts of bodies. Aorta is the largest artery which is responsible mainly for supplying oxygenated blood to whole body from heart. As collagen, elastin and muscles surrounding blood vessels are responsible for the shape and structure of blood vessels. During cystic medial necrosis, when these structures get damaged, there is a possibility that blood may leaks out of blood vessels and blood flow regurgitation may occur.


Cystic medial necrosis in aorta is also referred as aortic dissection. It is a life threatening condition. Cystic medial necrosis is a histological finding. It is also termed as connective tissue disorder, because connective tissues i.e. elastin, collagen and muscles of blood vessels get damaged in cystic medial necrosis. This condition sometimes does not appear cystic and necrotic. Cystic medial necrosis is associated with three main medical conditions. These conditions are marfan's syndrome, ehlers danlos syndrome and annuloaortic ectasia. The microscopic features of cystic medial necrosis involve basophilic ground substance. Elastic lamina appears disruptive in media. Elastin stains are used to stain blood vessel sample for histological finding.

Cystic Medial Necrosis Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Cystic Medial Necrosis Symptoms


Cystic medial necrosis is a life threatening condition which if not treated on time, can cause death. It is a histological finding and it's associated symptom involves severe chest pain. The symptoms become worse if it results in aortic dissection. Pain in chest involving both back and front side, vomiting, shock and dizziness are reported as symptoms. Excessive blood loss will lead to low blood pressure and sweating occurs as a result. Vomiting may have blood in it. Bloody stool is also reported as a result of cystic medial necrosis.

Cystic Medial Necrosis Causes


Cystic medial necrosis involves destruction or breakdown of muscles, elastin and collagen (collectively called as connective tissues). Sometimes connective tissue breakdown occurs as a result of any degenerative disease. Three main degenerative diseases are reported behind muscle, elastin and collagen breakdown. These diseases include marfan syndrome, Ehlers danlos syndrome and annuloaortic ectasia. Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder. Under microscopic evaluation of marfan syndrome, aortic aneurysm is seen which is the ultimate cystic medial necrosis. Well ehlers danlos syndrome is a genetic defect and highly associated with aortic dissection I.e. cystic medial necrosis.

Cystic Medial Necrosis Treatment


Cystic medial necrosis can be treated in two ways i.e. medical and surgical way. In surgery, the destructive portion of aorta is replaced with a normal one i.e. Dacron graft. Aortic dissection is performed for type A and type B necrosis. Type A is for ascending aorta and type B is for descending aorta. It is preferred when medications are of no use anymore in treating cystic medial necrosis. Medications are prescribed at mild stage of cystic medial necrosis. Beta blockers are used initially and other drug classes involve calcium channel blockers, nitroprusside to relax vascular walls and ACE inhibitors.
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Keratosis Obturans Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Treatment

Keratin blockage in the ear canal is known as keratosis obturans. Desquamated keratin starts accumulating in ear canal i.e. external ear canal. It is a rare disorder. Keratin plug blocks ear canal at inner half of ear canal. Keratin is a protein which is present in skin and nails. It is responsible for giving strength and rigidity to nails and skin. Highly keratinized skin is more prone to keratosis obturans. Epithelial layer of skin is naturally designed to move from the center of ear drum toward walls of ear canal. This epithelium when mixes with sweat and moisture in ear, it makes ear wax. But keratinized plug is different from ear wax.


Keratosis Obturans Symptoms


Keratosis obturans occurs due to keratin accumulation in ear canal. This keratin accumulation leads to erosion of the bone of ear canal. Patient feels severe pain which may radiate from ear to whole face including jaw line and eyes. Patient may suffer from hearing loss. Tinnitus is the common symptom reported. Accumulation of keratin is itself is not an infectious process but can lead to infection. Patients with compromised immune system are more prone to ear infection as a result of keratosis obturans.

Keratosis Obturans Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Treatment

Keratosis Obturans Causes


Movement of epithelium of skin towards walls of ear canal is normal. But in keratosis obturans, something hinders the keratin movement towards ear canal and as a result it starts accumulating in the inner half part of ear canal. The keratin starts piling up in ear canal and blocks it while skin keeps shedding off. Increase in shedding of skin leads to complete blockage of ear canal. Patients with highly keratinized skin are more prone to keratosis obturans. At initial stage of keratin accumulation, patient will start showing symptoms.

Keratosis Obturans Treatment


Piling up of skin keratin can be removed mechanically from ear canal. A microscope is required for that purpose. Inner half part of ear canal is the most sensitive part of ear. Special care is required for removal of ear canal obstruction. Some there may be nerve exposure at the base of pile of keratin, so special care is strictly needed. Keratosis obturans is a different condition from normal wax accumulation. So it is treated once and then patient have to follow some preventive measures to stop it's recurrence. Once the debris is removed, it's symptoms will disappear too.

Keratosis Obturans Prevention


After removal of ear canal debris, patient is asked to clear his ear canal regularly with cotton bud. It will reduce or eliminate the recurrence of keratosis obturans. If doctor have prescribed any medication, then patient have to take it to control the irregular epithelium flow. As keratosis obturans involve the inner half part of ear canal, so it's regular removal may not be an easy task. So most of the patients prefer mechanical removal of ear canal debris again and again after specific period of time. Patient have to avoid water contact and moisture, is it can make the condition severe.
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Pansystolic Murmur Symptoms, Causes, Sound, Treatment

Pansystolic murmur is the type of systolic heart murmur. Murmur is the sound produced by heart during systolic and diastolic blood filling. It is a specific heart sound which is produced as a result of pathological condition. Basically three main conditions are reported behind pansystolic murmur. These conditions involve mitral regurgitation, ventricular septal defect or tricuspid regurgitation. It starts from 1st sound of systolic pressure and extends up to 2nd sound of diastolic pressure. The murmur sound is at its peak during inspiration. It can be heard properly by placing stethoscope at left fourth sternal border.


When blood regurgitant flow towards right ventricle is increased, the intensity can be checked at this point. Pulmonary hypertension is reported to as a cause of tricuspid regurgitation. Tricuspid regurgitation is rare and can be caused by a bacteria named endocarditis. While in case of mitral regurgitation, there is no peak sound during inspiration. It occurs due to incompetent mitral valve. The pressure in left ventricle increases as compare to left atrium at initial isovolumic contraction. The pressure increases because of mitral valve closing i.e. S1. This reason states that why pansystolic murmur starts at S1. The pressure extends up to closure of aortic valve I e. S2.

Pansystolic Murmur Symptoms, Causes, Sound, Treatment

Pansystolic Murmur Causes


There are only 3 main causes reported behind pansystolic murmur. These reasons include tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation or ventricular septal defect. In case of tricuspid regurgitation, murmur sound produces as a result of increased regurgitation flow towards right ventricle during inspiration. Pulmonary hypotension is responsible for causing this increased flow. In case of mitral regurgitation, the defect in mitral valve leads to increase in pressure towards left ventricle and then towards left atrium while aortic valve closure. This is the main reason why pansystolic murmur sound starts from S1 to S2.

Pansystolic Murmur Symptoms


Symptoms of pansystolic murmur sound resemble other murmur abnormalities. Common symptoms include chest pain during inhalation. As pansystolic murmur is at peak during inspiration. Patient feel heart palpitations during breathing. As high blood pressure is the cause, so sweating will occur with less or no exertion. Difficulty in breathing along with shortness of breathe. The color of skin turns blue specially tips of fingers. Patient feel heavy breathing and fatigue. Sometimes patient become faint due to excessive dizziness. Patient may feel weakness in limbs with heavy sweating.

Pansystolic Murmur Treatment


Pansystolic murmur sounds means heart size is enlarged than usual and weaken than before. So it's treatment is necessary. Basically there is no specific treatment for murmur sounds. But it can be cured by treating the leading cause. As if it is occurring as a result of high blood pressure i.e. hypertension, then treatment for managing hypertension is highly recommended. Medication therapy including blood thinning agents is recommended. Medications to lower blood pressure and increased heart beats. Diuretics are also recommended to regulate salt and water concentration and controlling hypertension. If there is a cause other than hypertension, then surgery can be performed to correct heart defect.
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Boggy Uterus Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

In boggy uterus, uterus looks loose or more flaccid than usually it should be. Boggy uterus may be associated with two main conditions named uterine atony and adenomyosis. Uterine atony is the condition in which uterus loses its natural shape or tone. The muscles become loose and the natural shape of uterus disturbs. While in adenomyosis, the endometrium extends outward. Endometrium is the lining which covers the uterus. The extended endometrium get into the outermost covering named myometrium.


Myometrium consists of fibrous and muscular tissues. Boggy uterus causes problem during pregnancy. When endometrial mass does not flow out of body during menses, it will start accumulating inside myometrium and results in swelling of uterus. Patient may also feel muscle cramps. Boggy uterus does not complicate the pregnancy in fact in some cases women do not even have idea about their boggy uterus during pregnancy.

The symptoms of boggy uterus involve vaginal bleeding and cramps. Initial symptoms of boggy uterus involve pain during sexual intercourse, painful bowel movements and pain during menstrual flow. Blood comes out from vagina in the form of blood clots. In some cases it is asymptomatic and cannot be diagnosed without physical examination. Boggy uterus can be diagnosed by touching lower belly with fingers.

Boggy Uterus Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Boggy Uterus Causes


Boggy uterus have two main leading causes 1st one is uterine atony and 2nd one is adenomyosis. In adenomyosis, glandular de arrangement of uterine muscles leads to boggy uterus. It is considered the common cause of all uterine problems after the age of 30 years. About 20 percent of women with adenomyosis have boggy uterus. The exact reason is still unknown but the abnormality in barrier separating endometrium and myometrium causes endometrium to get into myometrium causing adenomyosis and ultimately boggy uterus. In case of uterine atony, muscular abnormality leads to boggy uterus.

Boggy Uterus Symptoms


As boggy uterus appears more loose or flaccid than normally it should be. Other symptoms include vaginal bleeding as occurs during menstruation, Pain during menstruation, muscle cramps with severe pain and painful sexual intercourse. Uterus appear larger and de shaped than usual. Blood comes out in the form of heavy clots. Most of the time boggy uterus is asymptomatic but if it show symptoms then it's diagnosis will be easy. If it occurs during pregnancy, it do not harm the fetus but bleeding do not stop. This may lead to anemia and can affect fetus.

Boggy Uterus Treatment


Initial diagnosis of boggy uterus does not require any treatment. If mild symptoms appear, then painkilling medications are recommended to relief pain and other symptoms. Birth control pills are also used. No surgery is recommended in case of mild symptoms. But if pain becomes unbearable and uterus appears de shaped, then hysterectomy is highly recommended. Hysterectomy is performed in women near to menopause. Other than these treatment strategies, some hormonal therapy is also used like gonadotropin releasing agents like Lupron. These gonadotropin releasing agents will contract uterus and stop menstruation. But there are high chances of recurrence of boggy uterus after therapy discontinuation.
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